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CATO-STREET CONSPIRACY: a gang New foreign cattle market, determined on, Nov. of desperate men, headed by Arthur Thistlewood, 1870; opened

Dec. 1871 assembled in Cató-street, Edgware-road, and pro

Foot and mouth disease increasing in England, posed the assassination of the ministers of the

July, Aug. 1872 crown, at a cabinet dinner . They were betrayed appearance of the plague in German cattle ; furtier

about 3 Aug. and arrested 23 Feb. 1820, and Thistlewood, Brunt, Cattle plague appears at Pocklington, Yorkshire: Davidson, Ings, and Tidd, were executed as traitors, vigorously treated, 3 Sept. ; stringent order from on i May.

the privy council.

7 Sept. CATTI, a German tribe, attacked but not sub CATTLE SHOW, see Smithfield. dued by the Romans A.D. 15, and 84; absorbed by the Franks, 3rd century.

CAUCASUS, a lofty mountain, a continuation

of the ridge of Mount Taurus, between the Euxine CATTLE. The importation of horned cattle and Caspian seas. In Mythology, Prometheus was from Ireland and Scotland into England was pro- said to have been tied on the top of Caucasus by hibited by a law, 1663; but the export of cattle Jupiter, and continually devoured by vultures from Ireland became very extensive. In 1842 the (1548 B.c.) The passes near the mountain were importation of cattle into England from foreign called Caucasie Porta, and it is supposed that countries was subjected to a moderate duty, and ir. through them the Sarmatians or Huns invaded the 1846 they were made duty free; and since then the provinces of Rome, A.D. 447; see Circassia. numbers imported have enormously increased. Horned cattle imported into the United Kingdom private meeting of the leading politicians of a party

CAUCUS. An American term applied to a 1849, 53,480 ; 1853, 125,523 ; 1855 (war), 97,527; to agree upon the plans to be pursued during an 1860, 104,569 ; 1805, 283,271; 1800, 237,739; 1807, election or session of congress. 177,948; 1868, 130,688; 1869, 220,190 ; 1870,

This institution is 202,172. See Smith field, Metropolitan Cattle-mar

now a very powerful antagonist to public opinion. ket, and Foreign Cattle-market.

The word is said to be derived from “ship”-caulkers'

meetings. A “caucus club” is mentioned by John A cattle plague began in Hungary ; extended over Adams, in 1763. Bartiett. Similar meetings are

Western Europe, destroying 1 million cattle 1711-14 occasionally held in London by conservatives and A severe cattle plague raged in England and west liberals; one was held by Mr. Gladstone respecting

Europe (about 3 million cattle perish) 1745-56 the ballot bill, 6 July, 1871.
The privy council ordered diseased beasts to be

shot, and their skins destroyed ; granting mode CAUDINE FORKS, according to Liry, the

rate compensation Great disease among foreign cattle'; excluded from

12 March, 1746 Furcula Caudina (in Samnium, S. Italy), were two this country by prohibitions

April, 1857

narrow defiles or gorges, united by a range of mounThe cattle plague appears at Laycock's dairy, tains on each side. The Romans went through the Barnsbury, London, N. ; rapidly spreads, about first pass, but found the second blocked up; on re

24 June, 1865 turning they found the first similarly obstructed. 27,432 beasts had been attacked ; 12,680 died;

Being thus hemmed in by the Samnites, under the 8,998 slaughtered, up to

21 Oct. 1865 A royal commission to inquire into the causes of

command of C. Pontius, they surrendered at discrecattle plague and suggest remedies met first, 10

tion, 321 B.C. (after a fruitless contest, according to Oct. ; report of majority considered the disease Cicero). The Roman senate broke the treaty. to have been imported, and recommend slaughter of animals, and stringent prohibition of passage

CAULIFLOWER, said to have been brought of cattle across public roads, &c., 31 Oct.1865; from Cyprus to England about 1603.

second report, 6 Feb. ; 3rd report 1 May, 1866 Orders in council for regulating the cattle plague CAUSTIC IN PAINTING, a method of burn(in conformity with the act of 1850), 23 Nov. and ing colours into wood or ivory, invented by Gausias 16 Dec. 1865; and

20 Jan. 1866 Disease raging; official report ; cattle attacked,

of Sicyon. He painted his mistress Glycerē sitting 120,740 ; killed, 16,742 ; died, 73,750 ; recovered,

on the ground making garlands with flowers; the 14,162 ; unaccounted for, 16,086

picture was hence named Stephanoplocon. It was Cattle disease acts passed 20 Feb. and 10 Aug. bought by Lucullus for two talents, 335 B.C. Pliny. Orders in council making uniform repressive measures throughout the country

27 March,

CAUTIONARY TOWNS (Holland), (the The disease materially abates

April, Briel, Flushing, Rammekins, and Walcheren), Privy council return : cattle attacked, 248,965 ; were given to queen Elizabeth in 1585 as security

killed, 80,597; died, 124,187 ; recovered, 32,989 : for their repaying her for assistance in their struggle unaccounted for, 11,192 .

22 June, The disease nearly stamped out"

with Spain. They were restored to the Dutch Order in council directing that foreign cattle be

republic by James I. in 1616. landed only at certain parts (after 13 Nov.), there to be subjected to quarantine

CAVALIER. The appellation given to the

10 Nov. Cattle playue re-appears in Cheshire and Lanca supporters of the king during the civil war, from a shire and Yorkshire

Dee. number of gentlemen forming themselves into a Re-appears at Barnsbury (see 24 June, 1865), 46

body-guard for the king in 1641. They were animals slaughtered

3 Feb. 1867 opposed to the Roundheads, or parliamentarians. Re-appearance of the plague in various places,

June, July,

CAVALRY. Used by the Canaanites in war, Contagious diseases (animals) act amended and

1450 B.C. (Josh. xi. 4). Attached to each Roman continued

Aug. No case reported to the privy council

3 Aug.

legion was a body of 300 horse, in ten turmæ; the Order of council permitting cattle to be removed

commander always a veteran.—The Persians had from the metropolis

25 July, 1868 10,000 horse at Marathon, 490 B.c.; and 10,000 New general orders issued

Aug. 1869 Persian horse were slain at the battle of Issus, 333 Prevalence of “ foot and mouth disease"

Plutarch. In the wars with Napoleon I. the England .

i Feb.

27 Oct.


Aug. 1869-Dec. 1870 British cavalry reached to 31,000 men. Our cavalry Increase

June, July, 1891 force, in 1840, was, in household troops, 1209; Disease appears at Kaiserslautern, rear of the Gers

man army; cautionary regulations promulgated dragoons, hussars, and lancers, 9524; total, 10,733. by the privy council

9 Sept. 1870 In 1867, horse guards, 1317; cavalry of the line,


10,023; in depots, 838; in India, 5421; total, bishops only in 692. The decree was opposed in 17,599 ; see Horse Guards, ge.

England, 958-978. The Romish clergy generally CAVENDISH EXPERIMENT. In 1798 VII. in 1073-85, and its observance was established

were enjoined a vow of celibacy by pope Gregory the Hon. Henry Cavendish described his experi- by the council of Placentia, held in 1095: Marment for determining the mean density, of the

riage was restored to the English clergy in 1547. earth, by comparing the force of terrestrial attraction with that of the attraction of leaden spheres of tived at the council of Trent (1563).

The marriage of the clergy was proposed, but negaknown magnitude and density, by means of the torsion balance. Brande. The Cavendish Society, CELL THEORY (propounded by Schwann for the publication of chemical works, was estab- in 1839) supposes that the ultimate particles of all lished 1816.

animal and vegetable tissues are small cells. Some CAWNPORE, a town in India, on the Doab,

of the lowest forms of animal and vegetable life a peninsula between the Ganges and Jumna. During germinal vesicle in the egg and the red-snow plant.

are said to be composed of merely a single cell, as the the mutiny in June, 1857, it was garrisoned by natire troops under sir Hugh Wheeler. These broke CELTIBERI, see Numantine War. out into revolt. An adopted son of the old Peishwa Bajee Rao, Nana Sahib, who had long lived on

CELTS, or KELTS, a group of the Aryan friendly terms with the British, came apparently to family; see Gauls. their assistance, but joined the rebels. He took the CEMETERIES. The burying-places of the place after three weeks' siege, 26 June; and in Jews, Greeks, Romans, were outside their towns spite of a treaty massacred great numbers of the (Matt. xxvii. 60). Many public cemeteries reBritish, without respect to age or sex, in the most sembling “ Père La Chaise" * at Paris, have been cruel manner. General Havelock defeated Nana opened in all parts of the kingdom since 1856; see Sahib, 16 July, at Futtehpore, and retook Cawn- | Catacombs, Bunhill-fields. pore, 17 July. Sir Colin Campbell defeated the rebels here on 6 Dec. following. A column was

Kensal-green cemetery, 53 acres; consecrated, 2 Nov. 1832 erected here, in memory of the sufferers, by their

South Metropolitan and Norwood cemetery, 40 aeres; consecrated

6 Dec. 1837 relatives of the 32nd 'regiment. In Dec. 1860, Highgate and Kentishi-town ceinetery, 22 acres ; Nana was said to be living at Thibet; and in Dec. opened and consecrated

20 May, 1839 1861 was incorrectly said to have been captured at Abbey Park cemetery, Stoke Newington, 30 acres ; Kurrachee; see India, 1857.

opened by the lord mayor .

20 May, 1840

Westminster, or West London cemetery, KensingCAXTON SOCIETY, established for the ton-road; consecrated

15 June, 1840 publication of chronicles and literature of the Mid Nunhead cemetery, about 50 acres; consecrated,

29 July, 1840 dle Ages, published sixteen volumes, 1844-54.

City of London and Tower Hamlets cemetery, CAYENNE, French Guiana (S. America), 30 acres; consecrated

1841 settled by the French 1604-35. It afterwards came

London Necropolis and National Mausoleum, at

Woking, Surrey, 2000 acres; the company incorsuccessively into the hands of the English (1654),

porated in July, 1852; opened

Jan. 1855 French, and Dutch. The last were expelled by the City of London cemetery, Tlford; opened, 24 June, 1856 French in 1677; Cayenne was taken by the British, Acts respecting burials passed

1850-57 12 Jan. 1809, but was restored to the French in 1814. Here is produced the capsicum baccatum, or CENIS, MOUNT, see under Alps. cayenne pepper. Many French political prisoners

CENSORS, Roman magistrates, to survey were sent here in 1848.

and rate the property, and correct the manners of CECILIAN SOCIETY, see under Music. the people. The two first censors were appointed

443 B.C. Plebeian censors were first appointed 131 CEDAR CREEK AND MOUNTAIN, Virginia, U.s. On 19 Oct. 1864, gen. Sheridan revived by Decius, A.D. 251; see Press.

B.C. The office, abolished by the emperors, was converted the defeat of the Federals by the Confederates under Longstreet into a complete victory. CENSUS. The Israelites were numbered by At CEDAR MOUNTAIN gen. Stonewall Jackson Moses, 1490 B.C.; and by David, 1017 B.C.; Demedefeated Banks, 9 Aug. 1862.

trius Phalereus is said to have taken a census of

Attica, 317 B.C. Servius Tullius enacted that a CEDAR TREE. The red cedar (Juniperus general estimate of every Roman's estate and perVirginiana) came from North America before sonal effects, should be delivered to the govern1664; the Bermudas cedar from Bermudas before

ment upon oath every five years, 566 B.C. In the 1683; the Cedar of Lebanon (Pinus Cedrus) from United Kingdom the census is now taken at decenthe Levant before 1683. In 1850 a grove of vener nial periods since 1801; 1811, 1821, 1831, 1841, 1851, able cedars, about 40 feet high, remained on Lebanon. The cedar of Goa (Cupressus Lusitanica) For the latest census of other countries, see TABLE,

1861 (7 April), 1871 (3 April). See Population. was brought to Europe by the Portuguese about facing page 1. 1683; see Cypress.

CENTRAL AMERICA, see America. A CELERY is said to have been introduced into large American steamer of this name was wrecked England by the French marshal, Tallard, during during a gale in the gulf of Mexico, 12 Sept. 1857; his captivity in England, after his defeat at Blen. Of about 550 persons only 152 were saved; several heim by Marlborough, 2 Aug. 1704.

of these after drifting on rafts above 600 miles. CELESTIAL GLOBE, sec Globes.

The loss of about 2} million dollars in specie aggraCELIBACY (from cælebs, unmarried), was

# Père La Chaise was the favourite and confessor of preached by St. Anthony in Egypt about 305. His

Louis XIV., who made him superior of a great establishearly converts lived in caves, &c., till monasteries

ment of the Jesuits on this spot, then named Mont

Louis. The house and grounds were bought for a national were founded. The doctrine was rejected in the

cemetery, which was laid out by M. Brongniart, and first council of Nice, 325. Celibacy was enjoined on used on 21 May, 1804.




vated the commercial panic in New York shortly from the Vandals by Belisarius for Justinian, 534 ; after. The captain and crew behaved heroically. by the Goths, 618; by the Moors about 709, from CENTRAL CRIMINAL COURT, estab

whom it was taken by the Portuguese, 1415. With lished in 1834. Commissions are issued' to the Portugal, it was annexed in 1580 to Spain, which fifteen judges of England (of whom three attend in power still retains it. rotation at the Old Bailey) for the periodical de- CEYLON (the ancient Taprobane), an island livery of the gaol of Newgate, and the trial of in the Indian Ocean, called by the natives the seat offences of greater degree, committed in Middlesex of paradise. It became a seat of Buddhism, 307 and parts of Essex, Kent, and Surrey; the new B.C., and was known to the Romans about 41 A.D. district is considered as one county.

Invaded by the Portuguese Almeyda CENTRAL HALL OF SCIENCES, see

The Duten landel in Ceylon, 1802 ; and captured under Albert.

the capital, Colombo,


Frequent conflicts ; peaceful commercial relations CENTURION, the captain, head, or com- established

1664 mander of a subdivision of a Roman legion, which

Intercourse with the British hegun consisted of 100 men, and was called a centuria.

A large portion of the country taken by them in By the Roman census' each hundred of the people the Diten settlements seized by the British : Trin

1783 was called a centuria, 556 B.C.

comalee, 26 Aug. ; Jatnapatam

Sept. 1795

peace of CENTURY. The Greeks computed time by Ceylon was cedei to Great Britain by the the Olympiads, beginning 776 B.C., and the Roman British troops treacherously massacred or imchurch by Indictions, the first of which began 24 prisoned by the Adigar of Candy, at Colombo; Sept., A.D. 312. The method of computing time see Candy

26 June, 1803 by centuries commenced froin the incarnation of complete sovereignty of the island assumed by Christ, and was adopted in chronological history Bishopric of Colombo founded


1845 first in France. Dupin.

The governor, lord Torrington, absolved from a
CEPHALONIA, one of the Ionian islands,

charge of undue severity in suppressing a rebel-

May, 1851 was taken from the Etolians by the Romans, 189 Prosperity of Ceylon greatly increased under the B.C., and given to the Athenians by Hadrian, A.D. administration of sir H, Ward .

1855-60 135; see lonian Isles.

Sir J. E. Tennent's work, Ceylon," appeared 1859

Sir Hercules G. Robinson appointed governor, CEPHISUS, a river in Attica, near which

7 March, 1865 Walter de Brienne, duke of Athens, was defeated The duke of Edinburgh visited Ceylon April, 1870 and slain by the Catalans, 1311.

Wm. H. Gregory, M.P., appointed governor, 9 Jan. 1872 CERBERE, a French gun-brig, with a crew CHÆRONEA (Borotia). Here Greece was of 87 men, and seven guns, in the harbour of ruined by Philip; 32,000 Macedonians defeating L'Orient, within pistol-shot of three batteries, was 30,000 Thebans, Athenians, &c., 6 or 7 Aug. 338 B.C. captured in a most daring manner by lieut. Jeremiah Here Archelaus, lieutenant of Mithridates, was Coghlan, in a cutter with 19 companions aided by defeated by Sylla, and 110,000 Cappadocians were two boats, one of which was commanded by mid- slain, 86 B.C. ; see Coronea. shipman Paddon. The prize was towed out under a heavy but ineffectual tire from the batteries, chain bridge in the world is said to be that at King

CHAIN BRIDGES. The largest and oldest 26 July, 1800. Nicolus.

tung, in China, where it forms a perfect road from CEREMONIES, MASTER OF THE, an office the top of one mountain to the top of another. instituted for the more honourable reception of Mr. Telford constructed the first chain-bridge on a ambassadors and persons of quality at court, grand scale in England, over the strait between 1 James I. 1603. "The order maintained by the Anglesey and the coast of Wales, 1818-25; see master of the ceremonies at Bath, “Benu Nash,” | Menai Straits. the “King of Bath,” led to the adoption of the office in ordinary assemblies; he died in his 88th Iron chain-cables were in use by the Veneti, a people

CHAIN-CABLES, PUMPS, AND SHOT. year, 1761. Ashe.

intimately connected with the Belgx of Britain in CERES, a planet, 160 miles in diameter, was the time of Cæsar, 57 B. C.

These cables came into discovered by M. Piazzi, at Palermo, i Jun. 1801; use, generally in the navy of England, in 1812. he named it after the goddess highly esteemed by Acts for the proving and sale of chain-cables and the ancient Sicilians.

anchors were passed in 1864 and 1871.-CHAINCERESUOLA (N. Italy). Here Francis de Suor, to destroy the rigting of an enemy's ship, Bourbon, count d'Enghien, defeated the imperialists 1666.-CHAIN-PUMPs were first used on board the

were invented by the Dutch admiral, De Witt, in under the marquis de Guasto, 14 April, 1544. Flora, British frigate, in 1787. CERIGNOLA (S. Italy). Here the great

CHAINS, HANGING IN. By 25 Geo. II. captain Gonsalvo de Cordova and the Spaniards 1752, it was enacted that the judge should direct defeated the duc de Nemours and the French, the bodies of pirates and murderers to be dissected 28 April, 1503.

and anatomised, or hung in chains. The custom of CERINTHIANS, followers of Cerinthus, a hanging in chains was abolished in 1834. Jew, who lived about A.D. 80, are said to have com- CHALCEDON, Asia Minor, opposite Byzanbined Judaism with payan philosophy.

tium, colonised by Megarians, about 684 k.č. It CERIUM, a very rare metal, discovered by was taken by Darius, 505, B.C.; by the Romans, Klaproth and others in 1803.

74; plundered by the Goths, A.D. 259; taken by

Chosrocs, the Persian, 609; by Orchan, the Turk, CEUTA (the ancient Septa), a town on N. coast 1338. Here was held the “Synod of the Oak," of Africa, stands on the site of the ancient Abyla, \ 403; and the fourth general council, which annulled the southern pillar of Hercules. It was taken the act of the “Robber Synod," 8 Oct. 451.

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CHALCIS, see Eubea.

CHAMPAGNE, an ancient province, N. E.

France, once part of the kingdom of Burgundy, was CHALDÆA, the ancient name of Babylonia, hut afterwards restricted to the S. W. portion. The governed by counts from

the ioth century till it

was united to Navarre, count Thibaut becoming Chaldæans were devoted to astronomy and astrology, king, in 1234: The countess Joanna married see Dan. ii

. &c.-- The CHALDÆAN REGISTERS of Philip IV. of France in 1284; and in 1361 Chamcelestial observations, said to have commenced 2234, B.C., were brought down to the taking of pagne was annexed by their descendant king

John. Babylon by Alexander, 331 B.C., (1903. years). popular in the latter part of the 18th century.

The effervescing wine termed Champagne, became These registers were sent to Aristotle by Callisthenes.

-CHALDEAN CHARACTERS: the Bible was tran- CHAMP DE MARS, an open square in front scribed from the original Hebrew into these charac- of the Military school at Paris, with artificial ters, now called Hebrew, by Ezra, about 445 B.C. embankments on each side, extending nearly to the

river Seine. The ancient assemblies of the Frankish CHALGROVE (Oxfordshire). At a skirmish people, the germ of parliaments, held annually in here with prince Rupert, 18 June, 1643, John March, received this name. In 747, Pepin changed Hampden, of the parliament party, was wounded, the month to May. Here was held, 14 July, 1790 and died 24 June. A column was erected to his (the anniversary of the capture of the Bastile), the memory 18 June, 1843.

federation," or solemnity of swearing fidelity to

the “patriot king and new constitution: great CHALONS-SUR-MARNE (N. E. France). rejoicings followed. On 14 July, 1791, a second Here the emperor Aurelian defeated Tetricus, the great meeting was held here, directed by the Jacobin last of the pretenders to the throne, termed the clubs, to sign petitions on the "altar of the country," Thirty Tyrants, 274; and here in 451 Aëtius praying for the abdication of Louis XVI. A comdefeated Attila the Hun, compelling him to retire memoration meeting took place 14 July, 1792. into Pannonia.

Another constitution was sworn to here, under the CHAMBERLAIN, early a high court officer

eye of Napoleon I., 1 May, 1815, at a ceremony in France, Germany, and England. The office of called the Champ de Mai. The prince president chamberlain of the exchequer was discontinued in (afterwards Napoleon III.) had a grand review in 1834.

the Champ de Mars, and distributed eagles to the

army, 10 May, 1852. Here also was held the InterHEREDITARY LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN OF ENGLAND. national Exhibition of 1867, opened i April. - The sixth great officer of state, whose duties, among others, relate to coronations and public solemnities. CHAMPION OF THE KING OF ENGLAND, The office was long held by the De Veres, earls of Oxford,

an ancient office, since 1377, has been attached to granted by Henry I. in 1101. On the death of John De Vere, the sixteenth carl , Mary, his sole danghter family. Their descendant, sir Henry Dymoke,


the mannor of Scrivelsby, held by the Marmion established in that nobleman's family by a judgment of seventeenth of his family who has held the office, the house of peers, 2 Charles I. 1625. On the death of died 28 April, 1865, and was succeeded by his his descendant, unmarried, in July 1779, the house of brother John. At the coronation of the English loris and twelve judges concurred that the office de kings, the champion used to challenge any one that Jarly Georgina Charlotta Bertie, as heirs to their brother should deny their title. Robert, duke of Ancaster, deceased ; and that they had

CHAMPLAIN, see Lake Champlain. powers to appoint a deputy to act for them, not under the degree of a knight, who, if his majesty approved of CHANCELLOR OF ENGLAND, LORD him, might officiate accordingly: Bentson. This dignity High, the first lay subject after the princes of the was for some time held jointly by the lord Willoughby, blood royal. Anciently the office was conferred D'Eresby and the marquis of Cholmondeley, descendants of John de Vere, earl of Oxford, Lord' Willoughby upon some dignified ecclesiastic termed CancelD'Eresby died without issue 27 Aug. 1870, and lord larius, or doorkeeper, who admitted suitors to the Aveland, his sister's son, was appointed to act.

sovereign's presence. Arfastus or Herefast, chaplain LORD CHAMBERLAIN OF THE HOUSEHOLD.-An ancient

to the king (William the Conqueror) and bishop of office. The title is from the French Chambellan, in Elmham, was lord chancellor in 1067. Hardy. Latin Camerarius. Sir William Stanley, knt., afterwards Deheaded, was lord chamberlain, 1 Henry VII. 1485.

Thomas à Becket was made chancellor in 1154. A vice-chamberlain acts in the absence of the chief; the The first person qualified by education, to decide offices are co-existent. Beatson.

causes upon his own judgment, was sir Thomas The Chamberlain of London is an ancient office. More, appointed in 1529, before which time the

officer was rather a state functionary than a judge. CHAMBERS, see Commerce, Agriculture. Sir Christopher Hatton, appointed 'lord chancellor CHAMBERS’ JOURNAL was first published first reference was made to a master in 1588. The

in 1587, was very ignorant, on which account the at Edinburgh in Feb. 1832.

great seal has been frequently put in commission; CHAMBRE ARDENTE (fiery chamber), an

in 1813 the office of Vice-Chancellor was estabextraordinary French tribunal so named from the lished; see Keeper, and Vice-Chancellor. punishment frequently awarded by it. Francis I. in 1535, and Henry II. in 1549, employed it for the

1487. John Moreton, archbishop of Canterbury. extirpation of heresy, which led to the civil war

1504. William Warham, aft. archbshp. of Canterbury. with the Huguenots in 1560; and in 1679 Louis 1515. Thomas Wolsey, cardinal and abp. of York. XIV. appointed one to investigate the poisoning 1529. Sir Thomas More. cases which arose after the execution of the mar- 1532. Sir Thomas Audley, keeper. chioness Brinvilliers.

1533. Sir Thomas Audley, chancellor, aft. lord Audley.

1544. Thomas, lord Wriothesley. CHAMBRE INTROUVABLE, a name

1547. William, lord St. John, keeper.

Richard, lord Rich, lord chancellor. given to the chamber of deputies, elected in France

1551. Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely, keeper. in 1815, on account of its ignorance, incapacity, and 1552. The same ; now lord chancellor. bigoted reactionary spirit.

1553. Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester.





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15 July.

1556. Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York.

1836. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord Cot1558. Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper.

tenham, lord chancellor. 16 Jan. 1579. Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor.

1841. Lord Lyndhurst, a third time. 3 Sept. 1587. Sir Christopher Hatton.

1846. Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor, 6 July. 1591. The great seal in commission.

(His lordship on signifying his intention to 1592. Sir John Puckering, lord keeper.

retire, 19 June, 1850, was created earl of Cotten1596. Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper.

ham.) 1603. Sir T. Egerton, lord Ellesmere, chancellor.

1850. Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, sir Launcelot 1617. Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper

Shadwell, vice-chancellor of England, and sir 1618. Sir Francis Bacon, cr. ld. Verulam, ld. chancellor.

Robert Monsey Rolfe, B.E., commissioners of 1621. The great seal in commission.

the great seal.

19 June. 1625. John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper.

Sir Thomas Wilde, lord Truro. Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coventry, 1852. Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonard's. 27 Feb. lord keeper.

Robt. Monsey Rolfe, lord Cranworth. 28 Dec. 1640. Sir John Finch, afterwards lord Finch,

1858. Sir Frederic Thesiger, lord Chelmsford. 26 Feb. 1641. Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttelton, 1859. John, lord Campbell, 18 June; died 23 June, 1861. lord keeper.

1861. Richard Bethell, lord Westbury. 26 June. Re1643. The great seal in the hands of commissioners.

signed 4 July, 1865. 1645. Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper.

1865. Thomas lord Čranworth, again. 6 July. Resigned 1646. In the hands of commissioners.

June, 1866. 1649. In commission for the commonwealth.

1866. F. Thesiger, lord Chelmsford, again. 6 July. Re1653. Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper.

signed Feb. 1868. 1654. In commission during the commonwealth.

1868. Hugh Cairns, lord Cairns. 29 Feb. 1660. Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards William Page Wood, lord Hatherley.

created lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon. 1872. Roundell Palmer, lord Selborne. 15 Oct. 1872. 1667. Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper. 1672. Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord chancellor.

CHANCELLOR OF IRELAND, LORD 1673. Sir Heneage Finch, lord keeper.

High. The earliest nomination was by Richard 1675. Heneage, now lori Finch, lord chancellor, after- I., 1189, when Stephen Ridel was elevated to this wards earl of Nottingham.

rank. The office of vice-chancellor was known in 1682. Sir Francis North, cr. lord Guilford, lord keeper, Ireland in 1232, Geoffrey Turrillo, archdeacon of 1685. Francis, lord Guilford ; succeeded by

Dublin, being so named. The Chancery and ComGeorge, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor. 1689. In commission.

mon Law Offices (Ireland) act was passed 20 Aug. 1690. Sir John Trevor, knt., sir William Rawlinson, knt., 1867. and sir George Hutchins, knt., commissioners


Patent. 1693. Şir John Somers, lord keeper.

1690. Sir Charles Porter. 29 Dec. 1697. Sir John Somers, cr. lord Somers, chancellor.

1697. Sir John Jeffreyson, Thomas Coote, and Nehemiah 1700. Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief

Donellan, lords keepers. 12 Jan. justice C. P., and chief baron sir Edward Ward, J. Methuen.

u March. lord keepers.

Edward, earl of Meath, Francis, earl of Longford, Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper.

and Murrough, viscount Blessington, lord keepers. 1705. Right hon. William Cowper, lord keeper, after

21 Dec. wards lord Cowper.

1702. Lord Methuen, lord chancellor. 26 Aug. 1707. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor.

1905. Sir Richard Cox, bart. 6 Aug. ; resigned in 1707. 1710. In commission.

1707. Richard Freeman. June. Sir Simon Harcourt, cr. lord Harcourt, keeper.

1710. Robert earl of Kildare, archbishop (Hoadley) of 1713. Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor.

Dublin, and Thomas Keightley, commissioners. 1714. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor

28 Nov. 1718. In coinmission.

1711. Sir Constantine Phipps. 22 Jan. Resigned Sept. Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor ; afterwards

1714. earl of Macclesfield.

1714. Alan Brodrick, afterwards viscount Middleton. 1725. In commission.

11 Oct. Resigned May, 1725. Sir Peter King, cr. lord King, chancellor.

1725. Richard West. June. 1733. Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor.

1726. Thomas Wyndham, afterwards lord Wyndham of 1737. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor.

Finglas. 21 Dec. 1756. In commission.

1739. Robert Jocelyn, afterwards lord Newport and visct. 1757. Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, last lord

Jocelyn. 7 Sept. ; died 25 Oct. 1756. keeper.

1757. John Bowes, afterwards lord Bowes of Clonlyon. 1761. Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards earl of

22 March ; died 1767. Northington.

1768. James Hewitt, afterwards viscount Lifford. 9 Jan. 1766. Charles, lord Camden, lord chancellor.

died 28 April, 1780. 1770. Hon. Charles Yorke, lord chancellor.

1789 John, baron Fitzgibbon, afterwards earl of Clare. (Created lord Morden ; died by suicide within

20 June; died 28 Jan. 1802. three days, and before the seals were put to his 1802. John, baron Redesdale. 15 March. Resigned Feb. patent of peerage.]

1806. In commission.

1806. George Ponsonby. 25 March ; resigned April, 1807. 1771. Henry Bathurst, 'lord Apsley ; succeeded as earl

1807. Thomas Manners Sutton, lord Manners, previously Bathurst.

an English baron of the exchequer. May. Re1778. Edward Thurlow, created lord Thurlow.

signed Nov. 1827. 1783. Alexander, lord Loughborough, and others, com 1827. Sir Anthony Hart, previously vice-chancellor of missioners.

England. 5 Nov. Resigned Nov. 1830. Edward, lord Thurlow, again.

1830. William, baron Plunket. 23 Dec. Resigned Nov. 1792. In commission.

1834. 1793. Alexander Welderburne, lord Loughborough, lord 1835. Sir Edward Burtenshaw Sugden. 13 Jan. Resigned chancellor.

April 1835. 1801. John Scott, lord Eldon.

William, baron Plunket, a second time. 30 April. 1806. Hon, Thomas Erskine, created lord Erskine.

Resigned June, 1841. 1807. John, lord Eldon, again.

1841. John Campbell, June. Resigned Sept. 1841. 1827. John Singleton Copley, created lord Lyndhurst.

Sir Edward Sugden, afterwards lord St. Leonard's, 1830. Henry Brougham, created lord Brougham.

a second time. Oct. Resigned July, 1846. 1834. Lord Lyndhurst, again.

1846. Maziere Brady. 16 July. Resigned Feb. 1852. 1835. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, master of the rolls, 1852. Francis Blackburne. March. Resigned Dec.

vice-chancellor Shadwell, and Mr. justice Bosun 1853. Maziere Brady, again. Jan.
quet, C. P., commissioners.

1858. Joseph Napier. Feb.

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