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who had prayed for the success of the Romans, and 1823. On exposing the liquid to the air it becomes another who succoured some prisoners. During the solid, resembling snow, through vaporisation. middle ages Capua was successively subjugated by the Greeks, Saracens, Normans, and Germans. It

CARDIFF CASTLE (S. Wales). Here was restored to Naples in 1424, and captured by Robert, duke of Normandy, eldest son of William I., Casar Borgia 24 July, 1501; was taken by Garibaldi is said to have been imprisoned from 1106 till his

death 10 Feb. 1135. 2 Nov. 1860. CAPUCHIN FRIARS, Franciscans,

CARDIGAN BAY, see Fishguard. named from wearing a Capuchon, or cowl hanging CARDINALS, princes in the church of Rome, down upon their backs. The order was founded by the council of the pope, and the conclave or « sacred Matthew Baschi, about 1525; and established by college," at first were the principal priests or in.. the pope Clement VII. 1529. The capuchin con- cumbents of the parishes in Rome, and said to have fessors of the queen Henrietta introduced here 1630, been called cardinales in 853. They began to aswere imprisoned by the parliament 1642.

sume the exclusive power of electing the popes CAR. The invention is ascribed to Erichthonius them that they ought to shed their blood for re

about 1179. They first wore the red hat to remind of Athens, about 1486 B.C. arcuati) were used by the Romans. The lectica (a ligion, if required, and were declared princes of the soft cushioned car), next invented, gave place to the

church by Innocent IV., 1243 or 1245. Paul II. carpentum, a two-wheeled car, with an arched gave the scarlet habit, 1464; and Urban VIII. tbe covering, hung with costly cloth. Still later were

title of Eminence in 1623 or 1630. In 1586 Sixtus V. the carruce, in which the officers of state rode. fixed their number at 70; but there are generally Triumphal cars, introduced by Tarquin the Elder, 1864, 59; in Nov. 1867, 52 ;-in 1873, 5 of the order

vacancies. In 1860 there were 69 cardinals ; in were formed like a throne.

of bishops; 34 priests; 6 deacons; 45 in all. Nine CARACAS (S. America), part of Venezuela, cardinals (one a Bonaparte) were made, 13 March, discovered by Columbus 1498. It was reduced by 1868.* arms, and assigned as property to the Welsers, German merchants, by Charles' V.; but for their

CARDROSS CASE, see Trials, 1861. tyranny, they were dispossessed in 1550, and a CARDS (referred to the Chinese, Hindoos, and crown governor appointed. The province declared Romans), are said to have been invented in France its independence, 9 May, 1810. In the city Leon in 1391, to amuse Charles IV. when depressed. de Caracas, on 26 dlarch, 1812, nearly 12,000 per- Piquet and all the early names are French.-Cards sons perished by an earthquake; see l'enezuela. first taxed in England 1710. 428,000 packs were CARBERRY HILL (S. Scotland). Here the duty being then 28. 6d. per pack, less than

stamped in 1775, and 986,000 in 1800. In 1825, lord Hume and the confederate barons dispersed the royal army under Bothwell, and took Mary queen duty was reduced to 1s., and 310,854 packs paid

150,000 packs were stamped; but in 1827 the stamp of Scots prisoner, 15 June 1567. Bothwell iled.

duty in 1830. Duty was paid on 239,200 packs in CARBOLIC ACID (or phenic acid), obtained the year ending 5 Jan. 1840; and on near 300,000, by the distillation of pit-coal, is a powerful anti- year ending 5 Jan. 1850. By an act passed in 1862 septic. It is largely manufactured for medical pur- the duty on cards was reduced to 3d. per pack, and poses, and has been advantageously used at Carlisle the sellers were required to take out a licence. and Exeter in the deodorisation of sewage (1860-1); and as a disinfectant during the prevalence of cholera

CARIA (Asia Minor), was conquered by Cyrus, in London in 1866). It was successfully used for 546 B.C.; by Dercyllidas, a Lacedæmonian, 397;

his successor Hecatommus became king, 385 B.C.; embalming by professor Seely in 1868.

for his son Mausolus the Mausoleum was erected CARBON was shown to be a distinct element (which see). Caria was annexed by the Romans, by Lavoisier in 1788. He proved the diamond to

129 B.C. It is now part of the Turkish empire. be its purest form, and converted it into carbonic acid gas by combustion.

CARIBBEE ISLANDS, see West Indies.

an Italian CARBONARI (charcoal-burners), a powerful painter, about 1330, drew caricatures and put labels secret society in Italy, which derived its origin, to the mouths of his figures with sentences. The according to some, from the Waldenses, and which modern caricatures of Gilray, Rowlandson, H. B. became prominent early in the present century. It aimed at the expulsion of foreigners from Italy, and (John Doyle ID = FB), Richard Doyle, John the establishment of civil and religious liberty: In Leech, and John Tenniel are justly celebrated. ciety, and an insurrection soon after broke out in The well-known “Punch" was first published in Naples, general Pépé taking the command. The 1841. The most eminent writers of fiction of the king Ferdinand made political concessions, but the A'Becket, Professor E. Forbes, &c.) contributed to

day and others (Douglas Jerrold, Thackeray, influence of the allied sovereigns at Laybach led this amusing periodical. See Punch. Ferdinand 10 annul them and suppress the liberal party, Jan. 1821, when the Carbonari were denounced CARIGNAN, a small town about twelve miles as traitors. The society spread in France, and doubt- from Sedan, department of Ardennes, N.E. France. less hastened the revolutions in 1830 and 1848. At the plain ot' Douzy near this place and the enCARBOXIC ACID GAS, a gaseous com

campment of Vaux, part of MacMahon's army, pound of carbon and oxygen, found in the air, and a

retreating before the Germans, turned round and product of combustion, respiration, and fermentation. made a stand, 31 Aug. 1870. After a long severe The Grotto del Cane yields 200,000 lbs. per annum.

engagement, in which the same positions were No animal can breathe this gas. The briskness of * English Cardinals: Henry Stuart, created 1747 : champagne, beer, &c., is due to its presence. It Charles Erskine, 1801 ; Thomas Weld, 1830 ; Charles Was liquefied by atmospheric pressure by Faraday in Acton, 1839; Nicholas Wiseman, 30 Sept. 1850—65.

press, &c.

taken and retaken several times, the Germans Rory Oge O'Moore, in 1577; again to the parliaturned the fank of their enemies, who were com mentary forces, in 1650. Here the royal troops pelled to fall back upon Sedan, where they were routed the insurgents 24 May, 1798. finally overcome, i Sept.

CARLOWITZ, Austria. Here was concluded CARINTHIA, a Bavarian duchy, annexed to a treaty of peace between Turkey and the allies, the territories of the duke of Austria, 1336. Germany, Russia, Poland, and Venice, 26 Jan. 1699, CARISBROOKE CASTLE (Isle of Wight), prince Eugene at Zenta, 11 Sept. 1697, by which

in consequeuce of the great defeat of the Turks by said to have been a British and Roman fortress, was

Hungary was finally secured to Austria. taken 530 by Cerdic, founder of the kingdom of the West Saxons. Its Norman character has been as CARLSBAD (or Charles's Bath), in Bohemia, cribed to William Fitz-Osborne, earl of Hereford in the celebrated springs, said to have been discovered William I.'s time. Here Charles I. was imprisoned by the emperor Charles IV. in 1370.—On 1 Aug. Nov. 1647 to Nov. 1648; and here his daughter 1819, a congress was held here, when the great Elizabeth, aged fifteen, died, too probably of a powers decreed measures to repress the liberal broken heart, 8 Sept. 1650.

CARIZMIANS (fierce shepherds living near CARLSRUHE, capital of Baden, built by the Caspian), having been expelled by the Tartars, margrave Charles William, 1715. A revolution invaded Syria in 1243. The union of the sultans here was suppressed by Prussian aid, June 1849, of Aleppo, Hems, and Damascus was insufficient to and the grand-duke returned 18 Aug. stem the torrent, and the Christian military orders were nearly exterminated in a single battle in 1244.

CARLTON CLUB, Pall Mall (Conservative), In Oct. they took Jerusalem. They were totally established by the duke of Wellington and others, defeated in two battles in 1247.

1831-2; present house opened 1855. CARLAVEROCK CASTLE (S. Scotland),

CARMAGNOLE, a Piedmontese song and taken by Edward I., July, 1300, the subject of a

dance, popular in France during the reign of terror, contemporary poem published, with illustrations, 1793-4. The chorus was “Dansons la Carmagnole by sir Harris Nicolas in 1828.

vive le son du canon! CARLISLE (Cumberland), a frontier town of

CARMATHIANS, a Mahometan sect. CarEngland, wherein for many ages a strong garrison math, a Shiite, about 890, assumed the title of the was kept. Just below this town the famous Picts guide, the director," &c., including that of the wall began, which crossed the whole island to New- representative of Mahomet, St. John the Baptist, castle-upon-Tyne, and here also ended the great and the angel Gabriel. His followers subdued Roman highway. Of the great church, called St.

Bahrein in goo, and devastated the east. DissenMary's, a large part was built by David, king of sions arose amongst themselves, and their power Scotland, who held Cumberland, Westmoreland,

soon passed away. and Northumberland, from the crown of England. The castle, destroyed by the Danes, 875, restored in Mount Carmel, one of the four orders of mendi

CARMELITES, or WHITE FRIARS, of 1092 by William II., was the prison of Mary queen of Scots in 1568.—Taken by the parliamentary forces

cants with austere rules, founded by Berthold about in 1645, and by the young Pretender, 15 Nov. 1745: Their rules were modified about 1540. They claimed

1156, and settled in France in 1252. Henault. retaken by the duke of Cumberland, 30 Dec. same year.—The see was erected by Henry I. in 1132,

succession from Elijah. They had numerous monand made suffragan to York.' The cathedral had without the Temple, west of Blackfriars, is called

asteries in England, and a precinct in London been founded a short time previously, by Walter, Whitefriars to this day, after a community of their deputy for William Rufus." It was almost ruined by Cromwell, 1648, and partially repaired after the order, founded there in 1245. A Carmelite church Restoration.

at Kensington was founded by archbishop Manning, was reopened in 1856 after renovation, costing 15,000l. The see has been held by

July, 1865. one lord chancellor and two lord treasurers; it is CARNATIC, a district of Southern Hindostan, valued in the king's books at 5301. 48. uid. per 'extending along the whole coast of Coromandel. annum. Present income 45001.

Hyder Ali entered the Carnatic with 80,000 troops,

in 1780, and was defeated by the British under 1791. Edward Venables Vernon, trans, to York, 1807.

sir Eyré Coote, 1 July, and 27 Aug. 1781; and de1808. Samuel Goodenough, died 12 Aug. 1827.

cisively overthrown 2 June,' 1782. The Carnatic 1827. Hugh Percy, died Feb. 1856.

was overrun by Tippoo in 1790. The British ac1856. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers, trans. to Durham, quired entire authority over the Carnatic by treaty,

May, 1860. 1860. Hon. Samuel Waldegrave, died 1 Oct. 1869.

31 July, 1801 ; see India. 1869. Harvey Goodwin; consecrated Jan. 1870.

CARNATION, so called from the original CARLISLE ADMINISTRATION,

species being of a flesh colour (carnis, of flesh). Halifax.

Several varieties were first planted in England by

the Flemings, about 1567. Stou. CARLISTS, see Spain, 1830-40 and 1872-3.

CARNEIAN GAMES, observed in many CARLOVINGIANS, CAROLIN- Grecian cities, particularly at Sparta (instituted GIANS, the second dynasty of the French kings, about 675 B.C. in honour of Apollo, surnamed 752-987. Charles Martel (715-741) and Pepin his Carneus), lasted nine days. son (741-752), were mayors of the palace. The latter became king 752; see France.

CARNIVAL, (Carni vale), Italian, i. e. Flesh

farewell ), a festival time in Italy and other CARLOW (S. E. Ireland). The castle, erected catholic countries at Shrove tide, or beginning of by John, 1180, surrendered after a desperate siege to Lent.




CAROLINA (N. America). Said to have been CARRON IRONWORKS, on the banks of discovered by Sebastian Cabot in 1498, or by De Leon the Carron, in Stirlingshire, established in 1760. in 1512. Raleigh formed a settlement at Roanoke The works in 1852 employed about 1600 men. in June, 1585, which was broken up in 1586. About Here since 1776 have been inade the pieces of ord850 English settled here about 1660; and Carolina nance called carronades or smashers. was granted to lord Clarendon and others in 1663. The cultivation of rice was introduced by governor

CARROTS and other edible roots were imSmith in 1695, and subsequently cotton. A con- ported from Holland and Flanders, about 1510. stitution drawn up by John Locke was abandoned. The province was divided into North and South in

CARTES DE VISITE. The small photo1729; see America. The Carolinas being slave graphic portraits thus termed are said to have been states, great excitement prevailed in them in Nov.

tirst taken at Nice, by M. Ferrier, in 1857. The 1860, on account of Abraham Lincoln's election to

duke of Parma had his portrait placed upon his the presidency of the United States, he being visiting cards, and his example was soon followed in

Paris and London. strongly opposed to slavery. South Carolina began the secession from the United States, 20 Dec. 1860: North Carolina followed, 21 May, 1861 ; see United by René des Cartes, the French philosopher, in

CARTESIAN DOCTRINES, promulgated States, 1861-5. Both readmitted to the Union 1637. His metaphysical principle is, "I think, 25 June, 1868

therefore I am ;' his physical principle, "Nothing CAROLINE ISLANDS were discovered by exists but substance.” He accounts for all physithe Spaniards in the reign of Charles II. 1686. cal phenomena on his theory of vortices, motions

excited by God, the source of all motion. He was CARP, a fresh-water or pond fish, was, it is born 1596, and died at Stockholm, the guest of said, first brought to these countries about 1525. queen Christina, in 1650. Walton. It is mentioned by lady Juliana Berners in her book printed 1496.

CARTHAGE (N. coast of Africa near Tunis), CARPETS are of ancient use in the East. The 826, Niebuhr). She fled from her brother Pyg

founded by Dido or Elissa, 878 B.C. (869, Blair ; manufacture of woollen carpets was introduced into malion, king of Tyre, who had killed her kusband, France from Persia, in the reign of Henry IV., and took refuge in Africa. Carthage disputed the between 1589 and 1610. Some artisans who had empire of the world with Rome, which occasioned quitted France in disgust established the English the Punic wars. The Carthaginians bore the characcarpet manufacture, about 1750. A cork-carpet ter of a faithless people, hence the term Punic company was formed in 1862.

faith. Cato the censor (about 146 B.c.) ended his CARPI (V. Italy). Here prince Eugene and speeches in the senate with Carthago delenda ! the Imperialists defeated the French 9 July, 1701. “Carthage must be destroyed!” Many councils

held here, A.D, 200-535. CARPOCRATIANS, followers of Carpocrates, a Gnostic, in the 2nd century.

First alliance of Carthaginians and Romans
CARRACK or KARRACK (Italian, Caracca),

The Carthaginians in Sicily defeated at Himera by
Gelo; the elder Hamilcar perishes

480 a large ship in the middle ages. The Santa Anna, They send 300,000 men into Sicily the property of the knights of St. John, of about Take Agrigentum

406 1700 tons, sheathed with lead, was built at Nice The siege of Syracuse

· 396 about 1530. It was literally a tloating fortress, and

The Carthaginiaus land in Italy aided Charles V. in taking Tunis in 1535. It con

Their defeat by Timoleon at the Crimesus

Defeated by Agathocles, they immolate their children tained a crew of 300 men and 50 pieces of artillery. on the altar to Saturn

The first Punic war begins (lasts 23 years)

264 CARRIAGES. Erichthonius of Athens is said The Carthaginians defeated by the Roman consul to have produced the first chariot about 1486 B.C. Duilius in a naval engagement Rade carriages were known in France in thc Xantippus defeats Regulus

• 255 reign of Henry II. A.D. 1547 ; in England in 1555,

Hasdrubal d by Metellus at Panormus Henry IV. of France had one without straps or

Regulus put to death springs. They were made in England in the reign The great Hannibal born

Romans defeated before Lilybæum of Elizabeth, and then called whirlicotes. The Hasdrubal founds New Carthage (Carthagena) duke of Buckingham, in 1619, drove six horses; End of first Punic war ; Sicily lost by Carthage 241 and the earl of Northumberland, in rivalry, drove War between the Carthaginians and African merceeight. Carriages were let for hire in Paris, in 1650,

naries at the Hótel Fiacre : hence the name, fiacre ; see

Hamilcar Barcas sent into Spain : 'takes his son,

Hannibal, at the age of nine years, having first Car, Cabriolets, Coaches and Licence duty. Annual

made him swear an eternal enmity to the Romans 238 licence duty for carriages; 4 wheels, 21. 28.; under Hamilcar killed 4 cwt. or less than 4 wheels, 158.

Hasdrubal assassinated CARRICKFERGUS (Antrim, Ireland). Its The second Punic war begins (lasts 17 years)

Hannibal conquers Spain, as far as the Iberus castle is supposed to have been built by Hugh de Hannibal crosses the Alps, and enters Italy Lacy in 1178. The town surrendered to the duke He defeats the Roman consuls at the Ticinus and of Schomberg 28 Aug. 1689. The castle, surrendered Trebia, 218; at the lake Thrasymenus, 217; and at to the French admiral Thurot, Feb. 1760; see

Cannæ (which sce)

2 Aug. 216

Publius Scipio carries war into Spain and takes New Thurot.

Carthage CARRIERS' ACT, 11 Geo. IV. & 1 Will. IV. Hasdrubal, Hannibal's brother, arrives with an ariny;

defeated and slain at the Metaurus c. 68, 1830.

Carthaginians expelled from Spain by Scipio CARROCIUM, a vehicle containing a crucifix Scipio arrives in Africa, and lays siege to Utica and a banner, usually accompanied Italian armies in Totally defeated at Zama (which see). the middle ages. The Milanese lost theirs at Cor

End of the second Punic war tenuova, 27 Nov. 1237.

The third Punic war ; Scipio invades Africa


B.C. 503


• 379 • 339



• 250 • 250 • 250

247 242

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229 • 220

219 218 218

• 210

207 206

204 • 203

202 201

I 22

A.D. 200

252 9 439


Carthage taken and burned, by order of the Senate 1666, are well imitated at Bradford and Hudders

July, 146 field. Shawls of Thibetian wool, for the omrahs, Colony settled at Carthage by C. Gracchus Its rebuilding planned by Julius Caesar

cost 150 rupees each, about 1650.

46 And executed by his successors.

19 et seq. A Christian bishopric

CASSANO (N. Italy). Site of an indecisive Cyprian holds a council here

conflict between prince Eugene Savoy and the Taken by Genseric the Vandal

French, 16 Aug. 1705. Retaken by Belisarius

533 Ravaged by the Arabs


CASSATION, COURT OF, the highest court Taken and destroyed by Hassan, the Saracenic of appeal in France, was established 10 Nov. 1790, governor of Egypt

698 by the national assembly. Carthaginian antiquities brought to the British Museum

1861 CASSEL, formerly the capital of Hesse-Cassel, CARTHAGENA, or NEW CARTHAGE (S.E. coming the refuge of French protestants after the

Central Germany, acquired importance through beSpain), built by Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian revocation of the edict of Nantes, 1685. It was the general, 242 B.c.; taken by Scipio, 210. The capital of Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, modern Carthagena was taken by a British force under 1807-13, and Wilhelmshöhe, a neighbouring castle, sir John Leake. June, 1706; retaken by the duke became the residence of Napoleon III. after his of Berwick, Nov.-CARTHAGENA, in Columbia, surrender to the king of Prussia, 2 Sept. 1870, arSouth America, was taken by sir Francis Drake in riving at 9.35 p.m. 5 Sept. He went to England 1585: pillaged by the French buccaneers in 1697; in 1871. bombarded by admiral Vernon in March, 1741; and unsuccessfully besieged, April, 1741.

CASSITERIDES; sce Scilly Isles. CARTHUSIANS, a religious order (springing CASTEL FIDARDO, near Ancona, Central from the Benedictines) founded by Bruno of Italy. Near here general Lamoricière and the Cologne, who retired with six companions about papal army of 11,000 men were totally defeated by 1084, to Chartreuse (which sce), in the mountains the Sardinian general, Cialdini, 18 Sept. 1860. of Dauphiné. Their austere rules were formed by Lamoricière with a few horsemen .fled to Ancona, Basil VII., their general. They appeared in Eng. then besieged. On 29. Sept. he and the garrison land about 1180, and a monastery was founded by surrendered, but were shortly after set at liberty. sir William Manny, 1371, on the site of the present Charter-house, London; see Charter-house. The In the laws of Menu (see Menu), the 'indus are

CASTES, a distinct section of society in India. Carthusian powder, of father Simon, at Chartreuse, divided into the Brahmans, or sacerdotal class; was first compounded about 1715.

the Kshatrya or Chuttree, military class; the CARTOONS, large chalk drawings preparatory Vaisya, or commercial class; and the Sudras, or to oil painting. Those of RAPHAEL (twenty-five sooders, servile class. in number) were designed (for tapestries) in the

CASTIGLIONE (N. Italy). Here the French chambers of the Vatican under Julius II. and

under Augereau defeated the Austrians, commanded Leo X. about 1510 to 1516. The seven preserved by Wurmser, with great loss, 5 Aug. 1796. were purchased in Flanders by Rubens for Charles I. of England, for Hampton-court palace in 1629. CASTILE (Central Spain). A Gothic governThey were removed to South Kensington 28 April, ment was established here about 800.-Roderick, 1865.— The tapestries executed at Arras from these count of Castile, 860; Ferdinand, a count, became designs are at Rome. They were twice carried king, 1035. Ferdinand, king of Arragon, married away by invaders, in 1526 and 1798, and were re- Isabella, queen of Castile, in 1474, and formed one stored in 1815.—The Cartoons for the British monarchy, 1479; sce Spain. Houses of Parliament were exhibited in July, 1843.

CASTILLEJOS (N. Africa). Here on 1 Jan. RAPHAEL'S CARTOONS. 1. The Miraculous draught of Fishes.

1860, was fought the first decisive action in the 2. The Charge to Peter.

war between Spain and Morocco. General Prim, 3. Peter and John healing the Lame at the Gate of the after a vigorous resistance, repulsed the Moors Temple.

under Muley Abbas, and advanced towards Tetuan. 4. The Death of Ananias. 5. Elymas the Sorcerer, struck with blindness.

CASTILLON, Guienne (S. France). Here 6. The Sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas, at Lystra. the army of Henry VI. of England was defeated 7. Paul preaching at Athens.

by that of Charles VII. of France, and an end put CARVING, see Sculptures.

to the English dominion in France, Calais alone CASH-PAYMENTS, see Bank of England.

remaining, 17 or 23 July, 1453. Talbot, earl of

Shrewsbury, was killed. CASHEL (Tipperary, Ireland). Cormack Cuillinan, king and bishop of Cashel, was the reputed troops, under Humbert, landed at Killala, and as

CASTLEBAR (Ireland). About 1100 French founder or restorer of the cathedral, 901, In 1952, sisted by Irish insurgents here, compelled the king's bishop Donat O'Danergan was invested with the pall; see Pallium. Cashel was valued in the troops under Lake to retreat, 27 Aug. 1798; but king's books, 29 Henry VIII. at 661. 138. 4d. Irish

were compelled to surrender ‘at Ballinamuck, money. By the Church Temporalities act, 1833, it

8 Sept. ceased to be archiepiscopal, and was joined to CASTLEPOLLARD (Ireland). At an affray Waterford and Lismore.

at a fair here between some peasantry and a body CASHMERE, in the valley of the Himalayas ;

of police, thirteen persons lost their lives, and many was subdued by the Mahometans under Akbar, in

were wounded, 23 May, 1831. 1586; by the Affghans in 1752 ; by the Sikhs, 1819; CASTLES. The castle of the Anglo-Saxon und ceded to the British in 1846, who gave it to was a tower keep, either round or square, and the Maharajah Gholab Singh, as sovereign. The ascended by a flight of steps in front. William I. true Cashmere shawls, first brought to England in erected 48 strong castles. Several hundreds, built


by permission of Stephen, between 1135 and 1154, They are said to have baptized their dead, forbidden were demolished by Henry II, 1154. Many were marriage, and mingled the bread and wine in the dismantled in the civil wars. Richborough, Stud- Lord's supper with the blood of young children. fall, and Burgh are existing specimens of Roman castles.

CATAPULTÆ, military engines of the cross

bow kind, for throwing huge stones as well as CAT. The generally received opinion that our darts and arrows; invented by Dionysius, the tyrant domestic cat is derived from the European wild cat of Syracuse, 399 B.C. is doubted by Mr. T. Bell (1827). Rüppell (died 1794) found a wild cat in Nubia, whose conforma

CATEAU CAMBRESIS (N. France), where, tion agreed with that of the Egyptian cat mummies.

on 2, 3 April, 1559, peace was concluded between. Cats fetched high prices in the middle ages, and Henry II. of France, Philip II. of Spain, and were protected by law in Wales, about 948. Great Elizabeth of England. France ceded Savoy, Corsica, cat shows were held at the Crystal Palace 13 July and nearly 200 forts in Italy and the Low Countries and 2 Dec. 1871; and 26-29 Oct. 1872.

to Philip. CATACOMBS. The early depositories of the piled in the 8th or 9th century.

CATECHISMS are said to have been com

Luther's were dead. The first Christians at Rome met for worship in the catacombs; and here are said to have church of England in the first book of Edward VI,

published !520 and 1529. The catechism of the been the tombs of the apostles Peter and Paul. Belzoni in 1815-18 explored many Egyptian cata

7 March, 1549, contained merely the baptismal combs, built 3000 years ago. He brought to Eng: Lord's prayer, with explanations ; but James I.

vow, the creed, the ten commandments, and the land the sarcophagus of Psammetichus, formed of ordered the bishops to add an explication of the oriental alabaster, exquisitely sculptured. In the Parisian catacombs (formerly stone quarries), human Trent was published in 1566; those of the Assem

sacraments, 1612. "The catechism of the council of remains from the cemetery of the Innocents were deposited in 1785; and many of the victims of the bly of Divines at Westminster 1647 and 1648. revolution in 1792-4, are interred in them.-On CATHARI (from the Greek katharos, pure), 31 May, 1578, some labourers digging on the Via a name given to the Novatians (about 251), MonSalaria, two miles from Rome, discovered the cele- tanists, and other early Christian sects. See Puribrated catacombs of which an account with engravings was published by Antonio Bosio, in his “ Roma Sotteranea" (1632), and by Aringhi (1659), and

CATHAY, an old name for China. others. John Evelyn saw them in 1645. Elaborate CATHEDRAL, the chief church of a diocese, accounts have been published recently by De Rossi; as containing the cathedra, or seat of the bishop, an abstract of whose researches will be found in the obtained the name in the ioth century: A confer“Roma Sotteranea” of the Rev. J. S. Northcote ence of the higher clergy to consider cathedral and W. R. Brownlow, 1869.

institutions, was held at Lambeth, 1 March, 1872. CATALONIA (E. Spain), was settled by the

CATHERINE. The order of knights of St.

An Goths and Alani, about 409; conquered by the Catherine was instituted in Palestine 1063. Saracens, 712; recovered by Pepin, and by Charle- order of ladies of the highest rank in Russia was magne (788). It formed part of the Spanish marches founded by Peter the Great, 1714, in honour of the and the territory of the count of Barcelona (which bravery of his empress Catherine. They were to see). The natives were able seamen: being fre- be distinguished, as the name implied (from quently unruly, their peculiar privileges were

katharos, pure), for purity of life and manners; abolished in 1714.

see Docks." CATALYTIC FORCE. The discovery in

CATHOLIC MAJESTY. This title was 1819 by Thenard of the decomposition of peroxide given by pope Gregory III. to Alphonso I. of Spain, of hydrogen by platinum, and by Döbereiner in 739, and to Ferdinand V. and his queen in 1474 by 1825 of its property to ignite a mixture of hydro

Innocent VIII. on account of their zeal for religion, gen and oxygen, formed the groundwork of the and their establishment of the Inquisition. doctrine of catalytic force, also termed “action of CATHOLICS, see Roman Catholics. contact or presence," put forth by Berzelius and Mitscherlich. Their view has not been adopted by gius Catiline, a dissolute Roman noble, having been

CATILINE'S CONSPIRACY, Lucius SerLiebig and other chemists.

refused the consulship (65 B.c.), conspired to kill CATAMARANS (or carcases), fire-machines the senate, plunder the treasury, and set Rome on for destroying ships ; tried in vain by sir Sydney tire. This conspiracy was timely discovered and Smith, 2 Oct. 1804, on the Boulogne flotilla destined frustrated. A second plot (in 63), was detected by by Bonaparte to invade England.

the consul Cicero, whom he had resolved to murder. CATANIA (the ancient Catana), a town near

Catiline's daring appearance in the senate-house, Etua, Sicily, was founded by a colony from Chalcis, brated invective, “Quousque tandem, Catilina!”

after his guilt was known, drew forth Cicero's celeabout 753 B.C.

Ceres had a temple here, open to none but women. Catania was almost totally over

on 8 Nov. On seeing five of his accomplices arthrown by an eruption of Etna in 1669 and in 1693 rested, Catiline tied to Gaul, where his partisans was nearly swallowed up by an earthquake : in a

were assembling an army: Cicero punished the moment more than 18,000 of its inhabitants were

conspirators at home, and Petreius routed their buried in the ruins. An earthquake did great Jan. 62 B.C.

forces; Catiline being killed in the engagement, damage, 22 Feb. 1817: In Aug. 1862, the town was held by Garibaldi and his volunteers, in op- CAT ISLE, see Salvador. position to the Italian government. He was captured on 29 Aug.

CATO, SUICIDE OF. Considering freedom as

that which alone "sustains the dignity of man," CATAPHRYGIANS, heretics in the second and unable to survive the independence of his century, who followed the errors of Montanus. country, Cato stabbed himself at l'tica, 46 B.C.

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