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on Tournefort's, and called "the natural system,” | Henry VIII. and Francis I. concluded a treaty to in 1758. At Linnæus's death, 1778, the species of oppose the Turks, 28 Oct. 1532. Boulogne was plants actually described amounted in number to taken by Henry VIII. on 14 Sept. 1544, but restored 11.800. The number of species now recorded cannot for a sum of money, 1550. fall short of 100,000. J. C. Loudon's “Encyclopædia of Plants," a most comprehensive work, first

Lord Nelson attacked a flotilla here, disabling ten

vessels and sinking five appeared in 1829. De Candolle's “Prodromus

3 Aug. 1801

In another attempt he was repulsed with great loss, Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis", (of which and captain Parker of the Medusa and two-thirds Vol. I. appeared in 1818), is still incomplete (1873). his crew were killed

18 Aug. An International Botanical congress was opened in Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and 10,000 horses, London, 23 May, 1866, professor A. De Candolle and a flotilla of 1300 Vessels and 17,000 sailors to president. Robert Brown, who accompanied Flin

invade England in 1804: the coasts of Kent and

Sussex were covered with martello towers and ders in his survey of New Holland in 1803, died

lines of defence; and nearly half the adult popu10 June, 1858, aged 85, was long acknowledged to be lation of Britain was formed into volunteer corps ; the chief of the botanists of his day (facile princeps). sir Sidney Smith unsuccessfully attempted to

burn the flotilla with fire machines called cata

2 Oct. 1804 Established about

Established about The army removed on the breaking out of war with Paina 1545 Kew, 1760 ; greatly imAustria

1805 Montpellier


1841-65 Congreve-rockets used in another attack, and set Leyden. 1577 Cainbridge 1763 the town on fire

8 Oct. 1806 Leipsic 1580 Coimbra

1773 Louis Napoleon (afterwards emperor) made a fruitParis (Jardin des

St. Petersburg 1785 less descent here with about 50 followers, 6 Aug. 1840 Plantes) 1624 Calcutta.

1793 As emperor, he reviewed the French troops destined Jena 1629 Dublin


for the Baltic, 10 July, 1854 ; and entertained Oxford

1632 Horticultural Society's, prince Albert and the king of the Belgians, 5 Sept. 1854 Cpsil. 1657 Chiswick

1821 The statue of Edward Jenner here inaugurated, Chelsea 1673-86 Royal Botanic Society's,

11 Sept. 1865 Elinburgh.

Regent's Park.

1839 Vienna

1753 Royal

BOUNDARY ACT. Commissioners were apMadrid

1755 Society's, S. Ken pointed by the Reform Bill, passed 15 Aug. 1867. singtoll

1860 Viscount Eversley, Russell Gurney, sir John T. B. BOTANY BAY, Australia, discovered by Duckworth, sir Francis Crossley, and John Walter, captain Cook, 28 April, 1770, received its name first sat 16 Aug. England and Wales were divided from the great variety of plants growing on the into 18 districts, and other arrangements made. shore. It was fixed on for a colony of convicts Another boundary act was passed 13 July, 1868. from Great Britain. The first governor, captain BOUNTIES, premiums granted to the producer, Arthur Phillip, who sailed from England in May, 1,87, arrived at the settlement in Jan. 1788. The introduced into commerce by the British parliament.

exporter, or importer of certain articles; a principle colony was eventually established at Port Jackson, The first granted on corn, in 1688, were repealed in about thirteen miles to the north of the bay ; see 1815. They were first legally granted in England New South Wales, and Transportation.

for raising naval stores in America, 1703, and have BOTHWELL BRIDGE, Lanarkshire. The been granted to the herring fishery, on sail-cloth, Scotch covenanters, who took up arms against the linen, and other goods. intolerant government of Charles II., and defeated

BOUNTY MUTINY, took place on board the the celebrated Claverhouse at Drumclog, 1 June, Bounty, an armed ship which quitted Otaheite, with 1679, were totally routed by the earl of Monmouth bread-fruit trees, 7 April, 1789. The mutineers at Bothwell Bridge, 22 June, 1679, and many pri- put their captain, Bligh, and nineteen men into an soners were tortured and executed.

open boat, with a small stock of provisions, near BOTTLE-CONJURER. A conjurer having Annamooka, one of the Friendly isles, 28 April, advertised that he would jump into a quart bottle 1789; these reached the island of Timor, south of at the Haymarket theatre, on 16 Jan. 1749, the the Moluccas, in June, after a voyage of nearly

Some of the mutineers were tried house was densely crowded and besieged by thou- 4000 miles. sands anxious to gain admittance. The rogue 15 Sept. 1792;, six were condemned and three carried off the receipts, the pickpockets had a rich executed. For the fate of the others, see Pitcairn's harvest, and the duped crowd nearly pulled down Island. the edifice.

BOURBON, HOUSE OF (from which camo BOTTLES in ancient times were made of the royal houses of France, Spain, and Naples), leather. The art of making glass bottles and derives its origin from the Archambauds, lords of drinking-glasses was known to the Romans at least Bourbon in Berry. before 79; for these articles and other vessels have Robert, count of Clermont, son of Louis IX. of been found in the ruins of Pompeii. Bottles were France, married the heiress Beatrice in 1272 ; died made in England about 1558. A bottle which con 1317; and their son Louis I. created duke of tained two hogsheads was blown, we are told, at

Bourbon and peer of France by Charles IV..

• 1327

The last of the descendants of their elder son Peter Leith, in Scotland, in Jan. 1747-8; see Glass.

I., Susanna, married Charles, duke of Montpen

sier, constable of Bourbon, who, offended by his BOUILLON, Belgium, formerly a duchy, was

sovereign Francis I., entered into the service of sold by Godfrey its ruler, to Albert, bishop of Liége,

the emperor Charles V., and was killed at the to obtain funds for the crusade, 1095. It was siege of Rome

6 May, 1527 seized by the French in 1672, and held by them till From James, the younger son of Louis I.,

descended 1815, when it was given to the king of the Nether Antony, duke of Vendôme, who married (1548) land, as duke of Luxemburg. It was awarded to

Jeanne d'Albret, daughter of Henry, king of Na

Their son, Henry IV., born at Pau, 23 Belgium after the Revolution of 1830.

Dec. 1553, became king of France 31 July, 1589 BOULOGNE, a seaport in Picardy, N. France, the crown of Spain was settled on a younger

branch of this family, 1700, and guaranteed by added to Burgundy, 1435; to France, 1447. Here

the peace of Utrecht (Rapin).

• 1733


Bourbon FAMILY COMPACT (a defensive alliance Desperate conflict at Farnborough between Thomas

between France, Spain, and the Two Sicilies) Sayers, the Champion of England, a light Sussex concluded by M. de Choiseul)

15 Aug. 1761 man, about 5 feet 8 inches high, and John Heenan, The Bourbons expelled France, 1791 ; restored

the “Benicia Boy," a huge American, in height 1814 ; again expelled on the return of Bonaparte

6 feet 1 inch. Strength, however, was matchel from Elba, and again restored after the battle of

by skill : and eventually the fight was interrupted, Waterloo, 1815. The elder branch was expelled

17 April. Both men received a silver belt once more, in the person of Charles X. and his

31 May 1860 family, in 1830, in consequence of the revolu Tom King beat Mace, and obtained the champion's tion of the memorable days of July in that year.

belt, &c.

26 Nov. 1862 Orleans branch ascended the throne in the person He beat Goss, i sept., and Heenan (nearly to death) of the late Louis Philippe, as “king of the

10 Dec. 1863 French," 9 Aug. 1830 ; deposed, 24 Feb. 1848 ; and A trial, in consequence of the last fight, ensued : his fainily also was expelled.

the culprits were dischargeul, on promising not The Bourbon family fled from Naples (6 Sept. 1860),

to offend again

5 April, 1864 and Francis II. lost his kingdom; and from Wormald obtained the championship after a conSpain, Sept. 1868 ; see France, Spain, Naples,

test with Marsden

4 Jan. 1865 Orleans, Parma, Condé, and Logitimists.

Contest for championship between Mace and O'BaldThe fusion of the parties supporting the comte de win, a giant ; prevented by the arrest of Mace, Chambord with the Orleanists, stated 26 Jan.;

15 Oct. 1867 not yet accomplished, April, 1873.

Railways prohibited carrying persons going to a
prize-fight, 30 & 31
Vict. c. 119

1868 BOURBON, ISLE OF (in the Indian ocean), discovered by the Portuguese about 1542. The

BOXTEL (in Dutch Brabant), where the French are said to have first settled here in 1642. British and allied army, commanded by the duke It surrendered to the British, under admiral Rowley, of York, was defeated by the French republicans, 21 Sept. 1809, and was restored to France in 18159 who took 2000 prisoners and eight pieces of cannon, Alison. An awful hurricane in Feb. 1829, did 17 Sept. 1794. much mischief. Bourbon was named “Ile de la BOX-TREE, indigenous to this country, and Réunion” in 1848 ; see Mauritius.

exceedingly valuable to wood-engravers. In 1815 BOURDEAUX, see Bordeaux.

a large box-tree at Box-hill, Surrey, was cut down,

and realised a large sum. Macculloch says, that BOURIGNONISTS, a sect founded by An

“the trees were cut down in 1815, and produced toinette Bourignon, who, in 1658, took the Augus- upwards of 10,000l.About 1820 the cutting of all tine habit and travelled in France, Holland, Eng. the trees on the hill produced about 6000l. land, and Scotland; in the last she made many converts about 1670. She maintained that Chris

BOYDELL'S LOTTERY for his Shakstianity does not consist in faith and practice, but in peare gallery of paintings got up (1786), by inward feeling and supernatural impulse. A disciple alderman Bordell, lord mayor of London. Every named Court left her a good estate. She died in ticket was sold at the time the alderman died, 12

ion of the wheel. 1680, and her works, 21 volumes 8vo, were pub- | Dec. 1804, before the de lished 1686.

BOY-BISHOP. During the middle ages a BOURNOUS, the Arabic name of a hooded choir-boy was frequently elected on St. Nicholas” garment worn in Algeria, which has been introduced day, 6 Dec., and held office till the 28th. The cusin a modified forin into England and France since lingered for some time after.

tom was suppressed in England in July, 1542 ; but 1847. BOUVINES (N. France), the site of a despe

BOYLE LECTURES, instituted by his will rate battle, 27 July, 1214, in which Philip Augustus (18 July, 1691), by Robert Boyle (son of the great of France was victorious over the emperor Otho and earl of Cork), a philosopher, distinguished by his his allies, consisting of more than 150,000 men. The genius, virtues, and benevolence, who died 30 Dec. counts of Flanders and Boulogne were taken pri- 1691. Eight lectures (in vindication of the Chrissoners, and the earl of Salisbury brother of king tian religion) are to be delivered. The office of John.

lecturer is tenable for three years. BOVILL'S ACT, 23 & 24 Vict. c. 34, 1860,

BOYNE, a river in Ireland, near which Wilrelates to petitions of right.

liam III. defeated his father-in-law, James II., BOWLS or BOWLING, an English game as

1 July, 1690. The latter lost 1500 (out of 30,000) early as the 13th century, Henry Vill., Charles I. number (out of 30,000). James fled to Dublin,

men; the Protestant army lost about a third of that played at it, and also Charles II. at Tunbridge. thence to 'Waterford, and escaped to France. The Grammont.

duke of Schomberg was killed by mistake by his BOW-STREET, see Magistrates.

own soldiers as he was crossing the river, and here BOWS AND ARROWS, see Archery.

also was killed the rev. George Walker, who de

fended Londonderry, in 1689. Near Drogheda is a BOXING, or PRIZE-FIGHTING, the pugi- splendid obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 latus of the Romans, once a favourite sport with the by the Protestants of the empire in commemoration British, who possess strong arms, giving them of this victory. superiority in battles decided by the bayonet.

BOYNE, man-of-war of 98 guns, destroyed by Broughton's amphitheatre, behind Oxford-road, fire at Portsmouth, 4 May, 1795, by the explosion Schools opened in England to teach boxing

of the magazine; numbers perished. Portions were

1790 Mendoza opened the Lyceum in the Strand in

recovered June, 1840.

• 1791 Boxing was much patronised from about 1820 to 1830 BRABANT, part of Holland and Belgium, an Tom Winter (nicknamed Spring), beside other vic ancient duchy, part of Charlemagne's empire, fell tories, beat Langan (for 1000l.), 8 June, 1824. to his son Charles, 806. It became a separate (The story that the prince regent drove Tom in the streets of London is contradicted)

duchy (called at first Lower Lorraine) in 959. It John Gully, originally a butcher, afterwards a

descended to Philip II. of Burgundy, 1429, and in prize-tighter, acquired wealth, and became M P. regular succession to the emperor Charles V. In for Pontetract in 1835, died.

9 March, 1863 the 17th century it was held by Holland and


• 1742

Austria, as Dutch Brabant and the Walloon pro- Kingdom. It is now largely manufactured in vinces, and underwent many changes through the Britain. wars of Europe. The Austrian division was taken

BRANDYWINE, a river in N. America, near by the French in 1746 and 1794. It was united to the Netherlands in 1814, but South Brabant was

which a battle took place between the British, under given to Belgium, 1830." The heir of the throne of which the latter (after a day's fight) were defeated

Howe, and the Americans under Washington, in Belgium is styled duke of Brabant; see Belgium.

with great loss, 11 Sept. 1777. Philadelphia fell BRACELETS were worn by the ancients, and into the possession of the victors. armille were Roman military rewards. Those of

BRASS. That mentioned in the Bible was pearls and gold were worn by the Roman ladies.

most probably bronze. When Lucius Mummius BRADFIELD RESERVOIR, see Sheffield, burnt Corinth to the ground, 146 B.C., he found 1864.

immense riches, and during the contlagration, it is

said, all the metals in the city melted, and running BRADFORD, see Poison.

together, formed the valuable composition described BRADSHAW'S RAILWAY GUIDE was as Corinthian Brass. This is well doubted, for the first published by Mr. G. Bradshaw in Dec. 1841. Corinthian artists had long before obtained great He had previously published occasionally a Railway credit for their method of combining gold and Companion.

silver with copper. Du Fresnoy. Some of the

English sepulchral engraved brasses are said to be BRAGANZA, a city in Portugal, gave title to

as old as 1277 Alfonso, natural son of John I. of Portugal (in 1422), founder of the house of Braganza. When BRAURONIA, festivals in Attica, at Brauron, the nation, in a bloodless resolution in 1640, threw where Diana had a temple. The most remarkable off the Spanish yoke, John, duke of Braganza, was that attended these festivals were young virgins in called to the throne as John IV., and his descen, yellow gowns, dedicated to Diana. They were about dants now reign over Portugal and Brazil (which ten years of age, and not under five; and therefore sce).

their consecration was called dekateuein," from BRAHMINS, Hindoo priests, the highest of deka, ten; 600 B.C. the four castes. Pythagoras is thought to have learned from them his doctrine of the Vetempsycho

BRAY, Berks. Fuller says that its vicar, sis; and it is affirmed that soine of the Greek philo- Symon Symonds, was twice a papist and twice a sophers went to India on purpose to converse with Protestant–in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edthem. The Brahmins derive their name from

ward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth (1533-1558). Upon Brahmah, one of the three beings whom God, ac

being called a turn-coat, he said he kept to his cording to their theology, created, and with whose principle, that of “ of living and dying the vicar of assistance he formed the world. See Vedas.

Bray.” The modern song refers to the political

changes of the 17th and 18th centuries. BRAINTREE CASE (in Essex), was decided in 1842 by Dr. Lushington, who determined that a BRAZEN BULL, said to have been contrived minority in a parish vestry cannot levy a church by Perillus, at Athens, for Phalaris, tyrant of Agrirate.

gentum, 570 B.C. It had an opening in the side to

admit the victims, and a fire was kindled underBRAMHAM (W. R. York): near here the earl neath to roast them to death ; their groans resemof Northumberland and lord Bardolf were defeated bled the roaring of a bull. Phalaris admired the and slain by sir Thomas Rokeby, the general of invention, but ordered the artist to make the first Henry IV., 19 Feb. 1408; and Fairfax was defeated experiment. The Agrigentes revolted against Phalby the royalists under the earl of Newcastle, 29 aris, cut his tongue out, and roasted him in the March, 1643.

prazen bull, 549 B.C. BRANDENBURG, a city in Prussia, founded by the Slavonians, who gave it the name of Banber; discovered by Vincent Pinzon in Feb. 1500. Pedro

BRAZIL, an empire in South America, was which signified Guard of the Forest, according to some; others explain the name as Burg, or city, Alvarez de Cabral, a Portuguese, driven upon its of the Brenns. Henry I., surnamed the Fowler, land of the Holy Cross; but it was subsequently

coasts by, a tempest, April following, called it the after defeating the Slavonians, fortified “Brannibor," 926, as a rampart against the Huns, and

named Brazil, on account of its red wood. The bestowed the government on Sigefroi, count of French having seized on Portugal in 1807, the Ringelheim, with the title of margrave, or protector landed 7 March, 1808. The dominant religion is

royal family and nobles embarked for Brazíl, and of the marches or frontiers. The emperor Sigis. Roman Catholic; but others are tolerated. "Popumund gare perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of Nuremburg, of the house of Hohenzollern, lation, Aug. 1872, 10,093,978 (above iš million ancestor of the royal family of Prussia, made slaves and aborigines); sce Portugal. elector in 1417.. For a list of the margraves since Brazil explored by Amerigo Vespucei. 1134, see Prussia.

Divided into captaincies ly the king of Portugal

Martin de Souza discovers Rio, and founds the tirst BRANDENBURG HOUSE, Hammersmith,

European colony at San Vincente. see Queen Caroline.

Jews banished from Portugal to Brazil

1548 BRANDY (German Branntvein, burnt wine), French protestants oceupy bay of Rio Janeiro

San Salvador (Bahia) founded by Thomé de Souza the spirit distilled from wine. Alcohol appears to

1567 have been known to Raymond Lully in the 13th Brazil, with Portugal, becomes subject to Spain century, and to have been manufactured in France James Lancaster captures Pernambuco early in the 14th. It was at first used medicinaily, The French establish a colony at Maranham and miraculous cures were ascribed to its influence.

Belem founded by Calderia .

The French expelled. In 1852. 3,959,452; in 1866, 5.621,930; and in 1870, The Dutch seize the coast of Brazil, 1630 ; and hold 7,942,965 gallons were inported into the United



about 1504

· 1530

· 1531

• 1549 1555-60

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Sebastian founded

1580 1593 1594 1615

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13 Sept.


31 March,


Defeated at Guararapes, 1646 ; give up Brazil .

1661 Freedom decreed to slaves belonging to the nation Gold mining commences 1693 who shall become soldiers

6 Nov. 1867 Destruction of Palmares

1697 Three monitors pass Curupaiti, on the Paraguay, The French assault and capture Rio Janeiro

1710-11 17 Feb. ; 6 ironclads force the passage of Humaitá; Diamond mines discovered in Sezzo Frio.

they tìnd Asuncion abandoned

21 Feb. 1868 Jesuits expelled

1758-60 Fierce resistance of the Paraguayans; Lopez said to Capital transferred from Bahia to Rio Janeiro 1763 have armed 4000 women

June, Royal family of Portugal arrive at Brazil, 7 March, 1808 After several contlicts Lopez is totally defeated at First printing-press established

Villeta, and flies

1 Dec. Brazil becomes a kingdom

1815 The comte d'Eu appointed general of the allied army King John VI. returns to Portugal, and dom Pedro

24 March, 1869 becomes regent

1821 The allies surprise and capture Rosorio and garrison Brazil declares its independence. · 7 Sept. 1822

8 May, Pedro I. crowned emperor

1 Dec.

Lopez defeated in severe conflicts, 12, 16, 18, 21 Aug. New constitution ratified

25 March, 1824 Lopez defeated and killed near the Aquidaban, Independence recognised by Portugal 29 Aug. 1825

1 March, 1870 Revolution at Rio Janeiro ; abdication of dom Treaty of peace with Paraguay, quite subulued Pedro I. 7 April, 1831

20 June, Reform of the constitution

The count and countess d'Eu arrive in England, Pedro II, declared of age .

23 July, 1840 Steam-slip line to Europe commenced


New ministry under viscount St. Vincent, 29 Sept. Suppression of the slave-trade ; railways com The emperor and empress come to Europe, and visit menced

1852 public and scientific institutions, manufactories Rio Janeiro lit with gas

in Great Britain and other countries, June-Aug. 1871 The British ship" Prince of Wales', wrecked ai

Gradual slave emancipation bill passed by the Albardas, on coast of Brazil, is plundered by

senate ; great rejoicings

27, 28 Sept. 1872 some of the natives, and some of the crew killed, The emperor and empress, after visiting the conti

about 7 June, 1861 nent, return to Brazil Reparation long refused ; reprisals made ; five Census-population, 10,093,978

Brazilian merchant ships being seized by the

31 Dec. 1862

EMPERORS OF BRAZIL. The Brazilian minister at London pays 3,2001. as an 1822. Dom Pedro (of Portugal); abdicated in favour of his indemnity, under protest

26 Feb. 1863

infant son, 7 April, 1831; died 24 Sept. 1834. The Brazilian government request the British to 1831. Dom Pedro II. (born 2 Dec. 1825); assumed the express their regret for reprisals ; declined ; diplo

government, 23 July, 1840 ; crowned, 18 July, matic intercourse suspended

· 5-28 May,

1841; married, 4 Sept. 1843, princess Theresa of Dispute between the governments respecting the

Naples (born 14 March, 1822). arrest of some British officers at Rio Janeiro (17 lleiress. Isabella, born 29 July, 1846 ; married (15 Ort. June, 1862) referred to the arbitration of the king

1864) Louis comte d'Eu, son of the duc de of the Belgians, who decides in favour of Brazil,

Nemours (born 28 April, 1842).

18 June, New ministry formed ; F. J. Furtailo, president

BREAD. Ching-Young, the successor of Fohi, prospect of reconciliation with Great Britain,

is reputed to have been the first who taught men

30 Aug. 1864 | (the Chinese) the art of husbandry, and the method U. S. war-steamer “Wachusett" seizes the con of making bread from wheat, and wine from rice,

federate steamer “Florida," in the port of Bahia, 1998 3.c. Univ. Hist. Baking of bread was known while under protection of Brazil, 7 Oct. ; after remonstrance, Mr. Seward, U. S. foreign minister,

in the patriarchal ages: see Erodus xii. 15. It apologises. (The “ Florida" (inadvertently) sunk?]

became a profession at Rome, 170 B.C. After the

26 Dec. 1864 conquest of Macedon, 148 B.c., numbers of Greek The comte d'Eu and princess Isabella (on marriage bakers came to Rome, obtained special privileges,

tour) land at Southampton War with Uruguay—the Brazilians take Paysanlú,

7 Feb. 1865 and soon obtained a monopoly. During the siege of

Paris by Henry IV., owing to famine, bread, which and march upon Monte Video

had been sold whilst any remained for a crown a Lopez, president of Paraguay, declares war against the Argentine Republic


pound, was at last made from the bones of the Treaty between Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentino charnel-house of the Holy Innocents, A.D. 1594.

Republic against Paraguay, governed by Lopez, Hénault. In the time of James I., barley bread was signed.

· 1 May, Scientific expedition under Agassiz favoured by the

used by the poor; and now in Iceland, cod-fish,

beaten to powder, is made into bread; potato-bread emperor .

July, Amicable relations with England restored .

is used in Ireland. The London Bakers' Company

Aug. The emperor joins the army against Lopez Aug

was incorporated in 1307. Bread-street was once The allies under Flores defeat the Paraguayans at the London market for bread. Until 1302, the Santayuna on the Uruguay

18 Sept. London bakers were not allowed to sell any in their Uruguayana surrenders to the allies 18 Sept. own shops, Stow. Bread was made with yeast by Indecisive battle between the allies and the Para

the English bakers in 1634. In 1856 and 1857 Dr. guayans, at Paso de la Patria

about 25 Feb. 1866 Dauglish patented a mode of making, Paraguayans defeated on the Parana 16, 17 April,

aerated Victory of the allies at Estero Velhaco, 2 May: in

bread,” in which carbonic acid gas is combined with decisive battle there

24 May,

water and mixed with the flour, and which is said Bombardment of the allied camp on the Parana to possess the advantages of cleanliness, rapidity,

and uniformity. In 1862 a company was formed to Two days' fight at Tuyuty; allies defeated,

encourage Stevens' bread-making machinery. An

16, 18, July, Fruitless meeting of president Lopez with the chiefs

act for regulating bakehouses was passed in July, on proposals of peace.

12 Sept.

1863. A strike of the journeyman bakers of the The allies attack the fortress of Curupaiti ; defeated metropolis, 23 Sept., was settled by concessions, with severe loss

· 17-19, 22 Sept. 9 Oct. 1872. The allies' camp bombarded, 18 Oct.; the Paragunyans repulsed at Tuyuty

Quartern Loaf (415. 5)oz.) 11800

Price 171d. The Brazilians take Corumba

13 June, 1867 1735

Price std. 1800 · [For 4 weeks, 225i.] The duke of Edinburgh visits Rio de Janeiro



12} 15-22 July, 1755 5 1810

15 The Paraguayans victors, 24 Sept. ; severely defeated 1765

7 1812 Aug

3 and 21 Oct.


12 Proposals for peace by Lopez declined. Oct.


6 1820 Severe defeat of Paraguayans before Tuyuty, 3 Nov. 1795

2 Feb.

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Dacians, Parthians, and other northern nations; For-pound Loaf (best). 1859

and in Italy, it is said, was worn in the time of 1822.

iod. 1825

Augustus Cæsar. In the reign of Honorius, about 18 30. rojs

394, the braccarii, or breeches-makers, were ex1863

pelled from Rome. The “ Geneva Bible," termed 1240. 1864

the “Breeches Bible" (from the rendering in June. Dec. 1865

Gen. iii. 7), published 1570. 1845

71d. 75d. 1866
64 1867

BREECH-LOADERS, see under Cannon

and Firearms.

7) 8}

BREHONS, ancient judges in Ireland, are said 91 84 1871

to have administered justice with religious im1833



partiality, but in later times with a tendency to ASSIZE OF BREAD. The first statute for the regulation fove of country. It was enacted by the statute of of the sale of bread was 3 John, 1203. The chief justi- Kilkenny, that no English subject should submit to ciary, and a baker commissioned by the king, had the inspection of the assize. Matthew Paris. The assize

the Brehon laws, 40 Edw. III., 1365. These laws, was further regulated by statute in 51 Hen. III. 1266,

however, were recognised by the native Irish till an & Anne, 1710.

Bread Act, Ireland, placing its sale | 1650. A translation of them was proposed in 1852, ca the same footing as in England, : Vict. 1838. Bread and a commission appointed. The publication of was directed to be sold by weight in London in 1822; the the “ Ancient Laws of Ireland” by the government, statute “ Assessa Panis” was repealed in 1824; and the began 1865. de of bread throughout the country was regulated in 1836.

BREITENFELD, see Leipsic. BREAD-FRUIT TREE, a native of the South Sea islands. A vessel under captain Bligh founded in 788, and long an archbishopric, and one

BREMEN (N. Germany), said to have been was fitted out to convey some of these trees to various British colonies in 1789 (see Bounty), and allowed a seat and a vote in the college of imperial

of the leading towns of the Hanseatic League, was again in 1791. The number taken on board at Otaheite was 1151. Some were left at St. Helena, erected into a duchy and held by Sweden till 1712,

cities in 1640. In 1648 it was secularised and 352 at Jamaica, and five were reserved for Kew Gardens, 1793.' The tree was successfully culti- whom it was sold to Hanover in 1731.

when it was taken possession of by Denmark, by

It was vated in French Guiana, 1802.

taken by the French in 1757, who were expelled BREAKWATERS. The first stone of the by the Hanoverians in 1758. 'Bremen was annexed Plymouth breakwater was lowered 12 August, 1812. by Napoleon to the French empire in 1810; but its It stretches 5280 feet across the sound, is 360 feet | independence was restored in 1813, and all its old in breadth at the bottom and more than 30 at the franchises in 1815. It became a member of the top, and consumed 3,600,000 tons of granite blocks, North German Confederation in 1866. Population from one to tive tons each, up to April, 1841, and of the province, 1871, 123,088 ; see Hanse cost a million and a half sterling. The architects Touns. were Mr. John Rennie and his son sir John. The

BRENNEVILLE, N.W. France. Here first stone of the lighthouse on its western extremity Henry I. of England defeated Louis VI. of France, was laid i Feb. 1841. Breakwaters have been con

who supported William Cliton, son of Robert, duke structed at Holyhead, Portland, Dover, &c.

of Normandy, 20 Aug. 1119. BREAST-PLATE. One was worn by the Jewish high priest, 1491 B.C. (Exod. xxxix.) | Here Edmund Ironside defeated the Danes, May,

BRENTFORD, county town of Middlesex. Goliath “ was armed with a coat of mail;”. 1063 1016. It was taken by Charles I., after a sharp B.C. (1 Sam. xvii.) Breast-plates dwindled to the diminutive gorgets. Ancient breast-plates are men

fight, 12 Nov. 1642. tioned as made of gold and silver.

BRESCIA, N. Italy (the ancient Brixia), beBRECHIN, Scotland; sustained a siege against came important under the Lombards, and suffered the army of Edward 111., 1333. The battle of by the wars of the Italian Republics, being attached Brechin or Huntly-hill was fought between the to Venice, It was taken by the French under earls of Huntly and Crawford, the latter defeated, Gaston de Foix, Feb. 1512, when it is said 40,000 18 May, 1452. The see of Brechin was founded by of the inhabitants were massacred. It was retaken David I. in 1150. One of its bishops, Alexander 26 May, 1516. It surrendered to the Austrian Campbell, was made prelate when but a boy, 1556. generai Haynau, 30 March, 1849, on severe terms. The bishopric, discontinued soon after the revolu- It was annexed to Sardinia in 1859. tion in 1688, was revived in 1731.

BRESLAU, in Silesia, was burnt by the MonBREDA, Holland, taken from the gols in 1241, and conquered by Frederick II. of Spaniards by prince Maurice, of Nassau, in 1590; Prussia, Jan. 1741. A fierce battle took place here retaken by the Spaniards, under Spinola, June, between the Austrians and Prussians, the latter 1625; and by the Dutch, Oct. 1637. ' The « Com- under prince Bevern, who was defeated 22 Nov. promise of Breda" was a proposal to Philip II., de- 1757. Breslau was taken; but was regained 21 Dec. precating his harsh measures in the Netherlands,

same year. It was besieged by the French, and presented and refused in 1566. Our Charles II. surrendered to them Jan. 1807, and again in 1813. resided here at the time of the restoration, and here he issued his declaration of a free general pardon,

BREST, a seaport, N. W. France, was besieged 4 April, 1660; see Restoration. Breda was taken by Julius Cæsar, 54 B.C.-possessed by the English, by the French in 1793. The French garrison was

A.D. 1378 -- given up to the duke of Britanny, expelled by the burgesses in 1813.

1390. Lord Berkeley and a British fleet and army

were repulsed here with dreadful loss in 1694. The BREECHES. Among the Greeks, this gar- magazine burnt, to the value of some millions of ment indicated slavery. It was worn by the pounds sterling, 174. The marine hospitals, with


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