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[graphic][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][merged small][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed][subsumed]

(According to the Almanach de Gotha for 1873.)


Anhalt, E. Population in Dec. 1871 Argentine Confederation, R.C. 1869 Austrian Emp. R.C. (after ces

Dec. 1869 . Dec. 1871 cessions

sion 1866) Baden, R.C.. Bavaria, R.C. (after 1866) Belgium, R.C. Bolivia, R.C. Brazil, R.C.. Bremen, P. Brunswick, L.. Chili, R.C. Chinese Empire (estimated), B. Colombia, state, R.C.. Costa Rica, RC. Denmark & colonies, L. (estm.) 1870 Egypt, M.



Equator, R.C. (estimated) I

France alone, R.C. (estimated) 1871 Germany, R.C.L.E.. 1871 Gt.Britain & colonies, P.(estm.) 1871 Greece & Ion. Is. G.C. (estim.). 1870 Guatemala, R.C.. 1805 .Dec. 1871

Dec. 1870 1858

Dec. 1871 Dec, 1871


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1869 1858 Dec. 1871

Hayti (estimated)
Hesse-Darmstadt, L. (estim.). 1871
Holland and colonies, C.
Honduras, R.C.
Italy, R.C. (estimated)
Japan (estimated)
Liberia, P.
Liechtenstein, R.C.
Lippe, C..
Lubeck, P.
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, L.Dec. 1871


.Dec. 1871 1871


Mecklenburg-Strelitz, L.
Mexico, R.C. (estimated)
Monaco, R.C.

1867 1858



1865 about

Montenegro, G.C. (estim.)
Morocco, M
Nicaragua, R.C.


Oldenburg, P. (estimated)
Papal States annexed to Italy. 1870
Paraguay, R.C.

Persia, M. (estimated)
Peru, R.C.

1857 1859 1859

. Dec. 1868
. Dec. 1871

Portugal and col., R.C.
Prussia, E.
Reuss, L.
Roumania (Dan. Prncip.)estm. 1862
Russia, G.C., Poland, &c. (est.) 1867
Sandwich Islands (Hawai, &c.) 1861
San Marino, R.C.
San Salvador, R.C.
Saxe-Altenburg, P.
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, L.
Saxe-Meiningen, L..
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, L.
Saxony, P.




Schaumburg-Lippe, L. Schwartzburg-Rudolstadt, L. 1871 Schwartzburg-Sondershaus. L. 1871 Servia, G.C. (estimated)


Spain and colonies, R.C. (est.). 1867
St. Domingo, R.C. (estimated)
Sweden, Norway, L. (estimtd.) 1871
Switzerland, R.C. and P. Dec. 1870
Turkish Empire, M. (estimtd.) 1872
Uruguay, R.C.
Venezuela, R.C.
. 1859
Würtemberg, L.
United States of America, P.. 1870


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1,337.431 10,000,000

2,500,000 8,241,261 24,691,203 134,126

4,003,000 81,925.428 69,800

7.303 600,000





286,183 2,556,244 32,051 75,523

67,191 1,306,674 23,160,319 136,500 5.945.778 2,669,147 42,500,000

Frederick, duke
D. F. Sarmiento, president.

Francis-Joseph, emperor. Frederick, grand-duke.

Nassir-ed-Deen, shah
M. Pardo, president.
Louis I., king
William I., king
Henry XXII., prince
Chs. of Hohenzollern, hspdr.
Alexander II., czar
William Lunalipo, king
Capitani reggenti.
J. Gonzales, president.
Ernest, duke

Ernest II., duke
George I., duke

Chas. Mexander, grnd.-duke

John, king
Adolphus, prince.
George, prince.
Gunther, prince
Milan IV.

B. Baez, president
Oscar II., king.

Paul Cérésole, president
Abdul-Aziz, sultan

240,965 Th. Gomensoro, president

Guzman Blanco, president

Ulysses S. Grant, president.

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M. Garcia Granedos, prsdnt.
Burgomasters and Senate
Gen. Nissage-Saget
Louis III., grand-duke.
William III., king
C. Arias, president
Victor-Emmanuel, king
Moutz Hito, mikado
J. J. Roberts, president
John II., prince
Leopold, prince
Burgomasters and Senate
Frederic Francis,grand-duke
Frederic William, grnd-duke
S. Lerdo de Tejada, president
Charles, prince.
Nicholas I., prince
Sidi Mohamed, sultan,
Vicente Cuadra, president
Peter, grand-duke
Pius IX., pope


29 April, 1831

18 Aug. 1830 9 Sept. 1826.

25 Aug. 1845

9 April, 1835

2 Dec. 1825

25 April, 1806

21 April, 1856

8 April, 1818

13 July, 1818
22 March, 1797
24 May, 1819
24 Dec. 1845.

9 June, 1806
19 Feb. 1817.

14 March, 1820.

5 Oct, 1840
1 Sept. 1821.

28 Feb. 1823
17 Oct. 1819.

8 Dec. 1818

8 July, 1827.
13 May, 1792

31 Oct. 1838.
22 March, 1797
28 March, 1846.
20 April, 1839
29 April, 1818

16 Sept. 1826
21 June, 1818
2 April, 1826
24 June, 1818
12 Dec. 1801.
1 Aug. 1817.

24 Sept. 1801

21 Jan. 1829.
9 Feb. 1830.

6 March, 1823
27 April, 1822

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PREDOMINANT RELIGIONS.-R.C., Roman Catholic; G.C.. Greek Church; P., Protestant; L., Lutheran; E., Evangelical Church-a combination of Calvinists and Lutherans; C., Calvinist or Reformed; M., Mahometan; B., Buddhist.


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menced the suppression of small monasteries to raise revenues for Wolsey's colleges at Oxford and Ipswich, 7 June, 1525; many small monasteries were suppressed in 1536; and all religious houses were suppressed throughout the realm by parliament, 1539; viz.:-186 large monasteries (revenue 104,9191. 138. 3d.), 374 less monasteries (revenue 33,479. 138. 7 d.), and 48 houses of the knights hospitallers (revenue 23851. 128. 8d.; total, houses, 608; estimated revenue, 140,7847. 198.64d.) Tanner. Many abbeys were suppressed in France in 1790, in Spain in 1837 and 1868, and in Italy in 1866-73.

ABBOT (from Ab, father), the head of an abbey. In England, mitred abbots were lords of parliament; twenty-seven abbots and two priors thus distinguished, 1329; the number reduced to twenty-five, 1396. Coke. The abbots of Reading, Glastonbury, and St. John's, Colchester, were executed as traitors for denying the king's supremacy, probably for not surrendering their abbeys, 1539; see Glastonbury.

republican enthusiasts in Paris, professing to reABC CLUB, a name adopted by certain lieve the abaissés, or depressed. Their insurrection 5 June, 1832, was suppressed with bloodshed, 6 June. These events are described by Victor Hugo in "Les Misérables" (1862).

ABDICATIONS of sovereigns, voluntary or compulsory, have been numerous:Sylla, Roman dictator Diocletian, ,, emperor Stephen II., of Hungary Albert, the Bear of Brandenburg. Lescov V. of Poland Uladislaus III. of Poland John Balliol, of Scotland Otho (of Bavaria), of Hungary Eric IX., of Denmark, &c. Pope Felix V.


Charles V., as emperor
as king of Spain
Christina, of Sweden.
John Casimir, of Poland
James II., of England
Frederick Augustus II., of Poland
Vietor Amadeus, of Sardinia
Philip V. of Spain (resumed)
Charles, of Naples
Stanislaus, of Poland


. 1730 1759 1795

4 June, 1802

Charles Emmanuel II., of Sardinia
Francis II., of Germany, who became

emperor of
Charles IV., of Spain, in favour of his son, 19 March;
in favour of Bonaparte; see Spain
Joseph Bonaparte, of Naples (for Spain).

1 May 1808

1 June, 1808



B. C. A.D.

79 305 . 1131 . 1142 1200




1439 1449

25 Oct. 1555 16 Jan. 1556

16 June 1654 1669 Dec. 1688



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11 Aug. 1804

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ABECEDARIANS, followers of Storch, an Anabaptist in the sixteenth century, derive their name from their rejection of all worldly knowledge, even of the alphabet.

now a post-revolution bishopric, instituted in 1721; see Bishops in Scotland.

ABELARD, a celebrated teacher of theology and logic, in 1118 fell in love with Heloise, the niece of Fulbert, a canon of Paris, became her tutor and seduced her. After a compulsory marriage, he placed her temporarily in a convent. Having been cruelly mutilated at the instigation of her relatives, he entered the abbey of St. Denis, from which he was compelled to depart, accused of heresy, on account of his censuring the dissoluteness of the monks. He then built and lectured at the oratory of the Paraclete (or comforter) which eventually he made a convent, with Heloise for the abbess. He died under the charge of heresy, 21 April, 1142, and was buried in the Paraclete, where also Heloise was laid, 17 May, 1164. Their ashes were removed to the garden of the Muséum Français in 1800, and to the cemetery of Père la Chaise in 1817. Their epistles, &c., were published in 1616.

ABERDEEN ACT, introduced by the earl of Aberdeen, and passed, 1845, to enforce the observance of a convention made with Brazil in 1826 to

put down the slave trade. It was repealed in April, 1869.

ABERDEEN ADMINISTRATION, called the Coalition Ministry, as including Whigs, Radicals, and followers of sir R. Peel. Formed in consequence of the resignation of the first Derby administration; sworn in, 28 Dec. 1852; resigned 30 Jan. 1855; succeeded by the Palmerston administration, which see.

Earl of Aberdeen,* first lord of the treasury.
Lord Cranworth, lord chancellor.
Earl Granville, president of the council.
Lord John Russell,t foreign secretary.
Duke of Argyll, lord privy seal.
Viscount Palmerston, home secretary.
Duke of Newcastle, colonial and war secretary.

William Ewart Gladstone, chancellor of exchequer.
Sir James Graham, first lord of the admiralty.
Sir Charles Wood, president of the India board.
Edward Cardwell, president of board of trade.
Hon. Sidney Herbert, secretary-at-war.
Sir William Molesworth, chief commissioner of works.
Viscount Canning, Lord Stanley of Alderley, right hon.
Marquess of Lansdowne (without office).
Edward Strutt, &c.

ABENCERRAGES, a powerful Moorish tribe of Granada, opposed to the Zegris. From 1480 to 1492 their quarrels deluged Granada with blood and hastened the fall of the kingdom. They were exterminated by Boabdil (Abu Abdallah), the last king, who was dethroned by Ferdinand and Isabella in 1492; his dominions were annexed to Castile.

ABENSBERG, Bavaria. The Austrians were here defeated by Napoleon I. 20 April, 1809.

ABEOKUTA, see Dahomey.

ABERDEEN (N. Scotland), said to have been founded in the third century after Christ, and erected into a city, about 893. Old Aberdeen was made a royal burgh in 1154; it was burnt by the English in 1336; and soon after New Aberdeen was built. A statue of the prince consort was inaugurated by the queen 13 Oct. 1863; and one of queen Victoria by the prince of Wales, 20 Sept. 1866.

ABERDEEN PEERAGE CASE. George, earl of Aberdeen, grandson of the premier, succeeded his father, 22 March, 1864. After travelling in a yacht, he became a merchant seaman, and chief mate of the Hera; he was drowned 27 Jan., 1870. His brother John's claim to the succession was allowed by the house of lords, 3 May, 1872.

ABERGELE (N. Wales), see Railway Accidents, 20 Aug. 1868.

The University was founded by bishop William Elphinstone, who had a bull from pope Alexander VI. in 1494. King's college was erected in 1500-6. Marischal college was founded by George Keith, earl marischal of Scotland, in 1593: rebuilt in 1837. In 1858 the university and colleges were united. By the reform act of 1868, the universities of Aberdeen and Glasgow send one member to parliament.

ABERRATION OF LIGHT; discovered by James Bradley, through his observation of an apparent motion of the fixed stars, 1727.

ABHORRERS, a name given in 1679, (reign of Charles II.) to the court-party in England, the opponents of the Addressers (afterwards Whigs), so called from their address to the king praying for the immediate assembly of the parliament which was delayed on account of its being adverse to the court. The former (afterwards Torics) expressed their abhorrence of those who endeavoured to encroach on the royal prerogative, 1680. Hume. The commons expelled several members for being Abhorrers, among them sir Francis Withens (whom they sent to the Tower), and prayed his majesty to remove others from places of trust. They also is the undoubted right of the that resolved, subject to petition for the calling of a parliament, and that to traduce such petitions as tumultuous and seditious, is to contribute to the design of altering the constitution." Oct. 1680.


Malcolm III. having gained a great victory over the Danes in the year 1010, resolved to found a new Bishopric, in token of his gratitude for his success, and pitched upon Mortlach in Banffshire, where St. Beanus was first bishop, 1015. moved to Aberdeen early in the twelfth century, was discontinued at the revolution, 1689, and is

The see, re

ABINGDON LAW. In 1645, lord Essex and Waller held Abingdon, an ancient abbey town

* Born in 1784; engaged in foreign diplomacy, 1813; became foreign secretary, Jan. 1828; joined the party of sir R. Peel, 1846; died 14 Dec. 1860.

Lord John Russell was succeeded as foreign secretary by the earl of Clarendon (Feb. 1853), but continued a member of the cabinet, without office; he afterwards became president of the council, in the room of carl 1854). Granville, appointed to the duchy of Lancaster (June,

In June, 1854, the offices were separated; the duke of Newcastle remained secretary of war, and sir George Grey was made colonial secretary.

in Berks, against Charles I. The town was unsuccessfully attacked by sir Stephen Hawkins in 1644, and by prince Rupert in 1645. On these occasions the defenders put every Irish prisoner to death without trial; hence the term "Abingdon law."

ABJURATION of the pope was enjoined by statute in the reigns of Henry VIII., Elizabeth, and James I., and of certain doctrines of the church of Rome by stat. 25 Charles II. 1673. The oath of abjuration of the house of Stuart was enjoined by stat. 13, 14 Will. III. 1702; the form was changed in after reigns. By 21 & 22 Vict. c. 48 (1858) one oath for the three oaths of abjuration, allegiance, and supremacy was substituted. See Oaths.

ABKASIA, a province of the Caucasus, annexed by Russia, the last prince Michael Shervashiji being deposed: an insurrection against the Russian authorities, 8 Aug. 1866, was quelled with much


ABNEY PARK, see Cemeteries.

ABO, a port of Russia, founded prior to 1157, was till 1809 capital of Swedish Finland. It has suffered much by fire, especially in 1775 and 1827; was seized by the Russians in Feb. 1808; ceded to them, 17 Sept. 1809; and rebuilt by them after the great fire in 1827. The university erected by Gustavus Adolphus and Christina, 1640, et seq., was removed to Helsingfors, 1827. The peace of Abo, by which Sweden ceded part of Finland to Russia, was signed, 18 Aug. 1743.

ABOLITIONISTS, the party in the northern part of the United States, opposed to slavery. They formed a small society at Boston about 1832; which became the nucleus of a great political party, and ultimately attained its object by the war of 1861-4. See Slavery in United States.

ABORIGINES (without origin), a name given to the earliest known inhabitants of Italy (whence came the Latini); now applied to the original inhabitants of any country.-The Aborigines Protection Society was established in 1838. Reports on the condition of the aborigines in the British colonies were presented to parliament in 1834 and 1837.

ABOUKIR (Egypt), the ancient Canopus. In the bay Nelson defeated the French fleet, I Aug. 1798; see Nile. A Turkish army of 15,000 was defeated here by 5000 French under Bonaparte, 25 July, 1799. A British expedition to Egypt under general sir Ralph Abercromby landed here, and Aboukir surrendered to them after an obstinate and sanguinary conflict with the French, 8 March, 1801; see Alexandria.

ABRAHAM, ERA OF, used by Eusebius; so called from the patriarch Abraham, who died 1822 B. C. The era began 1 Oct. 2016 B. C. To reduce this era to the Christian, subtract 2015 years and

three months. Nicolas.

ABRAHAM, HEIGHTS OF, near Quebec, Lower Canada. The French were defeated and Montcalm, their commander, killed here by general Wolfe, who fell in the moment of victory, 13 Sept. 1759; see Quebec.

ABRAHAMITES, a sect holding the errors of Paulus, was suppressed by Cyriacus, the patriarch of Antioch, early in the ninth century. A deistical sect of this name was banished from Bohemia by Joseph II. in 1783.

ABRANTES (Portugal). By a treaty between France and Portugal, signed here 29 Sept., 1801, the war was closed, and the French army withdrew; a money compensation having been agreed to, and territories in Guiana ceded to France.

ABSALOM'S REBELLION and death (1024-23 B. C.) is described 2 Sam. xv.-xix.

ABSCONDING DEBTORS' ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870.

ABSENTEE TAX (48. in the pound), levied in Ireland in 1715 on the incomes and pensions of absentees (long complained of), ceased in 1753. A tax of 28. in the pound was proposed in vain by Mr. Flood in 1773 and by Mr. Molyneux in 1783.

ABSOLUTION. Till the 3rd century, the consent of the congregation was necessary to absolution; but soon after the power was reserved to the bishop; and in the 12th century the form "I absolve thee" had become general.

ABSTINENCE. It is said that St. Anthony lived to the age of 105 on twelve ounces of bread and water daily, and James the hermit to the age of 104; that St. Epiphanius lived to 115; Simeon the Stylite to 112; and Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, to 185 years of age. Spottiswood. Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, was said to have lived twenty months without food; but her imposture was detected by Dr. A. Henderson, Nov. 1808.

A man named Cavanagh at Newry, in Ireland, was reported to have lived two years without meat or drink, Aug. 1840. His imposture was discovered in England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841. Sarah Jacobs, the Welsh fasting girl, aged 13, said by her father to have lived for more than a year without food, after being closely watched for a week, died from exhaustion 17 Dec. 1869. Her parents were sentenced at Carmarthen to imprisonment for fraudulent deception, ABSTINENTS, ascetics that wholly abstained from wine, 15 July, 1870. See Fasts, Teetotallers. flesh, and marriage, appeared in France and Spain in the 3rd century.

ABYDOS, see Hellespont. The tablet of Abydos, dedicated to the memory of his ancestors by Pharaoh Rameses II. (1311-1245 B. C.) a valuable historic record was bought for the British Museum, 1837.

ABYSSINIA, the country of the Habese, N. E. Africa. Its ancient history is very uncertain. The kingdom of Auxumita (from its chief town Auxume) flourished in the 1st and 2nd centuries after Christ. The religion of the Abyssinians is a corrupt form of the Christianity introduced about 329 by Frumentius. About 960, Judith, a Jewish princess, murdered a great part of the royal family, and reigned forty years. The young king escaped and the royal house was restored in 1268 in the person of his descendant Icon Amlac. In the middle ages it was said to be ruled by Prester John or Prete Janni. The Portuguese missions, commenced in the 15th century, after much struggling against opposition, were expelled about 1633. The encroachments of the Gallas and intestine disorders soon after broke up the empire into petty governments. From the visits of James Bruce, 1768-73; Henry Salt, 180910; Edward Ruppell, 1834-7; major Harris, 1841; Mansfield Parkyns, 1844-7, much information respecting Abyssinia has been gained. Several expeditions into Abyssinia have been organised by the French government. The brothers Antoine and Arnauld Abbadie visited the country 1837-45. Abyssinia is now divided into four provinces. In

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