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States of North America by president Lincoln, April 19, 1861. See Orders in Council, and Berlin.
BLOCK BOOKS, see Printing.
BLOCKS employed in the rigging of ships were much improved in their construction by Walter Taylor, about 1781. In 1801, Mark I. Brunel invented a mode of making blocks by machinery which was put into operation in 1808, and in 1815 was said to have saved the country 20,000l. a year.
BLOIS, France, the Roman Blesum. The count Guy II. sold it with his domains to Louis duke of Orleans in 1391, and eventually it accrued to the crown. The states-general were held here 1576 and 1588, on account of the religious wars; and here Henry duke of Guise was assassinated by order of the king, Henry III., 23 Dec. 1588. The empress Maria Louisa retired here in 1814.
BLOOD. The circulation of the blood through the lungs was known to Michael Servetus, a Spanish physician, in 1553. Caesalpinus published an acCount of the general circulation, of which he had some confused ideas, improved afterwards by experiments, 1569. Paul of Venice, or Father Paolo (real name Peter Sarpi), discovered the valves which serve for the circulation; but the honour of the positive discovery of the circulation belongs to William Harvey, between 1619 and 1628. Freind. EATING BLOOD was prohibited to Noah, Gen. ix., to the Jews, Lev. xvii., &c., and to the Gentile converts by the apostles at an assembly at Jerusalem, A.D. 52, Acts XV. BLOOD-DRINKING was anciently tried to give vigour to
the system. Louis XI. in his last illness, drank the warm blood of infants, in the vain hope of restoring his decayed strength, 1483. Hénault. In the 15th century an opinion prevailed that the deelining vigour of the aged might be repaired by TRANSFUSING into their veins the blood of young persons. It was countenanced in France by the physicians about 1668, and prevailed for many years, till the most fatal effects having ensued, it was suppressed by an dict. "An English physician (Louver, or Lower) practised in this way; he died in 1691." Freind. It was attempted again in France in 1797, and more revently there, in a few cases, with success; and in England (but the instances are rare) since 1823. Med. Journ.
BLOOD'S CONSPIRACY. Blood, a discarded officer of Oliver Cromwell's household, with his confederates, seized the duke of Ormond in his coach, intending to hang him, and had got him to Tyburn, when he was rescued by his friends, 6 Dec. 1670. Blood afterwards, in the disguise of a clergyman, attempted to steal the regal crown from the Jewel-office in the Tower, 9 May, 1671; yet, notwithstanding these and other offences, he was not only pardoned, but had a pension of 500l. per annum settled on him by Charles II. 1671. He died in 1681, when in prison for a libel on the duke of Buckingham.
residence of the duke of Bedford. The marquis of Stafford, the last survivor, died 26 Oct. 1803.
"BLOODY ASSIZES," held by Jeffreys in the west of England, in Aug. 1685, after the defeat of the duke of Monmouth in the battle of Sedgmoor. Upwards of 300 persons were executed after short trials; very many were whipped, imprisoned, and fined; and nearly 1000 were sent as slaves to the American plantations.
BLOOMER COSTUME, see a note to article
BLOOMSBURY GANG, a cant term applied to an influential political party in the reign of George III., who met at Bloomsbury-house, the
BLOREHEATH (Staffordshire), where, 23 Sept. 1459, the earl of Salisbury and the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians, whose leader, lord Audley, was slain with many Cheshire gentlemen. A cross commemorates this conflict.
BLOWING-MACHINES, the large cylinders, used in blowing machines, were erected by Mr. Smeaton at the Carron iron works, 1760. One equal to the supply of air for forty forge fires was erected at the king's dockyard, Woolwich. The hot-air blast, a most important improvement, causing great economy of fuel, was invented by Mr. James died 18 Jan. 1865. B. Neilson, of Glasgow, and patented in 1828. He
BLOW-PIPE. An Egyptian using one is among the paintings on the tombs at Thebes. It was employed in mineralogy, by Andrew Von Swab, a Swede, about 1733, and improved by Wollaston and others. In 1802, professor Robert Hare, of Philadelphia, increased the action of the blow-pipe by the application of oxygen and hydrogen. By the agency of Newman's improved blow-pipes, in 1816, Dr. E. D. Clarke fused the earths, alkalies, metals, &c. The best work on the blow-pipe is by Plattner and Muspratt, 1854.
BLUE was the favourite colour of the Scotch covenanters in the 17th century. Blue and orange or yellow, became the whig colours after the revolution in 1688; and were adopted on the cover of the whig periodical, the " 'Edinburgh Review," first published in 1802. The Prussian blue dye was discovered by Diesbach, at Berlin, in 1710. Fine blues are now obtained from coal-tar; see Aniline. BLUE-COAT SCHOOLS, so called in reference to the costume of the children. The Blue-coat school in
Newgate-street, London, was instituted by Edward VI. in 1552; see Christ's Hospital. BLUE-STOCKING, a term applied to literary ladies, was originally conferred on a society comprising both sexes (1760, et seq.). Benjamin Stillingfleet, the naturalist, an active member, wore blue worsted stockings; hence the name. The beautiful Mrs. Jerningham is said to have worn blue stockings at the conversaziones of Mrs. Montague.
BLUE-BOOKS, reports and other papers printed by order of parliament, are so named on account of their wrappers; 70 vols were printed for the lords, and 76 vols for the commons in 1871.
BLUMENAU, Lower Austria; on 22 July, 1866, the Austrians in possession of this place were attacked by the Prussians on their march towards Vienna, a severe conflict was interrupted by the news of the armistice agreed to at Nikolsburg; and the same evening Austrians and Prussians bivouacked together.
BOARD OF ADMIRALTY, CONTROL, GREEN-CLOTH, HEALTH, TRADE, &c., see under Admiralty, &c.
BOATS. Flat-bottomed boats, made in England in the reign of William I.; again brought into use by Barker, a Dutchman, about 1690; see Life-Boat. engine was invented by Mr. Nathan Thompson of A mode of building boats by the help of the steamNew York in 1860, and premises were erected for its application at Bow, near London, in 1861. Charles Clifford's valuable Boat-lowering apparatus was invented 1856.
England at near 1,000,000 of acres. In Jan. 1849, Mr. Rees Reece took out a patent for certain valuable products from Irish peat. Candles and various other articles produced from peat have been since sold in London. Fuel for railway engines and other purposes is now made from peat (April, 1873).
BOGUE FORTS, see China, 1841.
BOHEMIA, formerly the Hercynian forest (Boiemum, Tacitus), derives its name from the Boii, a Celtic tribe. It was governed by dukes (Borzivoi the first, 891), till Ottocar assumed the title of king, 1198. The kings at first held their territory from the empire: and the crown was elective till it came to the house of Austria, in which it is now hereditary. The original Bohemians term themselves Czechs, and, following the example of Hungary, now call for autonomy. Prague, the capital, is famous for sieges and battles. Population in 1857, 4,705,525; in 1870, 5,140,544; see Prague.
The Czechs (Slavonians) seize Bohemia about
Bohemia conquered by the emperor Henry III. who
Albert, duke of Austria, marries the daughter of the late emperor and king, and receives the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary
The succession infringed by Ladislas, son of the king of Poland, and George Podiebrad, a protestant chief
Ladislas, king of Poland, elected king of Bohemia, on the death of Podiebrad
KINGS. 1198. Premislas Ottocar I. 1230. Wenceslas III. 1253. Premislas Ottocar II.
1278. Wenceslas IV., king of Poland. 1305. Wenceslas V.
1306. Rudolph of Austria.
1307. Henry of Carinthia.
1310. John of Luxemburg (killed at Crecy). 1346. Charles I., emperor (1347). 1378. Wenceslas VI. emperor.
The emperor Ferdinand I. marries Anne, sister of Louis the late king, and obtains the crown The emperor Ferdinand II., oppressing the protestants, is deposed, and Frederic the elector-palatine, elected king Frederic, totally defeated at Prague, Holland
5 Sept. 1619
Bohemia secured to Austria by treaty
Silesia and Glatz ceded to Prussia
of siege raised 20 July, 1848 The Prussians enter Bohemia, which becomes the seat of war (see Germany, 1866). 24 June, 1866 Agitation of the Czechs, who require the emperor to be crowned king of Bohemia with the crown of St. Wenceslas at Prague, autumn, 1867 Riots at Prague; habeas corpus act suspended, 10 Oct. 1868 Bohemian agitation for self-government; addresses to the emperor 14 Sept. and 5 Oct. 1870 Manifesto of the emperor 14 Sept. 1871 Bohemian deputies absent from the reichsrath, Dec.
9 Nov. 1620
6 May, 1757
1775 . 1781 1806
BOHEMIAN BRETHREN, a body of Christians in Bohemia, appear to have separated from the Calixtines (which see), a branch of the Hussites in 1467. Dupin says "They rejected the sacraments of the church, were governed by simple laics, and held the scriptures for their only rule of faith. They presented a confession of faith to king Ladislas in 1504 to justify themselves from errors laid to their charge." They appear to have had communication with the Waldenses, but were distinct from them. Luther, in 1533, testifies to their purity of doctrine, and Melanchthon commends their discipline. They were dispersed during the religious wars of Germany in the 17th century.
BOKHARA, the ancient Sogdiana, after successively forming part of the empires of Persia, of Alexander, and Bactriana, was conquered by the Turks in the 6th century, by the Chinese in the 7th, and by the Arabs about 705. After various changes of masters it was subdued by the Uzbek Tartars, its present possessors, in 1505. The British envoys, colonel Stoddart and captain Conolly, were murdered at Bokhara, the capital, by the khan, about June, 1843. In the war with Russia, begun in 1806, the emir's army was defeated several times in May, Peace was made 11 July, 1867. The Russians were again victors, 25 May, 1868, and occupied Samarcand the next day. Further conquests were made by the Russians, and Samarcand was secured by treaty, Nov. 1868.
BOLIVIA, a republic in South America, formerly part of Peru, population in 1858, 1,987,352. The insurrection of the ill-used Indians, headed by Tupac Amaru Andres, took place here.
The country declared its independence, 6 Aug. 1824
11 Aug. 1825 25 May, 1826 1836 1826-8 1828-34 1853 1855-7
First congress met
General Sucre governed ably
1860 May, 1861
an amnesty 24 Jan. 1866 Suppresses a revolt Proclaims an amnesty 17 Oct. 21 Dec. 1867 The president, A. Morales, 1871; said to have been Jan. 1873
BOLLANDISTS, see Acta Sanctorum.
BOLOGNA (central Italy) the ancient Felits architecture, made a Roman colony, 189 B.C. sina, afterwards Bononia, a city distinguished for
A university said to have been founded by Theodosius, about 433; really in Bologna joins the Lombard League Pope Julius II. takes Bologna; enters in triumph II Nov. 1506 - 1513
It becomes part of the states of the Church. In the church of St. Petronius, remarkable for its pavement, Cassini drew his meridian line (over one drawn by Father Ignatius Dante in 1575) 1653 Bologna was taken by the French, 1795; by the Austrians, 1799; again by the French, after the battle of Marengo, in 1800; and restored to the pope in A revolt suppressed by Austrian interference. Rebellion, 1848; taken by Austrians 16 May, 1849 The Austrians evacuate Bologna: and cardinal Ferretti departs: the citizens rise and form a provisional government. 12 June, 1859 Which decrees that all public acts shall be headed "Under the reign of king Victor Emmanuel," &c. I Oct. He enters Bologna as sovereign . 2 May, 1860 BOMARSUND, a strong fortress on one of the Aland isles in the Baltic sea, taken by sir Charles Napier, commander of the Baltic expedition, aided by the French military contingent under general Baraguay d'Hilliers, 15 Aug. 1854. The governor Bodisco, and the garrison, about 2000 men, became prisoners. The fortifications were destroyed.
BOMBAY, the most westerly and smallest of our Indian presidencies, was visited by the Portuguese in 1509, and acquired by them in 1530. It was given (with Tangier in Africa, and 300,000l. in money) to Charles II. as the marriage portion of the infanta Catherine of Portugal, 1662. In 1668, it was granted to the East India company, who had long desired it, "in free and common socage," as of the manor of East Greenwich, at an annual rent of 101. Confirmed by William III. 1689. The two principal castes at Bombay are the Parsees pers) and the Borahs (sprung from early converts (descendants of the ancient Persian fire-worshipto Islamism). They are both remarkable for commercial activity.
First British factory established at Ahmednuggur 1612 Mr. Gyfford, deputy-governor, 100 soldiers, and other English, perish through the climate, Oct. 1675-Feb. 1676 Captain Keigwin usurps the government 1681-84 Bombay made chief over the company's settlements 1687
Lord Elphinstone governor,
Population of the presidency, 12,034,483
Dee. March, 1862
Sir Henry Bartle Frere, governor
Recovering from commercial crisis
May, 1865 Aug.
BOMBS (iron shells filled with gunpowder), said to have been invented at Venlo, in 1495, and used by the Turks at the siege of Rhodes in 1522. They came into general use in 1634, having been previously used only by the Dutch and Spaniards. Bomb-vessels were invented in France in 1681. Voltaire. The shrapnel shell (invented by colonel Henry Shrapnel, who died in 1842) is a bomb filled with balls, and a lighted fuse to make it explode before it reaches the enemy.
BONA, Algeria; an early station of the French African company, till 1789. It was taken by the French from the Arabs, 6 May, 1832.
BONAPARTE FAMILY. The name appears at Florence and Genoa in the 13th century; in the 15th a branch settled in Corsica.
CHARLES BONAPARTE, born 29 March, 1746, died 24 1785. He married in 1767, Letitia Ramolina (born 24 Aug., 1750, died Feb. 1836); ISSUE,
1. JOSEPH, born 7 Jan. 1768, made king of Two Sicilies, 1805; of Naples alone, 1806; of Spain, 1808; resides in United States, 1815; comes to England, 1832; settles in Italy, 1841; dies at Florence, 28 July, 1844. 2. NAPOLEON I., emperor, born 15 Aug. 1769 (see France.)
3. LUCIEN, prince of Canino, born 1775: at first aided his brother Napoleon, but opposed his progress towards universal monarchy. He was taken by the English on his way to America, and resided in England till 1814. He died at Viterbo, 30 June, 1840. His son Charles (born 1803, died 1857) was an eminent naturalist.
4. LOUIS, born 2 Sept. 1778; made king of Holland, 1806; died 15 July, 1846. By his marriage with Hortense Beauharnais (daughter of the empress Josephine), in 1802, he had three sons: 1. Napoleon Louis (born 1803, died 1807); 2. Louis Napoleon (born 1804, died 1831); and
3. CHARLES-LOUIS-NAPOLEON, born 20 April, 1808 educated under the care of his mother at Aremberg, Switzerland, and at Thun, under general Dufour; took part in the Carbonari insurrection in the Papal States in March, 1831
Attempted a revolt at Strasbourg, 30 Oct. 1836.
Sent to America, 13 Nov. 1836.
Repairs to London, 14 Oct. 1838.
Lands at Boulogne with fifty followers, 6 Aug. 1840.
Elected deputy, 8 June; and takes his seat, 27 Aug. ; see France 1848-71: died at Chiselhurst, 9 Jan. 1873. 5. JEROME, born 15 Nov. 1784; king of Westphalia, 1 Dec. 1807-1814; made governor of the Invalides, 1848;
and marshal, 1850; died 24 June, 1860; his children
Mathilde, born 27 May, 1820; married to prince
Napoleon, born 9 Sept. 1822; married princess Clo-
BONDAGE, see Villanage.
BONES. The art of softening bones was discovered about 1688, and they were used in the cutlery manufacture, &c., immediately afterwards. The declared value of the bones of cattle and of other animals, and of fish (exclusive of whale-fins) imported into the United Kingdom from Russia, Prussia, Holland, Denmark, &c., amounted to 363,6137. in 1851, and to 628,535. in 1870. Bonedust has been extensively employed in manure since the publication of Liebig's researches in 1840.
BONE-SETTING cannot be said to have been practised scientifically until 1620. Bell.
BONHOMMES, hermits of simple and gentle lives, appeared in France about 1257; in England about 1283. The prior of the order was called le bon homme, by Louis VI.
BONN, a town on the Rhine (the Roman Bonna), was in the electorate of Cologne. It has been
frequently besieged, and was assigned to Prussia in 1814. The academy founded by the elector in 1777, made a university, 1784; abolished by Napoleon; re-established and enlarged 1818. Here Albert, our late prince consort, was entered as a student, May, 1837.
BOOK (Anglo-Saxon, boc; German, buch). Books were originally made of boards, or the inner bark of trees: afterwards of skins and parchment. Papyrus, an indigenous plant, was adopted in Egypt. Books with leaves of vellum were invented by Attalus, king of Pergamus, about 198 B.C., at which time books were in volumes or rolls. The MSS. in Herculaneum consist of papyrus, rolled and charred and matted together by the fire, and are about nine inches long, and one, two, or three inches in diameter, each being a separate treatise. The most ancient books are the Pentateuch of Moses and the poems of Homer and Hesiod. The first PRINTED BOOKS (see Printing) were printed on one side only, the leaves being pasted back to back. Books of astronomy and geometry were ordered to be destroyed in England as being infected with magic, 6 Edw. VI. Stow. Anne's act, 1709, relating to the price of books, repealed
2032 volumes of new works, and 773 of new editions, were published in London in
3359 new works, and 1159 new editions, exclusive of 908 pamphlets, were published in 3553 volumes were published in
In Great Britain, 4575 books and pamphlets were published in 1870; 3547 new books, and 1288 new editions, in 1871; 3419 new books, and 1100 new editions, in
In Paris, 6445 volumes were published in 1842 ; and 7350 in 1851. See Bibliography.
PRICES OF BOOKS.-Jerome (who died 420) states that he had ruined himself by buying a copy of the works of Origen. A large estate was given by Alfred for a book on cosmography, about 872. The Roman de la Rose was sold for about 30l.; and a homily was exchanged for 200 sheep and five quarters of wheat. Books frequently fetched double or treble their weight in gold. They sold at prices varying from 1o. to 40l, each in 1400. of Macklin's Bible, ornamented by Mr. Tomkins, was declared worth 500 guinens. Butler. A yet more superb copy was insured in a London office for 3000l: See Boccacio's Decamerone.
Leather came into use about the same time.
Cloth binding superseded the common boards generally about.
Caoutchouc or India-rubber backs to account-books and large volumes were introduced in .
BOOK-HAWKING SOCIETIES (already in Scotland) begun in England in 1851 by archdeacon Wigram (afterwards bishop of Rochester). The hawkers vend moral and religious books in a similar manner to the French colporteurs.
BOOK POST, see Post.
BOOK OF SPORTS, see Sports.
BORDEAUX (W. France), the Roman Burdigalla, in Aquitania, was taken by the Goths, 412; by Clovis, 508. It was gained by Henry II. on his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1151. Edward the Black Prince brought John, king of France, captive to this city after the battle of Poictiers, 19 Sept. 1356, and here held his court eleven years: his son, our Richard II., was born at Bor
BOOK-KEEPING. The system by double-deaux, 1366. After several changes Bordeaux finally entry, called originally Italian book-keeping, was surrendered to Charles VII. of France, 14 Oct. 1453. taken from the course of algebra published by The fine equestrian statue of Louis XV. was erected Burgo, in the 15th century, at Venice. John in 1743. Bordeaux was entered by the victorious Gowghe, a printer, published a treatise "on the British army after the battle of Orthes, fought kepyng of the famouse reconynge Debitor 27 Feb. 1814.-13 vessels were burnt and others and Creditor," London, 1543. This is our earliest injured in the port, through the ignition and work on book-keeping. James Peele published his explosion of petroleum spirit, 28 Sept. 1869. The Book-keeping in 1569. John Mellis published "A French delegate government and the represenBriefe Instruction and Manner how to Keepe Bookes tatives of foreign powers removed here from Tours, of Accompts," in 1588. Improved systems were 11 Dec. 1870. M. Gambetta remained for a time published by Benjamin Booth in 1789 and by Edw. with the army of the Loire. By the "pacte de Thos. Jones in 1821 and 1831. Bordeaux," between the different parties of the national assembly, M. Thiers became chief of the executive power, 17 Feb. 1871. The French Association for the Advancement of Science held its first meeting here, 5 Sept. 1872; M. Quatrefages, president.
BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER, see Common Prayer.
BOOKSELLERS, at first migratory like hawkers, became known as stationarii, from their practice of having booths or stalls at the corners of streets and in markets. They were long subject to vexatious restrictions, from which they were freed in 1758.
BOOKSELLERS' ASSOCIATION. The chief publishers in London formed themselves into an association and fixed the amount of discount to be allowed, 29 Dec. 1829, and for some years restricted the retail booksellers from selling copies of works under the full publishing price. A dispute arose as to the right of the latter to dispose of books which had become theirs by purchase, at such less profit as they might deem sufficiently remunerative. The dispute was referred to lord chief justice Campbell, at Stratheden House, 14 April, 1852. His lordship gave judgment against the association, which fed to its dissolution, 19 May following.
BORAX (Boron), known to the ancients, used in soldering, brazing, and casting gold and other metals, was called chrysocolla. Borax is produced naturally in the mountains of Thibet, and was brought to Europe from India about 1713. Homberg in 1702 discovered in borax boracic acid, which latter in 1808 was decomposed by Gay-Lussac, Thénard, and H. Davy, into oxygen and the previously unknown element, boron. Borax has lately been found in Saxony. It is now largely manufactured from the boracic acid found by Hoefer to exist in the gas arising from certain lagoons in Tuscany; and an immense fortune has been made by their owner M. Lardarel since 1818.
BOOTHIA FELIX, a large peninsula, N.W. point of America, discovered by sir John Ross in 1830, and named after air Felix Booth, who had presented him with 20,000l. to fit out his polar expedition. Sir Felix died at Brighton in Feb. 1850.
The Dutch trade here in 1604; establish factories,
He comes to England to seek help from the govern
BOOTS, said to have been the invention of the Carians, were mentioned by Homer, 907 B.C., and frequently by the Roman historians. A variety of forms may be seen in Fairholt's "Costume in Eng- Deputation of merchants waits on the earl of Derby
ment, without success His health being broken up, an appeal for a subscription for him made
An instrument of torture termed "the
recommending the purchase of Sarawak, which is declined
BORNEO, an island in the Indian Ocean, the largest in the world except Australia, was discovered by the Portuguese about 1518.