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Sir J. Brooke returns to Borneo 20 Nov. 1860 Returned to England; died 11 June, 1868 The rajah of Sarawak, with an expedition of Malays and Dyaks, defeats and punishes a marauding decapitating tribe of Dyaks

June, 1870

BORNOU, an extensive kingdom in central Africa, explored by Denham and Clapperton (sent out by the British government), in 1822. population is estimated by Denham at 5,000,000, by Barth at 9,000,000.


BORODINO, a Russian village on the river Moskwa, near which a sanguinary battle was fought, 7 Sept. 1812, between the French under Napoleon, and the Russians under Kutusoff; 240,000 men being engaged. Each party claimed the victory; but the Russians retreated, leaving Moscow, which the French entered, 14 Sept.; see Moscow.

BORON, see Borax.

BOROUGH or BURGH, anciently a company of ten families living together, now such towns as send members to parliament, since the election of burgesses in the reign of Henry III. 1265. Charters were granted to towns by Henry I. 1132; which were remodelled by Charles II. in 1682-4, but restored in 1688. 22 new English boroughs were created in 1553. Burgesses were first admitted into the Scottish parliament by Robert Bruce, 1326; and into the Irish, 1365. Acts to amend the Representation of the People in England and Wales passed 7 June, 1832, and 15 Aug. 1867; and the Act for the Regulation of Municipal Corporations, 9 Sept. 1835; see Constituency. BOROUGH-BRIDGE (W. R. of York). Here Edward II. defeated the earls of Hereford and Lancaster, 16 March, 1322. Lancaster was mounted on a lean horse, led to an eminence near Pontefract, and beheaded.

BOROUGH-ENGLISH, an ancient tenure by which the younger son inherits, is mentioned as occurring 834. It was abolished in Scotland by Malcolm III. in 1062.

BOSCOBEL, near Donington, Shropshire. Charles II. (after his defeat at Worcester, Sept. 1651), disguised in the clothes of the Pendrills, remained from 4 to 6 Sept. at White Ladies; on 7 and 8 Sept. he lay at Boscobel house, near which exists an oak, said to be the scion of the Royal Oak in which the king was part of the time hidden with col. Careless. Sharpe. The "Boscobel Tracts" were first published in 1660. In 1861 Mr. F. Manning published "Views," illustrating these tracts.

BOSNIA, in European Turkey formerly part of Pannonia, was governed by chiefs till a brother-inlaw of Louis king of Hungary was made king, 1376. He was defeated by the Turks in 1389, and became their vassal. Bosnia was incorporated with Turkey in 1463. Many efforts have been made by the Bosnians to recover their independence. The last rebellion, begun in 1849, was quelled by Omar Pasha in 1851.

BOSPHORUS, THRACIAN (now Channel of Constantinople). Darius Hystaspes threw a bridge of boats over this strait when about to invade Greece, 493 B.C. See Constantinople.

BOSPORUS (improperly BoSPHORUS), now called Circassia, near the Bosphorus Cimmerius, the straits of Kertch or Yenikalé. The history of the kingdom is involved in obscurity, though it continued for 350 years. It was named Cimmerian,

from the Cimmeri, who dwelt on its borders, about 750 B.C.

The Archenactidæ from Mitylene rule.
They are dispossessed by Spartacus I.
Seleucus, 431: Satyrus I.

Leucon, 393; Spartacus II., 353; Parysades
Eumelus, aiming to dethrone his brother Saty-

rus II., is defeated; but Satyrus is killed Prytanis, his next brother, ascends the throne, but is murdered by Eumelus Eumelus puts to death all his relations, 309; and is killed.

. B.C. 502-480


407 348

310 309

304 285 80


The Scythians conquer Bosporus
Mithridates VI., of Pontus, conquers Bosporus
He poisons himself; and the Romans make his son,
Pharnaces, king

Battle of Zela, gained by Julius Caesar over Phar-
naces II. (Cæsar writes home, Veni, vidi, vici, “I
came, I saw, I conquered")
Asander usurps the crown
Cæsar makes Mithridates of Pergamus king
Polemon conquers Bosporus, and favoured by
Agrippa, reigns
Polemon killed by barbarians of the Palus Mæotis
Polemon II. reigns, 33; Mithridates II. reigns 4I
Mithridates conducted a prisoner to Rome, by
order of Claudius: Cotys I. king

A. D.



A list of kings given by some writers ends with
Sauromates VII.


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BOSTON, Lincolnshire; a trading town, made lofty tower, was erected about 1309. a staple for wool, 1357; St. Botolph's church with a

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Boston seaport shut by the English parliament, until restitution should be made to the East India Company for the tea lost . 25 March, 1774 The town besieged by the Americans, and 400 houses destroyed Battle of Bunker's Hill, between the royalists and independent troops; latter defeated, 17 June, 1775 April, 1776 Industrial exhibition opened Oct. 1856 Great peace jubilee; concert of about 10,371 voices and 1094 instruments, with anvils, bells, &c., begun 15 June, 1869


The city evacuated by the king's troops

International peace jubilee; chorus about 20,000; orchestra, 1000; with military bands and other performers of different nations, including the British grenadier guards' band; a day allotted to each nation 17 June-4 July, 1872 Tremendous fire; great loss of life and property; about 80 acres of buildings burnt; 959 houses (125 dwellings); 35 persons killed. 9, 10, 11 Nov.

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BOSWORTH FIELD, Leicestershire, the site of the thirteenth and last battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, 22 Aug, 1485, when Richard III. was defeated by the earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VII., and slain, through the desertion of sir Wm. Stanley. It is said that Henry was crowned on the spot with the crown of Richard found in a hawthorn bush near the field.

BOTANY. Aristotle is considered the founder of the science (about 347 B.C.). Historia Plantarum of Theophrastus was written about 320 B.C. Authors on botany became numerous at the close of the 15th century. Fuchsius, Bock, Bauhin, Casalpinus, and others, wrote between 1535 and 1600. The system and arrangement of the great Linnæus was made known about 1735; and Jussieu's system, founded

on Tournefort's, and called "the natural system," in 1758. At Linnæus's death, 1778, the species of plants actually described amounted in number to 11,800. The number of species now recorded cannot fall short of 100,000. J. C. Loudon's "Encyclopædia of Plants," a most comprehensive work, first appeared in 1829. De Candolle's "Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis" (of which Vol. I. appeared in 1818), is still incom lete (1873 An International Botanical congress was opened in London, 23 May, 1866, professor A. De Candolle president. Robert Brown, who accompanied Flinders in his survey of New Holland in 1803, died 10 June, 1858, aged 85, was long acknowledged to be the chief of the botanists of his day (facile princeps).

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BOTHWELL BRIDGE, Lanarkshire. The Scotch covenanters, who took up arms against the intolerant government of Charles II., and defeated the celebrated Claverhouse at Drumclog, 1 June, 1679, were totally routed by the earl of Monmouth at Bothwell Bridge, 22 June, 1679, and many prisoners were tortured and executed." BOTTLE-CONJURER. A conjurer having advertised that he would jump into a quart bottle at the Haymarket theatre, on 16 Jan. 1749, the house was densely crowded and besieged by thousands anxious to gain admittance. The rogue carried off the receipts, the pickpockets had a rich harvest, and the duped crowd nearly pulled down the edifice.

BOTTLES in ancient times were made of leather. The art of making glass bottles and drinking-glasses was known to the Romans at least before 79; for these articles and other vessels have been found in the ruins of Pompeii. Bottles were made in England about 1558. A bottle which contained two hogsheads was blown, we are told, at Leith, in Scotland, in Jan. 1747-8; see Glass.

BOUILLON, Belgium, formerly a duchy, was sold by Godfrey its ruler, to Albert, bishop of Liége, to obtain funds for the crusade, 1095. It was seized by the French in 1672, and held by them till 1815, when it was given to the king of the Netherlands, as duke of Luxemburg. It was awarded to Belgium after the Revolution of 1830.

Henry VIII. and Francis I. concluded a treaty to oppose the Turks, 28 Oct. 1532. Boulogne was taken by Henry VIII. on 14 Sept. 1544, but restored for a sum of money, 1550.

BOULOGNE, a seaport in Picardy, N. France, added to Burgundy, 1435; to France, 1447. Here

Lord Nelson attacked a flotilla here, disabling ten vessels and sinking five 3 Aug. 1801 In another attempt he was repulsed with great loss, and captain Parker of the Medusa and two-thirds of his crew were killed 18 Aug. Bonaparte assembled 160,000 men and ro,ooo horses, and a flotilla of 1300 vessels and 17,000 sailors to invade England in 1804; the coasts of Kent and Sussex were covered with martello towers and lines of defence; and nearly half the adult population of Britain was formed into volunteer corps; sir Sidney Smith unsuccessfully attempted to burn the flotilla with fire machines called cata2 Oct. 1804 The army removed on the breaking out of war with




8 Oct. 1806

Louis Napoleon (afterwards emperor) made a fruitless descent here with about 50 followers, 6 Aug. 1840 As emperor, he reviewed the French troops destined for the Baltic, ro July, 1854; and entertained prince Albert and the king of the Belgians, 5 Sept. 1854 The statue of Edward Jenner here inaugurated, 11 Sept. 1865

Congreve-rockets used in another attack, and set

the town on fire


BOUNDARY ACT. Commissioners were appointed by the Reform Bill, passed 15 Aug. 1867. Viscount Eversley, Russell Gurney, sir John T. B. Duckworth, sir Francis Crossley, and John Walter, first sat 16 Aug. England and Wales were divided into 18 districts, and other arrangements made. Another boundary act was passed 13 July, 1868.

BOUNTIES, premiums granted to the producer, exporter, or importer of certain articles; a principle introduced into commerce by the British parliament. The first granted on corn, in 1688, were repealed in 1815. They were first legally granted in England for raising naval stores in America, 1703, and have been granted to the herring fishery, on sail-cloth, linen, and other goods.

BOUNTY MUTINY, took place on board the Bounty, an armed ship which quitted Otaheite, with bread-fruit trees, 7 April, 1789. The mutineers put their captain, Bligh, and nineteen men into an open boat, with a small stock of provisions, near Annamooka, one of the Friendly isles, 28 April, 1789; these reached the island of Timor, south of the Moluccas, in June, after a voyage of nearly Some of the mutineers were tried 4000 miles. 15 Sept. 1792; six were condemned and three executed. For the fate of the others, see Pitcairn's Island.

BOURBON, HOUSE OF (from which came the royal houses of France, Spain, and Naples), derives its origin from the Archambauds, lords of Bourbon in Berry.

Robert, count of Clermont, son of Louis IX. of
France, married the heiress Beatrice in 1272; died
1317; and their son Louis I. created duke of
Bourbon and peer of France by Charles IV..
The last of the descendants of their elder son Peter
I., Susanna, married Charles, duke of Montpen-
sier, constable of Bourbon, who, offended by his
sovereign Francis I., entered into the service of
the emperor Charles V., and was killed at the
siege of Rome

6 May, 1527

From James, the younger son of Louis I., descended Antony, duke of Vendôme, who married (1548) Jeanne d'Albret, daughter of Henry, king of Navarre. Their son, Henry IV., born at Pau, 23 Dec. 1553, became king of France 31 July, 1589 a younger The crown of Spain was settled on branch of this family, 1700, and guaranteed by the peace of Utrecht (Rapin).

. 1713

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15 Aug. 1761

Bourbon FAMILY COMPACT (a defensive alliance
between France, Spain, and the Two Sicilies)
concluded by M. de Choiseul)
The Bourbons expelled France, 1791; restored
1814; again expelled on the return of Bonaparte
from Elba, and again restored after the battle of
Waterloo, 1815. The elder branch was expelled
once more, in the person of Charles X. and his
family, in 1830, in consequence of the revolu-
tion of the memorable days of July in that year.
Orleans branch ascended the throne in the person
of the late Louis Philippe, as 'king of the
French," 9 Aug. 1830; deposed, 24 Feb. 1848; and
his family also was expelled.


The Bourbon family fled from Naples (6 Sept. 1860),
and Francis II. lost his kingdom; and from
Spain, Sept. 1868; see France, Spain, Naples,
Orleans, Parma, Condé, and Legitimists.

The fusion of the parties supporting the comte de Chambord with the Orleanists, stated 26 Jan.; not yet accomplished, April, 1873.

BOURBON, ISLE OF (in the Indian ocean), discovered by the Portuguese about 1542. The French are said to have first settled here in 1642. It surrendered to the British, under admiral Rowley, 21 Sept. 1809, and was restored to France in 1815. Alison. An awful hurricane in Feb. 1829, did much mischief. Bourbon was named "Ile de la Réunion" in 1848; see Mauritius.

BOURDEAUX, see Bordeaux.

BOURIGNONISTS, a sect founded by Antoinette Bourignon, who, in 1658, took the Augustine habit and travelled in France, Holland, England, and Scotland; in the last she made many converts about 1670. She maintained that Christianity does not consist in faith and practice, but in inward feeling and supernatural impulse. A disciple named Court left her a good estate. She died in 1680, and her works, 21 volumes 8vo, were published 1686.

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Desperate conflict at Farnborough between Thomas Sayers, the Champion of England, a light Sussex man, about 5 feet 8 inches high, and John Heenan, the "Benicia Boy," a huge American, in height 6 feet 1 inch. Strength, however, was matched by skill; and eventually the fight was interrupted, 17 April. Both men received a silver belt

Schools opened in England to teach boxing. Mendoza opened the Lyceum in the Strand in Boxing was much patronised from about 1820 to Tom Winter (nicknamed Spring), beside other victories, beat Langan (for 1oool.), 8 June, 1824. (The story that the prince regent drove Tom in the streets of London is contradicted.) John Gully, originally a butcher, afterwards a prize-fighter, acquired wealth, and became M P. for Pontefract in 1835, died. 9 March, 1863

31 May 1860

Tom King beat Mace, and obtained the champion's belt, &c. 26 Nov. 1862 He beat Goss, 1 Sept., and Heenan (nearly to death) 10 Dec. 1863

A trial, in consequence of the last fight, ensued: the culprits were discharged, on promising not to offend again 5 April, 1864 Wormald obtained the championship after a contest with Marsden 4 Jan. 1865

Contest for championship between Mace and O'Baldwin, a giant; prevented by the arrest of Mace, 15 Oct. 1867

Railways prohibited carrying persons going to a prize-fight, 30 & 31 Vict. c. 119

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BOXTEL (in Dutch Brabant), where the British and allied army, commanded by the duke of York, was defeated by the French republicans, who took 2000 prisoners and eight pieces of cannon, 17 Sept. 1794.

BOX-TREE, indigenous to this country, and exceedingly valuable to wood-engravers. In 1815 a large box-tree at Box-hill, Surrey, was cut down, and realised a large sum. Macculloch says, that "the trees were cut down in 1815, and produced upwards of 10,000l." About 1820 the cutting of all the trees on the hill produced about 6000l.

BOYDELL'S LOTTERY for his Shakspeare gallery of paintings got up (1786), by ticket was sold at the time the alderman died, 12 alderman Boydell, lord mayor of London. Every Dec. 1804, before the decision of the wheel.

BOY-BISHOP. During the middle ages a choir-boy was frequently elected on St. Nicholas" day, 6 Dec., and held office till the 28th. The custom was suppressed in England in July, 1542; but lingered for some time after.

BOYLE LECTURES, instituted by his will (18 July, 1691), by Robert Boyle (son of the great earl of Cork), a philosopher, distinguished by his genius, virtues, and benevolence, who died 30 Dec. 1691. Eight lectures (in vindication of the Christian religion) are to be delivered. The office of lecturer is tenable for three years.

BOYNE, a river in Ireland, near which William III. defeated his father-in-law, James II., I July, 1690. The latter lost 1500 (out of 30,000) men; the Protestant army lost about a third of that number (out of 30,000). James fled to Dublin, thence to Waterford, and escaped to France. The duke of Schomberg was killed by mistake by his own soldiers as he was crossing the river, and here also was killed the rev. George Walker, who defended Londonderry, in 1689. Near Drogheda is a splendid obelisk, 150 feet in height, erected in 1736 by the Protestants of the empire in commemoration of this victory.

BOYNE, man-of-war of 98 guns, destroyed by fire at Portsmouth, 4 May, 1795, by the explosion of the magazine; numbers perished. Portions were recovered June, 1840.

BRABANT, part of Holland and Belgium, an ancient duchy, part of Charlemagne's empire, fell to his son Charles, 806. It became a separate duchy (called at first Lower Lorraine) in 959. It descended to Philip II. of Burgundy, 1429, and in regular succession to the emperor Charles V. In the 17th century it was held by Holland and

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BRANDENBURG, a city in Prussia, founded by the Slavonians, who gave it the name of Banber, which signified Guard of the Forest, according to some; others explain the name as Burg, or city, of the Brenns. Henry I., surnamed the Fowler,

after defeating the Slavonians, fortified "Brannibor," 926, as a rampart against the Huns, and bestowed the government on Sigefroi, count of Ringelheim, with the title of margrave, or protector of the marches or frontiers. The emperor Sigismund gave perpetual investiture to Frederick IV. of Nuremburg, of the house of Hohenzollern, ancestor of the royal family of Prussia, made elector in 1417. For a list of the margraves since 1134, see Prussia.

BRANDENBURG HOUSE, Hammersmith, see Queen Caroline.

BRANDY (German Branntwein, burnt wine), the spirit distilled from wine. Alcohol appears to have been known to Raymond Lully in the 13th century, and to have been manufactured in France early in the 14th. It was at first used medicinally, and miraculous cures were ascribed to its influence. In 1852, 3,959,452; in 1866, 5.621,930; and in 1870, 7,942,965 gallons were imported into the United

Kingdom. It is now largely manufactured in Britain.

BRANDYWINE, a river in N. America, near which a battle took place between the British, under Howe, and the Americans under Washington, in which the latter (after a day's fight) were defeated with great loss, 11 Sept. 1777. Philadelphia fell into the possession of the victors.

BRASS. That mentioned in the Bible was most probably bronze. When Lucius Mummius burnt Corinth to the ground, 146 B.C., he found immense riches, and during the conflagration, it is said, all the metals in the city melted, and running together, formed the valuable composition described as Corinthian Brass. This is well doubted, for the Corinthian artists had long before obtained great credit for their method of combining gold and silver with copper. Du Fresnoy. Some of the English sepulchral engraved brasses are said to be

as old as 1277.

BRAURONIA, festivals in Attica, at Brauron, where Diana had a temple. The most remarkable that attended these festivals were young virgins in yellow gowns, dedicated to Diana. They were about ten years of age, and not under five; and therefore their consecration was called "dekateuein," from deka, ten; 600 B.C.

BRAY, Berks. Fuller says that its vicar, Symon Symonds, was twice a papist and twice a Protestant in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth (1533-1558). Upon being called a turn-coat, he said he kept to his principle, that of "of living and dying the vicar of Bray.' The modern song refers to the political changes of the 17th and 18th centuries.

BRAZEN BULL, said to have been contrived by Perillus, at Athens, for Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, 570 B.C. It had an opening in the side to admit the victims, and a fire was kindled underneath to roast them to death; their groans resembled the roaring of a bull. Phalaris admired the invention, but ordered the artist to make the first experiment. The Agrigentes revolted against Phalaris, cut his tongue out, and roasted him in the brazen bull, 549 B.C.

discovered by Vincent Pinzon in Feb. 1500. Pedro BRAZIL, an empire in South America, was Alvarez de Cabral, a Portuguese, driven upon its land of the Holy Cross; but it was subsequently coasts by a tempest, April following, called it the

named Brazil, on account of its red wood. The royal family and nobles embarked for Brazil, and French having seized on Portugal in 1807, the landed 7 March, 1808. The dominant religion is Roman Catholic; but others are tolerated. Population, Aug. 1872, 10,093,978 (above 1 million slaves and aborigines); see Portugal.

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Pedro I.

Reform of the constitution

Pedro II. declared of age.
Steam-ship line to Europe commenced
Suppression of the slave-trade; railways com-


7 April, 1831

1834 23 July, 1840


1852 1854

Rio Janeiro lit with gas The British ship "Prince of Wales" wrecked at Albardas, on coast of Brazil, is plundered by some of the natives, and some of the crew killed, about 7 June, 1861 Reparation long refused; reprisals made; five Brazilian merchant ships being seized by the British 31 Dec. 1862 The Brazilian minister at London pays 3,200l. as an indemnity, under protest 26 Feb. 1863 The Brazilian government request the British to express their regret for reprisals; declined; diplomatic intercourse suspended 5-28 May, Dispute between the governments respecting the arrest of some British officers at Rio Janeiro (17 June, 1862) referred to the arbitration of the king of the Belgians, who decides in favour of Brazil, 18 June, New ministry formed; F. J. Furtado, presidentprospect of reconciliation with Great Britain,

30 Aug. 1864

U. S. war-steamer "Wachusett" seizes the confederate steamer " Florida," in the port of Bahia, while under protection of Brazil, 7 Oct.; after remonstrance, Mr. Seward, U. S. foreign minister, apologises. [The “ Florida” (inadvertently) sunk?]

26 Dec. 1864 The comte d'Eu and princess Isabella (on marriage tour) land at Southampton 7 Feb. 1865 War with Uruguay-the Brazilians take Paysandú, and march upon Monte Video 2 Feb. Lopez, president of Paraguay, declares war against the Argentine Republic April, Treaty between Brazil, Uruguay, and the Argentine Republic against Paraguay, governed by Lopez, signed. 1 May, Scientific expedition under Agassiz favoured by the July, Aug.


Amicable relations with England restored.

The emperor joins the army against Lopez Aug.
The allies under Flores defeat the Paraguayans at
Santayuna on the Uruguay
18 Sept.
Uruguayana surrenders to the allies
Indecisive battle between the allies

18 Sept. and the Para

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15-22 July, The Paraguayans victors, 24 Sept. ; severely defeated 3 and 21 Oct. Proposals for peace by Lopez declined. Oct. Severe defeat of Paraguayans before Tuyuty, 3 Nov.

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guayans, at Paso de la Patria about 25 Feb. 1866 Paraguayans defeated on the Parana 16, 17 April, Victory of the allies at Estero Velhaco, 2 May; indecisive battle there 24 May, Bombardment of the allied camp on the Parana

14 June,,,

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Freedom decreed to slaves belonging to the nation who shall become soldiers 6 Nov. 1867 Three monitors pass Curupaiti, on the Paraguay, 17 Feb. 6 ironclads force the passage of Humaitá; they find Asuncion abandoned . 21 Feb. 1868 Fierce resistance of the Paraguayans; Lopez said to have armed 4000 women June,

After several conflicts Lopez is totally defeated at Villeta, and flies .11 Dec. The comte d'Eu appointed general of the allied army 24 March, 1869 The allies surprise and capture Rosorio and garrison 8 May, Lopez defeated in severe conflicts, 12, 16, 18, 21 Aug. Lopez defeated and killed near the Aquidaban,

Treaty of peace with Paraguay, quite subdued

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20 June,

The count and countess d'Eu arrive in England, 13 Sept. New ministry under viscount St. Vincent, 29 Sept. The emperor and empress come to Europe, and visit public and scientific institutions, manufactories in Great Britain and other countries, June-Aug. 1871 Gradual slave emancipation bill passed by the senate; great rejoicings 27, 28 Sept. 1872 The emperor and empress, after visiting the continent, return to Brazil 31 March, Census-population, 10,093,978 Aug. 33


Quartern Loaf (4lb. 5oz.) 1800 1735.

1745 1755. 1765


1785 1795

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41 1805



1812 Aug.

1814 1820




1822. Dom Pedro (of Portugal); abdicated in favour of his infant son, 7 April, 1831; died 24 Sept. 1834. 1831. Dom Pedro II. (born 2 Dec. 1825); assumed the

government, 23 July, 1840; crowned, 18 July,

1841; married, 4 Sept. 1843. princess Theresa of Naples (born 14 March, 1822). Heiress. Isabella, born 29 July, 1846; married (15 Oct. 1864) Louis comte d'Eu, son of the duc de Nemours (born 28 April, 1842).

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BREAD. Ching-Noung, the successor of Fohi, is reputed to have been the first who taught men (the Chinese) the art of husbandry, and the method of making bread from wheat, and wine from rice, 1998 B.C. Univ. Hist. Baking of bread was known in the patriarchal ages: see Exodus xii. 15. It became a profession at Rome, 170 B.C. After the conquest of Macedon, 148 B.C., numbers of Greek bakers came to Rome, obtained special privileges, and soon obtained a monopoly. During the siege of Paris by Henry IV., owing to famine, bread, which had been sold whilst any remained for a crown a pound, was at last made from the bones of the charnel-house of the Holy Innocents, A.D. 1594. Hénault. In the time of James I., barley bread was used by the poor; and now in Iceland, cod-fish, beaten to powder, is made into bread; potato-bread is used in Ireland. The London Bakers' Company was incorporated in 1307. Bread-street was once the London market for bread. Until 1302, the London bakers were not allowed to sell any in their own shops. Stow. Bread was made with yeast by the English bakers in 1634. In 1856 and 1857 Dr. Dauglish patented a mode of making "aerated bread," in which carbonic acid gas is combined with water and mixed with the flour, and which is said to possess the advantages of cleanliness, rapidity, and uniformity. In 1862 a company was formed to encourage Stevens' bread-making machinery. An act for regulating bakehouses was passed in July, 1863. A strike of the journeyman bakers of the metropolis, 23 Sept., was settled by concessions, 9 Oct. 1872.

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Price 174d. Price 5d. 1800. [For 4 weeks, 22d.]


154 214

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