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ceeded by James, earl of Marlborough, who, in turn, gave place to Edward, lord, afterwards viscount, Conway); William Laud, bp. of London; sir Albert Morton, &c.



William Laud, now archbishop of Canterbury :
Francis, lord Cottington; James, marquis of
Hamilton; Edward, earl of Dorset; sir John
Coke; sir Francis Windebank, &c.
William Juxon, bishop of London; sir John Finch,
afterwards lord Finch; Francis, lord Cottington;
Wentworth, earl of Strafford; Algernon, earl of
Northumberland; James, marquis of Hamilton;
Laud, archbishop of Canterbury; sir Francis
Windebank; sir Henry Vane, &c..



[The king beheaded, 30 Jan. 1649.] COMMONWEALTH. - Oliver Cromwell, protector; named a council, the number not to exceed 21 members, or be less than 13 Richard Cromwell, son of Oliver, succeeded on the death of his father. A council of officers ruled at Wallingford house. CHARLES II.-Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon; George Monk, created duke of Albemarle; Edward Montagu, created earl of Sandwich; lord Saye and Sele; earl of Manchester; lord Seymour; sir Robert Long, &c. George Monk, duke of Albemarle, made first commissioner of the treasury, &c.

"Cabal" Ministry; Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham,
Arlington, Lauderdale (see Cabal)

Thomas, lord Clifford; Anthony, earl of Shaftesbury;
Henry, earl of Arlington; Arthur, earl of Angle-
sey; sir Thomas Osborne, created viscount
Latimer; Henry Coventry; sir George Carteret ;
Edward Seymour, &c.


Thomas, viscount Latimer, afterwards earl of Danby, made lord high treasurer.

26 June 1673 Arthur, earl of Essex, (succeeded by Lawrence Hyde, aft. earl of Rochester); Robert, earl of Sunderland, &c..


{The king nominated a new council on 21 April, conwhom the princisisting of 30 members only,

pal were the great officers of state and great officers of the household.]

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Sidney, lord Godolphin; Lawrence, earl of Rochester; Daniel, earl of Nottingham; Robert, earl of Sunderland; sir Thomas Chicheley; George, lord Dartmouth; Henry, earl of Clarendon; earls of Bath and Radnor JAMES II.-Lawrence, earl of Rochester; George, marquis of Halifax; sir George Jeffreys, afterwards lord Jeffreys; Henry, earl of Clarendon ; sir John Ernley; viscount Preston, &c. . The earl of Rochester was displaced, and John,'lord Belasyse, made first commissioner of the treasury in his room, 4 Jan.; the earl of Sunderland made president of the council; viscount Preston, secretary of state, &c.


The king left Whitehall in the night of 11 Dec., and quitting the kingdom, landed at Ambleteuse, in France, Dec. 1688.]






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WILLIAM III. AND MARY.-Charles, viscount Mor-
daunt; Thomas Osborne, earl of Danby, created
marquess of Carmarthen, afterwards duke of
Leeds; George, marquis of Halifax; Arthur,
Herbert, afterwards lord Torrington; earls of
Shrewsbury, Nottingham, and Sunderland; earl
of Dorset and Middlesex; William earl (after-
wards duke) of Devonshire; lord Godolphin; lord
Montagu; lord De la Mere, &c.
Sidney, lord Godolphin: Thomas, earl of Danby;
Richard Hampden; Thomas, earl of Pembroke;
Henry, viscount Sydney; Daniel, earl of Notting-
ham, &c.



Sir John Somers became lord Somers in 1697, and lord chancellor; Charles Montagu, afterwards lord Halifax, was made first commissioner of the treasury, 1 May, 1698, succeeded by Ford, earl of Tankerville

ANNE.-Sidney, lord (afterwards earl of Godolphin ;)

Thomas, earl of Pembroke, &c.


May, 1702 Robert Harley, earl of Oxford; sir Simon Harcourt, .1 June, 1711 Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, made lord treasurer three days before the queen's death, &c. 30 July, 1714 GEORGE I-Charles, earl of Halifax (succeeded on his death by the earl of Carlisle), &c.


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Charles, earl of Sunderland, &c. Robert Walpole, afterwards sir Robert Walpole, and earl of Orford, &c.

GEORGE II.-Robert Walpole continued

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· 1715

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1717 1718

[Sir Robert remained prime minister twenty-one
years; numerous changes occurring in the time;
see Walpole.]

Earl of Wilmington; lord Hardwicke, &c.
Henry Pelham, in the room of earl of Wilmington,

Aug. 1743

Nov. 1744

"Broad-bottom" administration-Henry Pelham;
lord Hardwicke, &c.
"Short-lived" administration-earl of Bath; lords
Winchilsea and Granville
10-12 Feb. 1746
Henry Pelham, &c., again.
12 Feb. 1746
Thos. H. Pelham, duke of Newcastle; earl of Hol-
derness, &c.
April, 1754
. Nov. 1756

Duke of Devonshire; William Pitt, &c.

Duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Pitt, afterwards earl of
Chatham, &c.
June, 1757 W
GEORGE III.-Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Pitt's minis
try, continued


Earl of Bute; lord Henley, &c.
May, 1762
George Grenville; earls of Halifax and Sandwich,
April, 1763
Marquis of Rockingham; earl of Winchilsea, &c.


July, 1765
Aug. 1766
. Dec. 1767 W
Jan. 1770

1721 1727


Earl of Chatham; duke of Grafton, &c.
Duke of Grafton; lord North, &c..
Frederick, lord North; earl Gower, &c.

[Lord North was minister during the whole of the American war.]

Marquis of Rockingham; lord Camden, C. J. Fox;
Edmund Burke, &c.
March, 1782
Earl of Shelburne (afterwards marquis of Lans-
downe); William Pitt, &c.
"Coalition Ministry," duke of Portland; lord North;
C. J. Fox; Edmund Burke, &e.
April, 1783
William Pitt; Henry Dundas, &e.


[During Mr. Pitt's long administration, numerous changes in the ministry took place.] Henry Addington; duke of Portland; lord Eldon, &c. March, et seq. 1801 William Pitt; lord Eldon; George Canning, &c. May, et seq. 1804

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[Mr. Pitt died 23 Jan. 1806.] "All the Talents"-lord Grenville; lord Henry Petty; lord Erskine; C. J. Fox; sir Charles Grey (afterwards earl Grey).

Feb. 1806

[Mr. Fox's death, 13 Feb. 1806, led to numerous changes.] Duke of Portland; lord Eldon, &c.* March, 1807 Spencer Perceval; earl of Liverpool; viscount Palmerston, &c. Nov. and Dec. 1809 REGENCY. Mr. Spencer Perceval (shot by Bellingham, 11 May, 1812), &c. 5 Feb. 1811 Earl of Liverpool; lord Eldon; Mr. Vansittart; lord Melville; viscounts Castlereagh, Palmerston, &c.

GEORGE IV. Earl of Liverpool, &c.

May, June, 1812 29 Jan. 1820 [During lord Liverpool's long administration numerous changes occurred.] George Canning; lord Lyndhurst; viscount Goderich; William Huskisson; viscount Palmerston ; duke of Clarence, &c. April, 1827

[Mr. Canning died 8 August, 1827.] Viscount Goderich; viscount Palmerston; marquess of Lansdowne; W. Huskisson, &c. .Aug. Duke of Wellington; Robert Peel; Mr. Huskisson; &c.

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him in the lords, on the Reform Bill, 10 May; but resumes his post

18 May, 1832 July, 1834

Viscount Melbourne ; &c.


[Melbourne administration dissolved, Nov. 1834. The duke of Wellington held the seals of office till the return of sir Robert Peel from Italy, Dec. 1834.]


Sir Robert Peel; lord Lyndhurst; duke of Welling-
ton; earl of Aberdeen; &c.
Nov. and Dec.
Viscount Melbourne, &c.
VICTORIA.-Viscount Melbourne, &c.

April, 1835 20 June, 1837 [Subsequent accessions, F. T. Baring; earl of Clarendon; T. B. Macaulay, &c. Viscount Melbourne, resigned, and sir Robert Peel received the queen's commands to form a new administration, 8 May. This command is withdrawn, and lord Melbourne returned to power 10 May, 1839 Sir Robert Peel; duke of Wellington; lord Lyndhurst; sir James Graham; earl of Aberdeen; lord Stanley, &c.

Aug. and Sept. 1841 [Accessions, Sidney Herbert; W. E. Gladstone,


Lord John Russell; viscount Palmerston; earl Grey, &c.

[Accessions: earl Granville; Mr. Fox Maule: earl of Carlisle ; sir Thomas Wilde, created lord Truro, &c.]

July, 1846

Lord John Russell and the marquis of Lansdowne on the 24 Feb. announced the resignation of ministers, owing to their defeat on Mr. Locke King's motion respecting the franchise; they informed parliament, that it having been found impossible to construct a coalition ministry, the queen, by the advice of the duke of Wellington, had called upon her late ministers to resume office. Lord Stanley (since earl of Derby), in the interval,

had been unable to form a cabinet, 3 March, 1851


Earl of Derby: (late lord Stanley); lord St. Leonards; Benjamin Disraeli; Spencer H. Walpole; earl of Malmesbury; sir John Pakington; duke of Northumberland, &c.

27 Feb. 1852 Earl of Aberdeen; lord John Russell; viscount Palmerston, &c. 28 Dec.

Various changes of offices took place; a fourth secretary of state was appointed, by the separation of the war from the colonial department; see Secretaries of State. The retirement of lord J. Russell, 24 Jan. 1855, and a majority in the commons against ministers of 157 (305 to 148), on Mr. Roebuck's motion respecting the conduct of the war, led to the resignation of lord Aberdeen and his colleagues, 30 Jan. ; the cabinet was reconstructed by

Viscount Palmerston; lord Cranworth; &c. 7 Feb. 1855 [Secession of sir J. Graham, Mr. Gladstone, and Mr. S. Herbert. Accession of lord John Russell; earl of Clarendon; sir G. Grey; sir G. C. Lewis; sir W. Molesworth, &c. 24 Feb. [On the second reading of the Foreign Conspiracy bill, the government (defeated by a vote of censure being passed by a majority of 19, on the motion of Mr. Milner Gibson) resigned inmediately. 19 Feb. 1858 Earl of Derby: B. Disraeli; Spencer Walpole; lord Stanley; sir F. Thesiger (lord Chelmsford), &c. 26 Feb.

[The Derby administration, in consequence of a vote of want of confidence in it being carried by a majority of 13, 10 June, 1859, resigned the next day. Earl Granville failed to form an administration.] Viscount Palmerston; lord John (since earl) Russell, &c. 18 June, 1859


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Lord Palmerston died 18 Oct. 1865.] Earl Russell, W. E. Gladstone; earl of Clarendon ; &c. Oct. 1865 [Resigned (in consequence of a minority on the Reform Bill, 19 June) .26 June, 1866 Earl of Derby, B. Disraeli, lord Stanley, &c.; for changes see Derby Administrations. 6 July, 1866 [Earl of Derby resigned through ill health] Feb. 25 1868 B. Disraeli reconstituted the administration 29 Feb. 33 [Mr. Disraeli resigned in consequence of the elections in November giving a majority of about 114 to the Liberals. 2 Dec. W. E. Gladstone; earl of Clarendon, Robert Lowe; John Bright, and others, received seals 9 Dec.

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ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM ASSOCIATION derived its origin from an opinion that the disasters which occurred to the army in the Crimea in 1854-5 were attributable to the inefficient and irresponsible management of the various departments of the state. The association organised in London, 5 May, 1855. A meeting was held in Drury-lane theatre, on 13 June, and Mr. Layard's motion on the subject in parliament was negatived 18 June following. The association was reorganised in 1856, Mr. Roebuck, M.P., becoming chairman, but soon became unimportant; see Civil Service.


ADMIRAL. The title does not appear to have been adopted in England until about 1300, but was previously in use in France. Sir Harris Nicolas. Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, were commanders of their own fleets. The first French admiral is said to have been appointed 1284. The rank of admiral of the English seas was first given to William de Leybourne by Edward I. in 1297. Spelman; Rymer. The first LORD HIGH ADMIRAL in England was created by Richard II. in 1385 there had been previously high admirals of districts-the north, west, and south. The duties have generally been executed by lords commissioners; see Admiralty. A similar dignity existed in Scotland from the reign of Robert III.: In 1673, the king bestowed it upon his natural son Charles Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond, then an infant, who resigned the office to the crown in 1703 after the union it was discontinued.-The dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland (of brief existence) was conferred upon James Butler by Henry VIII., in May, 1534. The Admiral of the Fleet is the highest rank in the Royal Navy, corresponding to that of marshal in the army. We have now 3 admirals of the fleet, 14 admirals, 15 vice-admirals, and 25 rear admirals, 226 captains, (Jan. 1873). The first admiral of the United States of America, David G. Farragut, was nominated in 1866.

ADMIRALTY, COURT OF, a court for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs, said to have been erected by Edward III., in 1357. It was enacted in the reign of Henry VIII., that criminal causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the judges at Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey) assisting. The judgeship of the admiralty was constituted in 1514, and was filled by two or more functionaries until the Revolution, when it was restricted to one. Beatson. The judge has usually been an eminent doctor of the civil law. In 1844 the criminal jurisdiction of this court was removed, and by 20 & 21 Vict. c. 77 (1857), the judge of the Probate court was to be also judge of the Admiralty court. The judge of the Admiralty Dr. Stephen Lushington (appointed in 1838), resigned 1 July, 1867, and was succeeded by Sir Robert Phillimore. The jurisdiction of this court was extended in 1861.


ADMIRALTY OFFICE dates from 1512, when Henry VIII. appointed commissioners to inspect his ships of war. During the Commonwealth the admiralty affairs were managed by a committee of the parliament; and at the restoration in 1660, James, duke of York became lord high admiral. In 1662 the admiralty was first put into commission, the great officers of state being the commissioners; see succeeding changes below. In 1688-9 the admiralty was put into commission, and the board appears to have assembled at admiral Herbert's lodgings, in Channel-row, Westminster, he being at that time first lord. In 1830, 1832, and 1836 various changes were made in the civil depart

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1692. Charles, lord Cornwallis, 10 March.

1693. Anthony, viscount Falkland, 15 April. 1694. Edward Russel, esq., (aft. earl of Orford), 2 May. 1699. John, earl of Bridgewater, 2 June.

1701. Thomas, earl of Pembroke, 4 April. 1702. GEORGE PRINCE OF DENMARK, lord high admiral, 20 May.

1708. Thomas earl of Pembroke, ditto, 29 Nov. Office in commission.

1709. Edward, earl of Orford, 8 Oct. 1710. Sir John Leake, 4 Oct.

1712. Thomas, earl of Strafford, 30 Sept.
1714. Edward, earl of Orford, 14 Oct.
1717. James, earl of Berkeley, 19 March.
1727. George, viscount Torrington, 2 Aug.
1733. Sir Charles Wager, knt., 25 June.
1742. Daniel earl of Winchilsea, 19 March.
1744 John, duke of Bedford, 27 Dec.
1748. John, earl of Sandwich, 10 Feb.
1751. George, lord Anson, 22 June.
1756. Richard, earl Temple, 19 Nov.

1757. Daniel, earl of Winchilsea, 6 April.

George, lord Anson, 2 July.


1762. George M. Dunk, earl of Halifax, 19 June. 1763. George Grenville, esq., 1 Jan.

John, earl of Sandwich, 23 April. John, earl of Egmont, 10 Sept. 1766. Sir Charles Saunders, ro Sept. Sir Edward Hawke, 10 Dec. 1771. John, earl of Sandwich, 12 Jan. 1782. Hon. Augustus Keppel, 1 April.


Augustus, viscount Keppel, 18 July. 1783. Richard, viscount Howe, 28 Jan. 1788. John, earl of Chatham, 16 July. 1794. George John, earl Spencer, 20 Dec. 1801. John, earl St. Vincent, 19 Feb. 1804. Henry, viscount Melville, 15 May. 1805. Charles, lord Barham, 2 May. 1806. Hon. Charles Grey, 10 Feb. Thomas Grenville, esq., 23 Oct. 1807. Henry, lord Mulgrave, 6 April. 1809. Charles Yorke, esq., 10 May. 1812. Robert, viscount Melville, 25 March. 1827. WILLIAM HENRY, DUKE OF CLARENCE, lord high admiral, 2 May, resigned 12 Aug. 1828. 1828. Robert, viscount Melville, 19 Sept. 1830. Sir James R. G. Graham, bart., 25 Nov.


1834. George, lord Auckland, 11 June.


Thomas Philip, earl de Grey, 23 Dec. 1835. George, lord Auckland, 25 April. Gilbert, earl of Minto, 19 Sept.


1841. Thomas, earl of Haddington, 8 Sept. 1846. Edward, earl of Ellenborough, 13 Jan. George, earl of Auckland, 24 July. 1849. Sir Francis Thornhill Baring, 18 Jan. 1852. Algernon, duke of Northumberland, 28 Feb. 1853. Sir James Robert George Graham, 5 Jan. 1855. Sir Charles Wood, bart., 24 Feb. 1858. Sir John Pakington, bart., 26 Feb. 1859. Edward, duke of Somerset, June. 1866. Sir John Pakington, bart., 6 July. 1867. Henry Lowry Corry, 8 March. 1868. Hugh Culling Eardley Childers, 9 Dec. 1871. George Joachim Goschen, 9


ADMIRALTY, Whitehall. "At the south end of Duke-street, Westminster, was seated a large

house made use of for the admiralty office, until the business was removed to Greenwich, and thence to Wallingford house, against Whitehall." It was rebuilt by Ripley about 1726; the screen was erected, to conceal the ugliness of the building, by the brothers Adam, in 1776.-Lord Nelson lay in state in one of the apartments on 8 Jan. 1806; and on the next day was buried at St. Paul's.

"ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT," condemning all religious ceremonies but those commanded by the New Testament, was published by certain Puritans in 1571. Its presumed authors, Field and Wilcox, were imprisoned. A second Admonition by Thomas Cartwright was answered by archbishop Whitgift.

ADORNO AND FREGOSO, two families, of which the doges were frequently members, disturbed Genoa from the 14th to the 16th centuries, the former favouring the emperor, the latter the French king. Their power was annihilated by Andrea Doria about 1528.

ADRIAN'S WALL (to prevent the irruptions of the Scots and Picts into the northern counties of England, then under the Roman government) extended from the Tyne to Solway firth, and was eighty miles long, twelve feet high, and eight in thickness, with watch-towers; built 121. It was repaired and strengthened by Severus, 207–210.

ADRIANOPLE, in Turkey, so named after its restorer the emperor Adrian (who died 10 July, 138). Near here Constantine defeated Licinius and gained the empire, 3 July, 323; also, near here the emperor Valens was defeated and slain by the Goths, 9 Aug. 378. Adrianople was taken by the Turks under Amurath in 1361, and was their capital till the capture of Constantinople in 1453. It was taken by the Russians on 20 Aug. 1829; and restored 14 Sept. same year; see Turkey.

ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic sea (instituted about 1173), took place annually on Ascension-day. The doge dropped a ring into the sea from his bucentaur, or state barge, being attended by his nobility and foreign ambassadors. The ceremony was first omitted in 1797.

ADULLAM, a cave to which David fled from the persecution of Saul about 1062 B.C. (1 Sam. xxii. 1, 2). Mr. Horsman, Mr. R. Lowe, earl Grosvenor, lord Elcho, and other liberals who opposed the Franchise bill in 1866 were termed "Adullamites." During a debate on this bill on 13 March, 1866, Mr. Bright said of Mr. Horsman, that he had retired into what may be called his political cave of Adullam, to which he invited every one who was in debt, and every one who was discontented," &c. On 19 April, lord Elcho said, "No improper motive has driven us into this cave, where we are a most happy family, daily-I may say, hourly-increasing in number and strength, where we shall remain until we go forth to deliver Israel from oppression." Although their opposition led to the defeat and resignation of the Russell ministry, they declined to take office under lord Derby in July, 1866. They did not vote together uniformly in 1867, and (lord Elcho and Mr. Wyld excepted) voted with Mr. Gladstone, for the disestablishment of the Irish church, 1 May, 1868.

ADULTERATION. That of food was prohibited in England in 1267, and punishments for it enacted, 1581, 1604, 1836, 1851, &c. Much attention was drawn to it in 1822, through Mr. Ac

cum's book, called "Death in the Pot," and in 1855 through Dr. Hassall's book, "Food and its Adulterations." By an act for preventing the adulteration of food, passed in 1860, parochial chemical analysts may be appointed. An act to prevent the adulteration of seeds was passed 16 Aug. 1869; and another to prevent the adulteration of food and drugs was passed 10 Aug. 1872. Penalties for adulterating liquors were imposed by the new licensing act passed

same time.

ADVENT (adveniens, coming). The season includes four Sundays, previous to Christmas, the first the nearest Sunday to St. Andrew's day (Nov. 30), before or after. Homilies respecting Advent are mentioned prior to 378. Advent Sunday, 1872, I Dec.; 1873, 30 Nov.; 1874, 29 Nov.; 1875, 28 Nov.; 1876, 3 Dec.; 1877, 2 Dec.

quelled by C. Silius.

ADULTERY was punished with death by the law of Moses (1490 B.C; Lev. xx. 10)-and by Lycurgus (884 B.C.). The early Saxons burnt the ÆDUI OR HEDUI, a Celtic people, N.E. adulteress, and erected a gibbet over her ashes, France, who were delivered from subjection to the whereon they hanged the adulterer. The ears and Sequani, by Julius Cæsar, B.C. 58; but afterwards, nose were cut off under Canute, 1031. Adultery opposing him, were subjugated by him, 52. Their was ordained to be punished capitally by the parlia-insurrection headed by Julius Sacrovir, A.D. 21, was ment, May 14, 1650: but there is no record of this law taking effect; and it was repealed at the restoration. In New England the punishment for adultery was made capital to both parties, and several suffered for it, 1662. Hardie. Till 1857 the legal redress against the male offender was by civil action for a money compensation; the female being liable to divorce. By 20 & 21 Vict. c. 85 (1857) the "action for criminal conversation" was abolished, and the Court for Divorce and Matrimonial Causes established with power to grant divorces for adultery and ill usage; see Divorce. An act was passed in 1869 permitting parties to suits for adultery to give evidence.

ADVENTURE BAY, S.E. end of Van Diemen's Land, discovered in 1773 by capt. Furneaux in his first voyage to the Pacific, and named from his ship Adventure. It was visited by capt. Cook 1777; by capt. Bligh in 1788 and 1792.

ADVENTURERS, see MERCHANTS. ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEWSPAPERS, as now published, were not general in England till the beginning of the eighteenth century. A penalty of 50l. was inflicted on persons advertising a reward with "No questions to be asked" for the return of things stolen, and on the printer, 1754. The advertisement duty, (first enacted, 1712,) formerly charged according to the number of lines, was afterwards fixed, in England, at 38. 6d., and in Ireland at 28. 6d. each advertisement. The duty (further reduced, in England to Is. 6d. and in Ireland to 18. each, in 1833), was abolished in 1853. On 16th Oct. 1860, the whole libretto of MacFarren's Opera, Robin Hood, was inserted as an advertisement in the Times (4 columns). ADVERTISING VANS, a great nuisance, were prohibited in 1853.

established by sir G. Mackenzie about 1682; see Judge Advocate.

ADVOCATE, THE KING'S, (always a doctor of the civil law,) was empowered to prosecute at his own instance certain crimes about 1597. The LORD ADVOCATE in Scotland is the same as the attorneygeneral in England with judicial powers.-It was decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, that the king's advocate of France might at the same time be a judge; and in Scotland sir William Oliphant (1612) and sir John Nesbit (1666) were lord advocates and lords of session at the same time. Beatson. The Advocates' library in Edinburgh was

said to owe their name to having had charge of the
EDILES. Roman city officers of three degrees,
1. Two plebeian ædiles
ædes or temple of Ceres.
were appointed with the tribunes, to assist them in
looking after buildings, weights, and measures, the
The ædiles curules, at first patricians, were ap-
supply of provisions and water, &c., 494 B.C.
pointed 365 B.C. 3. Julius Cæsar appointed ædiles
cereales for watching over the supply of corn.
ædiles became a kind of police under the emperors.



EGATES ISLES, W. of Sicily: near these, during the first Punic war, the Roman consul, C. Lutatius Catulus gained a decisive victory over the Carthaginian fleet under Hanno, 10 March, 241 B.C. Peace ensued, the Romans obtaining Sicily and a tribute of 3200 talents.

ÆGINA, a Greek island, a rival of Athens, was humbled by Themistocles, 485 B.C.; and taken and its works destroyed 455. Its inhabitants, expelled, 431, were restored by the Spartans, 404; they renewed war with Athens, 388, and made peace, 387.

A. E. I. O. U., (for "Austria est imperare orbi universi," "Austria is to rule all the world.") was the motto of the weak and unfortunate emperor, Frederick III. 1440-1493.

Chersonesus, where Lysander, the Lacedæmonian,
EGOSPOTAMI, (the Goat-river.) in the
defeated the Athenian fleet, 405 B.C, and ended the
Peloponnesian war.

ELFRIC SOCIETY; founded 1842; closed 1856; published "Homilies of Elfric, archbishop of Canterbury" and other Anglo-Saxon works.

ELIA CAPITOLINA, built on the ruins of Jerusalem by the emperor Adrian, 130.

EMILIA, the name given to the provinces of Parma, Modena, and the Romagna, united to Sardinia in 1860, and now part of the kingdom of Italy.

the adventures of Eneas, written about 24 B.C. by ENEID, the great Latin epic poem, relating finally corrected the poem. It was first printed in Virgil, who died 22 Sept. 19 B.C., before he had 1469, at Rome.

ENIGMA Samson's riddle (about 1141 B.C.; Judges xiv. 12) is the earliest on record. Gale attributes ænigmatical speeches to the Egyptians. The ancient oracles frequently gave responses admitting of perfectly contrary interpretations. In Nero's time, the Romans had recourse to this method of concealing truth. The following epitaph on Fair Rosamond (mistress of our Henry II. about 1173) is a medieval specimen :-"Hic jacet in tomba Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda; Non redolet, sed olet, quæ redolere solet."

EOLIA, in Asia Minor, was colonised by a principal branch of the Hellenic race about 1124 B.C. The Eolians built several large cities both on the mainland and the neighbouring islands; Mitylene, in Lesbos, was considered the capital.

ÆOLIAN HARP. Its invention is ascribed to Kircher, 1650, but it was known before.

ÆOLOPILE, a hollow ball with an orifice in which a tube might be screwed, was used in the 17th century as a boiler for experimental steamengines; a similar apparatus is described by truvius, first century, A.D.

EQUI, an ancient Italian race, were subdued by the Romans, and their lands annexed, after a severe struggle, 471-302 B.C.

ERAS, see Eras.

Defeat of the allies near Thermopylæ Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius Leading patriots massacred by the Roman party Vi-tolia made a province of Rome

AERATED WATERS. Apparatus for combining gases with water were patented by Thomson in 1807; F. C. Bakewell in 1832 and 1847; Tylor in 1840, and by others. AERATED BREAD is made by processes patented by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7.

AERIANS, followers of Aerius, a presbyter, in the 4th century, who held that there was no distinction between a bishop and a presbyter; that there was no Pasch to be observed by Christians; that the Lent and other fasts should not be observed; and that prayers should not be offered for the dead. Epiphanius.

AEROLITES, see Meteors.

AERONAUTICS AND AEROSTATICS, see Balloons and Flying. The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain was established by the duke of Argyll and others, 12 Jan. 1866.

AERO-STEAM ENGINE. The invention of George Warsop, a mechanic of Nottingham, who, by employing compressed air united with steam, is said to have effected the saving of 47 per cent. of fuel. The plan was reported to the British Association, at Exeter, in Aug. 1869, and was said to act successfully in a tug steamer (for China) in the Thames, 26 March, 1870.

ESOP'S FABLES, said to have been written about 619, 571, or 565 B.C., no doubt by various persons. Phædrus's Latin paraphrases in Iambics (about A.D. 8) are very elegant.

ÆSTHETICS (from the Greek aisthesis, perception), the science of the beautiful (especially in art); a term invented by Baumgarten, a German philosopher, whose work" Esthetica was published in 1750.


ETHIOPIA, see Ethiopia.

"ETHIOPICA," see Romances.

AETIANS, followers of Aëtius, an Arian heretic about 351.

ETNA, see Etna.

ETOLIA, in Greece, a country named after Etolus of Elis, who is said to have accidentally killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and settled here. After the ruin of Athens and Sparta, the Etolians became the rivals of the Achæans, and were alternately allies and enemies of Rome.

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AFFINITY. Marriage within certain degrees of kindred was prohibited in almost every age and country, but has yet taken place to a considerable extent. The Jewish law is given in Leviticus xviii. (1490 B.C.). In the English prayer-book the table restricting marriage within certain degrees was set forth by authority, 1563. Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the 99th canon, in 1603. All marriages within the forbidden degrees are declared to be absolutely void by 5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54, 1835; see Marriage (of Wife's Sister).

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[For the Afghan war with England, see India, 1838-42.]




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Dost Mahommed takes Herat, 26 May; dies after designating his eldest son, Shere-Ali, his successor, a war of succession ensues. 29 May, 1863 The English remain neutral June, &c. Treachery and anarchy prevailing, June, 1865April, 1866 Two rival ameers reigning-Shere-Ali at Candahar; Afzul Khan, at Cabool Sept. Afzul Khan recognised by the British government, Feb. 1867 Army of Shere-Ali defeated and his general slain, about 21 Sept. 20 Oct.

Afzul Khan dies about

The sirdar Mahomed Yakoob Khan defeated troops of the reigning Ameer, took Candahar, and proclaimed Shere-Ali sovereign of Afghanistan, April, 1868 Shere-Ali defeats his nephew, Abdul-rahman, 12 or 13 Nov. Interview with the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, at Umballah 27 March, 1869 Insurrection of the ameer's son, Yakoob, about 24 Aug.; it fails, and he retreats, Nov.; reported as still resisting Dec. 1870 Yakoob captures Herat, when Feramorz Khan, the ameer's general, is assassinated, June; by the interposition of lord Mayo is reconciled to his father, meeting him. . 22 July.

Yakoob made governor of Herat 16 Sept. Aslum Khan, the murderer of Feramorz Khan, assassinated in prison; announced 17 Oct. AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and the greatest peninsula of the universe; said to have been first

1818 1829

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