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ÆOLOPILE, a hollow ball with an orifice in Defeat of the allies near Thermopylæ. which a tube might be screwed, was used in the Conquered by the Romans under Fulvius
189 17th century as a boiler for experimental steam- Leading patriots massacred by the Roman party
Ætolia made a province of Rome
146 engines; a similar apparatus is described by Vitruvius, first century, A.D.
AFFINITY. Marriage within certain degrees ÆQUI, an ancient Italian race, were subdued of kindred was prohibited in almost every age and by the Romans, and their lands annexed, after a
country, but has yet taken place to a considerable severe struggle, 471-302 B.C.
extent. The Jewish law is given in Leviticus xviii.
(1490 B.C.). In the English prayer-book the table ÆRAS, see Eras.
restricting marriage within certain degrees was set AERATED WATERS. Apparatus for com
forth by authority, 1563. Prohibited marriages
were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the bining gases with water were patented by Thomson 99th canon, in 1603; All marriages within the forin 1807; F. C. Bakewell in 1832 and 1847; Tylor bidden degrees are declared to be absolutely void by in 1840, and by others. AERATED BREAD is made
5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54, 1835; see Marriage (of by processes patented by Dr. Dauglish, 1856-7.
Wife's Sister). AERIANS, followers of Aerius, a presbyter, in
AFFIRMATION; see Quakers. The affirmathe 4th century, who held that there was no distinction between a bishop and a presbyter; that tion was altered in 1702, 1721, 1837, and in April, there was no Pasch to be observed by Christians; 1859. The indulgence was granted to persons who that the Lent and other fasts should not be observed; that sect, 2 Vict. 1838 ; and extended to other dis
were formerly Quakers, but who had seceded from and that prayers should not be offered for the dead. Epiphanius.
senters by 9 Geo. IV.c. 32 (1828), and 18 & 19 Vict.
C. 2 (1855). AEROLITES, see Meteors.
AFGHANISTAN, a large country in central AERONAUTICS AND AEROSTATICS, | Asia, successively part of the Persian and Greek see Balloons and Flying. The Aeronautical Society empires, was conquered by the Tartars about 997. of Great Britain was established by the duke of The Mahommedan dynasty, the Ghaznevides, said to Argyll and others, 12 Jan. 1866.
have ruled from 1186 to 1206. Overthrown by AERO-STEAM ENGINE. The invention Baber conquered Caubul
Genghis Khan about 1221, and by Tamerlane, 1398
• 1523 of George Warsop, a mechanic of Nottingham, who, On his death Afghanistan divided between Persia by employing compressed air united with steam, is and Hindostan. said to have effected the saving of_47 per cent. of The Afghans revolt in 1720; invade Persia and take fuel. The plan was reported to the British Associa
Ispahan; repulsed by Nadir Shah in 1728, who
subdues the whole of the country tion, at Exeter, in Aug. 1869, and was said to act
On his assassination, one of his officers, Ahmed successfully in a tug steamer (for China) in the
Shah, an Afghan, made Afghanistan indepenThames, 26 March, 1870.
dent, and reigned prosperously
1747-73 ÆSOP'S FABLES, said to have been written
His son and successor, Timour, died in 1793 : whose
son, Zemaun, was dethroned and blinded after about 619, 571, or 565 B.C., no doubt by various per- reigning ten years. Since then the history is a
Phædrus’s Latin paraphrases in Iambics series of broils, crimes, and murders. (about A.D. 8) are very elegant.
Runjeet Sing, the Sikh chief of Lahore, conquers a large part of the country
1818 ÆSTHETICS (from the Greek aisthesis, per- Dost Mahommed becomes rnler
1829 ception), the science of the beautiful (especially in [For the Afghan war with England, see India, art); a term invented by Baumgarten, a German 1838-42.) philosopher, whose work “Æsthetica was pub
Dost Mahommed takes Herat, 26 May; dies after lished in 1750.
designating his eldest son, Shere-Ali, bis successor, a war of succession ensues.
29 May, 1863 ÆTHIOPIA, see Ethiopia.
The English remain neutral
Treachery and anarchy prevailing, June, 1865– “ ÆTHIOPICA,” see Romances.
Two rival ameers reigning-Shere-Ali at Candahar; AETIANS, followers of Aëtius, an Arian heretic Afzul Khan, at Cabool
Sept. Afzul Khan recognised by the British government,
Feb. 1867 ÆTNA, see Etna.
Army of Shere-Ali defeated and his general slain,
about ÆTOLIA, in Greece, a country named after
· 21 Sept. Afzul Khan dies about
20 Oct. Ætolus of Elis, who is said to have accidentally The sirdar Mahomed Yakoob Khan defeated troops killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the of the reigning Ameer, took Candahar, and proPeloponnesus, and settled here. After the ruin of claimed Shere-Ali sovereign of Afghanistan, April, 1868 Athens and Sparta, the Ætolians became the rivals Shere-Ali defeats his nephew, Abdul-rahman, 12 or of the Achæans, and were alternately allies and enemies of Rome.
Interview with the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, at
Umballah The Ætolians join Sparta against Athens
27 March, 1869
Insurrection of the ameer's son, Yakoob, about 24 The Ætolian league of tribes opposes Macedon.
Aug. ; it fails, and he retreats, Nov. ; reported Invaded by Antipater during the Lamian war
as still resisting
Dec. 1870 Aid in the expulsion of the Gauls
Yakoob captures Herat, when Feramorz Khan, the
279 Invade the Peloponnesus, and ravage Messenia (Sociai ameer's general, is assassinated, June ; by the War), and defeat the Achæans at Caphyæ
interposition of lord Mayo is reconciled to his Philip V., of Macedon, invades Ætolia, and takes father, meeting him.
22 July. Thermum- Peace of Naupactus concluded
Yakoob 'inade governor of Herat
· 16 Sept. Alliance with Rome
Aslum Khan, the murderer of Feramorz Khan, asDeserted by the Romans, the Ætolians make peace sassinated in prison ;
Oct. with Philip
205 War with Philip, 200: he is defeated at Cynoscephala 197 AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of The Ætolians invite the kings of Macedon, Syria, and
the three parts of the ancient world, and the greatest Sparta, to coalesce against the Romans 193-2 peninsula of the universe; said to have been first
323 • 322
peopled by Ham. For its history, see Egypt, Mr. (afterwards sir) Samuel Baker discovered a lake, Cape, Carthage, Cyrene, Abyssinia, Algiers, No supposed to be another source of the Nile, which he rocco, fc.
named Lake Nyanza Albert, 14 March, 1864.
Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for inner Africa, Carthage subdued by the Romans 146 B.C. ; other pro 24 March, 1865. vinces gained by Pompey, 82.
Narrative of Livingstone's Zambesi expedition 1858-64, Revolts subdued by Diocletian, 296; by Theodosius, published 1866. 373
Livingstone left Zanzibar to continue his search for the N. Africa conquered by the Vandals under Genseric, A.D.
sources of the Nile, March, 1866. 429-35 ; re-conquered by Belisarius, 533-55.
[See his narrative below.) The Saracens subdue the north of Africa, 637–709.
Reports of the inurder of Livingstone near Lake Nyassa, Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487.
in Sept. 1866---March, 1867 ; doubted, July, 1867. Vasco de Gama doubles the Cape and explores the coast, Expedition of E. D. Young in search of Livingstone, 19 Nov. 1497.
sailed 9 July, 1867, returned and reported to the Royal Portuguese settlements begun, 1450.
Geographical Society his conviction that Livingstone English merchants visit Guinea in 1550; and Elizabeth was alive, 27 Jan. 1868. granted a patent to an African company in 1588.
Letter from Dr. Livingstone dated Bembo, 2 Mar. 1867; Dutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650.
heard of down to Dec. 1867. Capt. Stubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723.
His dispatch to lord Clarendon, dated 7 July, 1868; read Bruce commenced his travels in 1768.
to the Royal Geographical Society, 8 Nov. 1869. Sierra Leone settled by the English, 1787.
Letter dated 30 May, 1869, published Dec. 1869. Mungo Park made his first voyage to Africa, 22 May, Uncredited reports of his murder by negroes, Jan ; his
1795 ; his second, 30 January, 1804, and never returned probable safety reported by Dr. Kirk, 22 June; said (see Park).
to be at Mozambique, Nov. 1870. Africa visited by Salt, 1805 and 1809: Burckhardt, 1812 ; Expedition of sir Sannel Baker to put down slave trade
Campbell, 1813: Hornemann, 1816 ; Denham and on the Upper Nile (see Egypt), Jan. 1870. (UnsuccessClapperton, 1822 ; Laing, 1826 ; the brothers Lander,
ful, Feb. 1873.) 1830.
Expedition in search of Livingstone under lieut. Dawson, The great Niger expedition to start a colony in Central organised by the Royal Geographical Society; started Africa (for which parliament voted 60,000l.), consisting
9 Feb. 1872. of the Albert, Wilberforce, and Soulan steamships, (It returned on hearing that Stanley had found Livingcommenced the ascent of the Niger, 20 Aug. 1841; stone.) when they reached Iddah, fever broke out among the Dutch Guinea settlements purchased and transferred (see crews, and they were successively obliged to return, Elmina), 6 April, 1872. the Albert having ascended the river to Egga, 320 miles Reports current that Livingstone is alive, May, June, from the sea, 28 Sept. The expedition was relinquished 1872. owing to disease, heat, and hardships, and all the Expedition sent in search of Livingstone by Mr. James vessels had cast anchor at Clarence Cove, Fernando Gordon Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, Po, 17 Oct. 1841.
at a cost of about 8,cool. : James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 1845-6, Mr. Henry M. Stanley, chief of the expedition, left
and in 1849 (by direction of the Foreign Office) he left Zanzibar, and, after much opposition from the native England to explore central Africa, accompanied by chiefs, accidentally fell in with Livingstone at Ujiji, Drs. and Overweg. ardson died 4 March, near Unyanyembe, 10 Nov 1871, and remained with 1851 ; and Overweg died, 27 Sept. 1852.
him till 14 March, 1872, when he brought away his Dr. Vögel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. Barth, diary and other documents. Mr. Stanley reported that
20 Feb. 1853 ; in April, 1857, said to have been assas Livingstone had arrived at Ujiji in bad condition, sinated.
having been robbed and deserted by his attendants. Dr. Barth returned to England, and received the Royal Much controversy ensued between Mr. Stanley, the
Geographical Society's medal, 16 May, 1856. His members of lieut. Dawson's expedition, Dr. Livingtravels were published in 5 vols. in 1858.
stone, Dr. Kirk, the Royal Geographical Society, and Dr. David Livingstone, a inissionary traveller, returned others, Aug. ---Oct. 1872.
to England in Dec. 1856, after an absence of 16 years, Letter from Dr. Livingstone, at Ujiji, dated Nov. during which he traversed a large part of the heart of 1871, to Mr. Bennett (printed in New York llerald, 26 8. Africa, and walked about 11,000 miles, principally July, and reprinted in the Times 27 July, 1872). He over country hitherto unexplored. His book was pub describes his explorations and his painful journey to lished in Nov. 1857. In Feb. 1858, he was appointed Ujiji; his meeting with Mr. Stanley; and he speaks of British consul for the Portuguese possessions in Africa, the Nile springs being about 600 miles south of the and left England shortly after.
most southerly part of Lake Victoria Nyanza; and also Du Chaillu's travels in central Africa, 1856-59, created of about 700 miles of watershed in central Africa, of much controversy, 1861.
which he had explored about 600 ; and of the converSecond expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858.
gence of the watershed first into four, and then into Captains Speke and Grant announce the discovery of two, mighty rivers in the great Nile valley (?) between
a source of the Nile in Lake Nyanza Victoria, 23 Feb. 10° and 12 south latitude. Second letter (dated Feb. 1863
1872) describes the horrors of the slave trade in eastern (Capt. Speke was accidentally shot by his own gun while Africa, printed in the Times 29 July, 1872. alone near Bath, 15 Sept. 1864.)
Livingstone's dispatches, dated Nov. 1 and 15, 1871, Some Dutch ladies unsuccessfully explore the White received by the Foreign Office, 1 Aug. ; letter dated
Nile, and undergo many privations, July, 1863-1864. 1 July, received 2 Oct. 1872. (One Miss Tinne said to have been killed ; reported 5 Mr. Stanley described his discovery of Livingstone to the Sept. 1869.)
British Association at Brighton in presence of the The Universities Mission to east central Africa," con emperor and empress of the French, 16 Aug, and re
sisting of Charles F. Mackenzie, bishop of central ceived a gold snuff-box from the queen about 30 Aug. 1872. Africa, and six clergymen and others, started Dec. 1860, and arrived at the Zambesi, in Feb. 1861. All New Erpedition, under sir Bartle Frere, to Zanzibar, to died from privations and disease except two, who suppress the east African slave trade; lieut. V. Lovett returned in 1864. The bishop died 31 Jan. 1862; suc Cameron's offer to aid in the furtherance of Livingceeded by Dr. Tozer.
stone's expedition was accepted : sailed 20 Nov. 1872. Du Chaillu starts on a fresh expedition, 6 Aug. 1863; Expedition to explore the upper part of the Congo
after being robbed, and undergoing many privations, (Mr. Young, of Kelly, will subscribe 2000l. Royal Georeturned to London near the end of 1865. He gave an graphical Society to supplement it), proposed Nov. 1872. account of his journey at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, 8 Jan. 1866.
AFRICAN Association, for promoting the exploration of Dr. Livingstone returns, 23 July, 1864.
central Africa, was formed in June, 1788, principally Death of Dr. W. B. Baikie, at Sierra Leone, 30 Nov. 1864. by sir Joseph Banks; and under its auspices many addi
[He was sent as special envoy to the Negro tribes tions were made to African geography by Ledyard, Dear the Niger by the Foreign Office about 1854. He Park, Burckhardt, Hornemann, &c. It merged into the opened commercial relations with central Africa.] Royal Geographical Society, July, 1831.
AFRICAN CHURCH. In 1866 Robert Gray, bishop of Cape the minority of a male terminates at twenty-one,
town (in consequence of a decision of the privy council; and of a female in some cases, as that of a queen, see Church of England), established synods of the • Church of South Africa."
at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of Edward VI. AFRICAN COMPANY (merchants trading to Africa), arose
was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen ont of an association in London, formed in 1588. A years; previously to completing which age, his charter was granted to a joint-stock company in 1618 : father, Henry VIII., had assumed the reins of a second company was created in 1631 ; a 3rd corporation government, in 1509. -A male of twelve may take in 1662 ; another was formed by letters-patent in 1672 ; | the oath of allegiance; at fourteen he may consent remodelled in 1695. In 1821 the company was abolished.
to a marriage, or choose a guardian ; at seventeen AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807, for the he may be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of
abolition of the slave trade, and the civilization of age; but according to the statute of wills, 7 Will. Africa. Many schools have been established with suc- IV. 'and i Vict. c. 26, 1837, no will made by any cess, particularly at Sierra Leone.
person under the age of twenty-one years shall be AGAPÆ (agapē, Greek for_love, charity), valid. A female at twelve may consent to a mar“ feasts of charity," referred to Jude iz, and de: riage, at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at scribed by Tertullian, of which the first Christians twenty-one she is of age. of all ranks partook, in memory of the last time AGINCOURT, OR AZINCOUR (N. France), when Christ ate with his disciples. Disorders a village, where Henry V. of England, with about creeping in, these feasts were forbidden to be cele: 9000 men, defeated about 60,000 French on St. brated in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366) Crispin's day, 25 Oct. 1415. Of the French, there and Carthage (390). They are still recognised by were, according to some accounts, 10,000 killed, inthe Greek church, and are held in their original cluding the dukes of Alençon, Brabant, and Bar, form weekly by the Glasites or Sandemanians, the archbishop of Sens, one'marshal, thirteen earls, and in some degree by the Moravians and Wes- ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights, and 14,000 leyans.
prisoners, among whom were the dukes of Orleans AGAPEMONÉ (Greek, “ the abode of love”,
and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentle, an establishment at Charlinch, near Bridgwater) of Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. Rémy asserts
The English lost the duke of York, the earl Somersetshire, founded in 1845, where Henry James with more probability that the English lost 1600 Prince, * and his deluded followers, formerly persons of property, live in common, professing to
men. Henry V. soon after obtained the kingdom
of France. devote themselves to innocent recreation and to maintain spiritual marriage. The Agapemoné is AGINCOUR, iron-clad. See Navy, 1851. described by Mr. Hepworth Dixon in his Spiritual Wives," published in Jan. 1868. Meetings of the
AGITATORS(or Adjutators), officers appointed sect were held at Hamp, near Bridgwater, Dec., by the Parliamentary army in 1647, to take care of 1872.
its interests : each troop or company had two. The
protector Cromwell was eventually obliged to reAGE. Chronologers have divided the time press their seditious power. At a review he seized between the creation and the birth of Christ into the ringleaders of a mutiny, shot one instantly, in ages. Hesiod (about 850 B.c.), described the the presence of his companions and the forces on the Golden, Silver, Brazen, and Iron Ages; see Dark ground, and thus restored discipline. Hume.Ages.
Daniel O'Connell, the agitator of Ireland, was born FIRST AGE (from the Creation to the De
in 1775. He began to agitate at the elections in luge)
4004-2349 1826; was elected for Clare, 5 July, 1828 ; the SECOND AGE (to the coming of Abraham into
election being declared void, he was re-elected 30 Canaan)
2348—1922 July, 1829. After the passing of the Catholic THIRD AGE (to the Exodus from Egypt) Fourtu AGE (to the founding of Solomon's
1921—1491 emancipation bill, he agitated in vain for the repeal
of the union, 1834 to 1843. He died 15 May, 1847. Temple)
1490-1014 Furtu Age (to the capture of Jerusalem)
- Richard Cobden and John Bright were the chief 1014
588 Sixth AGE (to the birth of Christ).
Anti-corn-law agitators, 1841-45.—Mr. Bright beSEVENTH AGE (to the present time) B.C. 4-A.D. 1873 came a Reform agitator in 1866. AGE. In Greece and Rome twenty-five was
AGNADELLO (N. E. Italy). Here Louis XII. full age for both sexes, but a greater age was
of France gained a great victory over the Venetians, requisite for the holding certain offices : eg. thirty some of whose troops were accused of cowardice and
The conflict is also for tribunes ; forty-three for consuls. In England treachery; 14 May, 1509.
termed the battle of the Rivolta. * Prince was born in 1811 ; educated for the medical AGNOITÆ (from agnoia, Greek, ignorance). profession and licensed to practise, 1832 ; gave it up for 1. A sect founded by Theophronius of Cappadocia the church and entered st. David's college, Lampeter, about 370 : said to have doubted the omniscience of and finally claimed to be an incarnation of the Deity: God. II. The followers of Themistius of Alexandria, with corresponding authority over his followers.
about 530, who held peculiar views as to the body May, 1850, Thomas Robinson sought to recover the pos- of Christ, and doubted his divinity. session of his child from the care of its mother (from whom he had separated); the application was refused by AGONISTICA (from agon, Greek,a conflict), the vice-chancellor, to save the child from the pollution also termed circutores, a branch of the Donatists of the
parent's teaching."-On 21 Aug. 1858, Miss Louisa (which see) in the 4th century. They preached Jane Nottidge died, having transferred her property to
with great' boldness, and incurred severe persecuMr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by an action, recovered from Prince 57281., as having been
tion. fraudulently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were
AGRA (N. W. India), founded by Akbar in made during the trial, 25 July, 1860. In the autumn of 1860, the Rev. Mr. Price, after several vain attempts, 1566, was the capital of the Great Mogul; see succeeded in rescuing his wife from the Agapemone: Mausoleums. In 1658 Aurungzebe removed to They had both been early supporters of it.
Delhi.—The fortress of Agra," the key of Hindo
stan,” in the war with the Mahrattas surrendered History of Agriculture and Prices in England (1259to the British forces, under general Lake, 17 Oct.
1400)," by Professor James T. Rogers, published, June,
1866. 1803, after one day's siege: 162 pieces of ordnance
AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.-Sir Humphry Davy deand 240,000l. were captured.-In June, 1857, the
livered lectures on this subject (afterwards published), city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Euro
at the instance of the Board of Agriculture, in 1812 ; peans, who took refuge in the fort, from which they but it excited little attention till the publication of were rescued by major Montgomery and colonel Liebig's work in 1840, which made a powerful impresGreathed.-Allahabad was made capital of the sion. Boussingault's “Economie Rurale," an equally N. W. provinces of India, instead of Agra, in 1861.
important work, appeared in 1844. The immoderate expectations from this study having been somewhat
disappointed, a partial reaction took place. Liebig's AGRARIAN LAW (Agraria lex), decreed
“Letters on Agriculture," appeared in 1859. an equal division among the Roman people of all AGRICULTURAL GANGS.-In the spring of 1867, most the lands acquired by conquest, limiting the acres painful exposures were made of the prevalence of much which each person should enjoy. It was first pro- cruelty and immorality in the gang system (in which posed by the consul Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and
boys and girls are employed) in several of the eastern
and midland counties, and in consequence an act was occasioned his judicial murder when he went out of
passed 20 Aug. for regulating these gangs, licensing office in 985:-An agrarian law was passed by the
gang-masters, &c. tribune Licinius Stolo, 376; and for proposing fur- A Union of Agricultural Labourers, managed chiefly by ther amendments Tiberius Gracchus in 133, and Joseph Arch, formerly a labourer, afterwards a Methohis brother Cornelius in 121, were murdered. Livius dist preacher, was inaugurated at Leamington, WarDrusus, a tribune, was murdered for the same cause,
wickshire, 29 March, 1872. The movement spread,
being countenanced by Auberon Herbert, M.P., and 91. Julius Cæsar propitiated the plebeians by pass
others. ing an agrarian law in 59.-In modern times the following table, drawn up by Mr. William Couling, the term has been misinterpreted to signify a divi- C.E., in 1827, is extracted froin the Third Report of sion of the lands of the rich among the poor, fre- the Emigration Committee:quently proposed by demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf, editor of the Tribun du Peuple, in 1794.
CultiIn 1796 he conspired against the directory with the Countries.
fitable, view of obtaining a division of property, was con
improvedemned, and killed himself, 27 May, 1797.
ment. AGRICOLA'S WALL, see Roman Walls.
England . 25,632,000 3,454,000 3,256,400 32,342,400 AGRICULTURE. “Abel was a keeper of
3,117,000 530,000 1,105,000 4,752,000 sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground,” Genesis
Scotland. 5,265,000 5,950,000 8,523,930 19,738,930
Ireland 12,125,280 iv. 2. The Athenians asserted that the art of
4,900,000 2,416,664 19,441,944
Brit. Isles 383,690 166,000 569,469 1,119,159 sowing corn began with them; and the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians made the same claim.
146,522,970 15,000,000 15,871,463 77,394,433 Cato the Censor (died 149 B.c.) and Varro (died 28 B.C.) were eminent Roman writers on agriculture,
At that period it was computed that the soil of the Virgil's Georgics, 30 B.C. Agriculture in England im
United Kingdom was annually cropped in the following proved by the Romans after A.D. 44. Fitzherbert's “ Book of Husbandry," printed 1524.
proportions : Tusser's “ Five Hundred Points of Husbandry," 1562.
7,000,000 Blythe's “ Improver," 1649.
Barley and rye
• 1,950,000 Hartlib's “ Legacy,” 1650.
Potatoes, oats and beans
6,500,000 Jethro Tull's “Horse-hoeing Husbandry," 1701.
Turnips, cabbages, and other vegetables
1,150,000 About the end of the 18th century, fallowing was gradu-Clover, rye-grass, &c.
1,750,000 ally superseded by turnips and green crops.
2,800,000 In Aug. 1855, a committee presented a report on the best Hop-grounds
60,000 mode of obtaining accurate Agricultural Statistics,
20,000 which has not been fully acted on. There were, in 1831, Inclosed fruit, flower, kitchen and other gardens 110,000 1,055,982 agricultural labourers in Great Britain, and
100,000 in Ireland, 1,131,715.
Land depastured by cattle
21,000,000 AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.—The earliest mentioned in
Hedge-rows, copses, and woods
2,000,000 the British Isles was the Society of Improvers of Ways, water, &c.
2,100,000 Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. A Dublin Agricultural Society (1749) gave a stimulus to agricul
Cultivated land 46,540,000 ture in Ireland; its origin is attributed to Mr. Prior of
It was reckoned by the Agricultural Committee, Rathdowney, Queen's County, in 1731. The Bath and
that the cultivation of waste lands would yield above West of England Society established, 1777; and the
20,000,oool. a year. It was calculated in 1854 that there Highland Society of Scotland, 1793. County Agricul
was in England 32,160,000 acres in cultivation, of the tural Societies are now nunerous.
annual value of 37,412,000l. Since that time, much London Board of Agriculture established by act of par- land has been brought into cultivation ; see Wheat.
liament, 1793. Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agricul- AGRICULTURAL HALL, Islington, N.
ture, died 2 March, 1802. Royal 'Agricultural Society of England established in London, chiefly for the meetings of the Smithfield
Club. The foundation stone was laid by the presi1838, by noblemen and gentlemen, the chief landed proprietors in the kingdom, and incorporated by royal dent, lord Berners, 5 Nov. 1861. The hall has charter, 26 March, 1840. It holds two meetings been much used for industrial exhibitions, public annually, one in London the other in the country; the meetings, equestrian performances, &c. first country meeting at Oxford in 1839. It awards prizes, and publishes a valuable journal. The London It was opened for an exhibition of dogs, 24 June, 1862 ; meeting at Battersea in June, 1862, was highly suc- horses and donkeys exhibited, July, 1864, and annually cessful.
since. “Chambers of Agriculture" were established in France in First annual cattle show here, 6 Dec. 1862.
1851. In Great Britain, 1868, they had increased from A great reform demonstration was made here, 30 July, 36 to 70. A journal commenced early in 1868.
1866. Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester organised, 1842; Grand ball to the Belgian visitors, volunteers and garde chartered, 1845.
civique; prince of Wales present, 18 July, 1867.
Excellent horse-shows held here May, 1868, 1869, 1870, Newton, and others, up to the present time have 1871.
illustrated the agency and intluences of this great Theatrical bull-fights here stopped, on account of cruelty, power by various experiments, and numerous inven28 Mar. 1870.
tions have followed; among others, the AIR-GUN Workmen's International exhibition opened by the Prince of Wales, 16 July, 1870.
of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656; the AIR-PUMP,
invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about AGRIGENTUM (now Girgenti), a city of 1650; improved by Robert Boyle in 1657, by Robert Sicily, built about 582 B. C. It was governed by Hooke about 1659;* and the AIR-PIPE, invented by tyrants from 566 to 470; among these were- Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, about 1756. The Phalaris (see Brazen Bull); Alcamanes; Theron density and elasticity of air were determined by who, with his step-father Gelon, defeated the Boyle; and its relation to light and sound by Hooke, Carthaginians at Himera, 480: and Thrasydäus, his Newton, and Derham. The extension of our atmoson, expelled in 470; when a republic was estab- sphere above the surface of the earth, has been long lished. It was taken by the Carthaginians in 405 considered as about 45 miles.—Its composition, B. C., and held, except during short intervals, till about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, and 2 of gained by the Romans in 262 B. C. From a. D. 825 other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery vapour, till 1086 it was held by the Saracens.
a trace of ammonia, &c.) was ascertained by Priestley
(who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele AHMEDNUGGUR (W. India), once capital (1775), Lavoisier, and Cavendish; and its laws of of a state founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1493. refraction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1737, After having fallen into the hands of the Moguls The researches of Dr. Schönbein, a German chemist and the Mahrattas, it was taken from the latter by of Basel, between 1840 and 1839, led to his discovery Arthur Wellesley, 12 Aug. 1803, and annexed to the of two states of the oxygen in the air, wbich he British dominions, June, 1817.
calls ozone and antozone. Dr. Stenhouse's dir-filters AID, see Ayde.
(in which powdered charcoal is used) were first set
up at the Mansion-house, London, in 1851. In 1858, AID TO THE SICK AND WOUNDED, Dr. R. Angus Smith made known a chemical NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR. On 4 Aug. 1870, soon method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter after the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war, in the air, and published his “ Air and Rain” in a meeting was held in London, which established 1872. See Orygen, Nitrogen, Ozone, Atmospheric this society, for immediate communication with the Railway, Balloons, and Pneumatic Despatch.international society established at Geneva : see The force of compressed air has been employed in Genera Convention. The queen became patron and boring the Cenis tunnel (which sec.) An airthe prince of Wales president; the duke of Man- telegraph, in which the waves of air in a tube are chester, the earl of Shaftesbury, lords Overstone and employed instead of electricity, invented by sig. Bury, sir John Burgoyne, and col. Loyd Lindsay | Guattari, was exhibited in London in 1870. It being very energetic supporters. The operations obtained a gold medal in Naples. were directed chiefly by capt. H. Brackenbury and sir Vincent Eyre. Čapt. Douglas Galton and hydro-carburetted air as a source of light; estab
AIR-GAS-LIGIIT-COMPANY: propose to use Mr. Henry Bonham Carter went to the seat of war as
lished 1872. commissioners, in Sept. A meeting to promote the incorporation of the society was held i Aug. 1871. It AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (Aachen), a Roman was then reported that 296,2981. had been received; city, now in Rhenish Prussia. Several ecclesiastical together with stores valued at 45,0001.
councils held here (799-1165). Here Charlemagne Col Loyd Lindsay conveyed to Versailles and Paris
was born, 742, and died, 814; having built the minsfrom the society 40,00oł., equally divided between
ter (796-804), and conferred many privileges on the the Germans and French (gratefully acknow
city, in which fifty-five emperors have since been ledigel)
about 11 Oct. 1870 crowned. The city was taken by the French in The crown-prince of Prussia wrote to colonel Lord Dec. 1792; retaken by the Austrians, March, 1793 ; Lindsay :-“In this, as on other occasions of
by the French, Sept. 1794: ceded to Prussia, 1814. distress, the help of the English public has been poured out with a liberal and an impartial hand.
First Treaty of Peace signed here was between France and The gifts which have been offered in a truly
Spain, when France yielded Franche Comté, but reChristian spirit have excited a feeling of heartfelt
tained her conquests in the Netherlands, 2 May, 1668. gratitude among those on whose behalf I speak" The second celebrated treaty between Great Britain,
France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it Subscription Lists published :
the treaties of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 3rd, 17 Aug.
and 1679, of Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Toth, 25 Ang.
33,339 Baden in 1714, of the Triplo Alliance in 1717, of, tho zoth, 6 Sept.
Quadruple Alliance in 1718, and of Vienna in 1738, 30th, 17 Sept.
were renewed and confirmed.) Signed on the part of 40th, 29 Sept.
England by John, earl of Sandwich, and sir Thomas goth, n Oct.
243, 44 Robinson, 7 Oct. 1748. Coth, 26 Oct.
Congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia and Prussia, 70th, 30 Nov.
280,598 assisted by ministers from England and France, met 18th, 9 Jan. (receired to 31 Dec.)
289,674 at Aix-la-Chapelle, and a convention signed, 9 Oct.
1818, which led to the withdrawal of the army of occuAILANTINE, see Silk.
pation from France. AIR or ATMOSPHERE. Anaximenes of Miletus
AIX ROADS, see Rochefort. (530 B. c.) declared air to be a self-existent deity, and the first cause of everything created. Posidonius AJACCIO, see Corsica. (about 79 B. C.) calculated the height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia. The pressure of air, about
AJNADIN or AIZVADIN (Syria). IIcre 15 lbs. to the square inch, was discovered by Galileo; | Heraclius, 13 July, 633. They took Damascus in 634
the Mahometans defeated the army of the emperor 1564, and demonstrated by Torricelli, (who invented the barometer) about A. D. 1643, and was found by
Sprengel's air-pump, in which water or mercury is Pascal, in 1647, to vary with the height. Halle;, | employed, was invented in 1863.