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1556. Nicholas Heath, archbishop of York.
1558. Sir Nicholas Bacon, keeper.
1579. Sir Thomas Bromley, lord chancellor.
1587. Sir Christopher Hatton.

1591. The great seal in commission.

1592. Sir John Puckering, lord keeper.

1596. Sir Thomas Egerton, lord keeper.
1603. Sir T. Egerton, lord Ellesmere, chancellor.

1617. Sir Francis Bacon, lord keeper
1618. Sir Francis Bacon, er. Id. Verulam, ld. chancellor.
1621. The great seal in commission.

1625. John, bishop of Lincoln, lord keeper.


1673. Sir Heneage Finch, lord keeper.
1675. Heneage, now lord Finch, lord chancellor, after-
wards earl of Nottingham.

1682. Sir Francis North, cr. lord Guilford, lord keeper. 1685. Francis, lord Guilford; succeeded by

George, lord Jeffreys, lord chancellor.

Sir Thomas Wilde, ford Truro.

15 July.

1640. Sir John Finch, afterwards lord Finch.
1641. Sir Edward Lyttelton, afterwards lord Lyttelton,
lord keeper.

Sir Thomas Coventry, afterwards lord Coventry, 1852. Sir Edward Sugden, lord St. Leonard's. 27 Feb.
lord keeper.
Robt. Monsey Rolfe, lord Cranworth. 28 Dec.
1858. Sir Frederic Thesiger, lord Chelmsford. 26 Feb.
1859. John, lord Campbell, 18 June; died 23 June, 1861.
1861. Richard Bethell, lord Westbury. 26 June. Re-
signed 4 July, 1865.

1643. The great seal in the hands of commissioners.
1645. Sir Richard Lane, royal keeper.

1646. In the hands of commissioners.

1865. Thomas lord Cranworth, again. 6 July. Resigned
June, 1866.

1649. In commission for the commonwealth.
1653. Sir Edward Herbert, king's lord keeper.
1654. In commission during the commonwealth.
1660. Sir Edward Hyde, lord chancellor, afterwards
created lord Hyde, and earl of Clarendon.
1667. Sir Orlando Bridgman, lord keeper.
1672. Anthony Ashley, earl of Shaftesbury, lord chan-


1689. In commission.

1690. Sir John Trevor, knt., sir William Rawlinson, knt., and sir George Hutchins, knt., commissioners or keepers.

1693. Sir John Somers, lord keeper.

1697. Sir John Somers, cr. lord Somers, chancellor.
1700. Lord chief justice Holt, sir George Treby, chief
justice C. P., and chief baron sir Edward Ward,
lord keepers.


Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper.


1705. Right hon. William Cowper, lord keeper, after-
wards lord Cowper.
1707. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor.
1710. In commission.


Sir Simon Harcourt, cr. lord Harcourt, keeper. 1713. Simon, lord Harcourt, lord chancellor. 1714. William, lord Cowper, lord chancellor 1718. In commission.


Thomas, lord Parker, lord chancellor; afterwards earl of Macclesfield.

1725. In commission.


Sir Peter King, er. lord King, chancellor. 1733. Charles Talbot, created lord Talbot, chancellor. 1737. Philip Yorke, lord Hardwicke, lord chancellor. 1756. In commission.

1757. Sir Robert Henley, afterwards lord Henley, last lord keeper.

1766. Charles, lord Camden, lord chancellor. 1770. Hon. Charles Yorke, lord chancellor.

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1761. Lord Henley, lord chancellor, afterwards earl of Northington.

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1836. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, created lord Cot-
tenham, lord chancellor. 16 Jan.
1841. Lord Lyndhurst, a third time. 3 Sept.

1846. Lord Cottenham, again lord chancellor, 6 July.
[His lordship on signifying his intention to
retire, 19 June, 1850, was created earl of Cotten-

1835. Sir Charles Christopher Pepys, master of the rolls, vice-chancellor Shadwell, and Mr. justice Bosanquet, C. P., commissioners.

1850. Lord Langdale, master of the rolls, sir Launcelot
Shadwell, vice-chancellor of England, and sir
Robert Monsey Rolfe, B. E., commissioners of
the great seal. 19 June.

1866. F. Thesiger, lord Chelmsford, again. 6 July. Re-
signed Feb. 1868.

1868. Hugh Cairns, lord Cairns. 29 Feb.
William Page Wood, lord Hatherley.


1872. Roundell Palmer, lord Selborne. 15 Oct. 1872.

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1714. Alan Brodrick, afterwards viscount Middleton.
11 Oct. Resigned May, 1725.
1725. Richard West. June.

1726. Thomas Wyndham, afterwards lord Wyndham of
Finglas. 21 Dec.

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1739. Robert Jocelyn, afterwards lord Newport and viset.
Jocelyn. 7 Sept.; died 25 Oct. 1756.
1757. John Bowes, afterwards lord Bowes of Clonlyon.
22 March; died 1767.

1768. James Hewitt, afterwards viscount Lifford. 9 Jan.
died 28 April, 1789.

1789 John, baron Fitzgibbon, afterwards earl of Clare.
20 June; died 28 Jan. 1802.

1802. John, baron Redesdale. 15 March. Resigned Feb.

1806. George Ponsonby. 25 March; resigned April, 1807.
1807. Thomas Manners Sutton, lord Manners, previously
an English baron of the exchequer. May. Re-
signed Nov. 1827.

1827. Sir Anthony Hart, previously vice-chancellor of
England. 5 Nov. Resigned Nov. 1830.

1830. William, baron Plunket. 23 Dec. Resigned Nov.
1835. Sir Edward Burtenshaw Sugden. 13 Jan. Resigned
April 1835.

William, baron Plunket, a second time. 30 April.
Resigned June, 1841.

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1841. John Campbell. June. Resigned Sept. 1841.

Sir Edward Sugden, afterwards lord St. Leonard's,
a second time. Oct. Resigned July, 1846.
1846. Maziere Brady. 16 July. Resigned Feb. 1852.
1852. Francis Blackburne. March. Resigned Dec.
1853. Maziere Brady, again. Jan.
1858. Joseph Napier. Feb.

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1859. Maziere Brady, again. June.

CHAPEL. There are free chapels, chapels of 1866. Francis Blackburne. July. Resigned March, 1867. ease, the chapel royal, &c. Cowell. The gentlemen 1867. Abraham Brewster. 24 March. 1868. Thomas, lord O'Hagan,

pensioners (formerly poor knights of Windsor, who were instituted by the direction of Henry VIII. in his testament, 1546-7) were called knights of the chapel; see Poor Knights of Windsor.-The Private Chapels act passed 14 Aug. 1871. The place of conference among printers, and the conference itself, are by them called a chapel, it is said, because the first work printed in England by Caxton was executed in a ruined chapel in Westminster-abbey.

CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND, LORD. The laws of Malcolm II. (1004) says:-"The chancellar sall at al tymes assist the king in giving him counsall mair secretly nor the rest of the nobility. The chancella ludgit unto the kingis grace, for keiping of his bodie, and the seill, and that he may be readie, baith day and nicht, at the kingis command." Sir James Balfour. Evan was lord chancellor to Malcolm III., Canmore, 1057; and James, earl of Seafield, afterwards Findlater, was the last lord chancellor of Scotland, the office having been abolished in 1708; see Keeper.


CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. by 21 Hen. VIII. c. 13 (1529) :see Exchequer.



AUGMENTATION ACT, passed 1863, enabled the lord chancellor to sell the advowson of certain livings in his gift for augmenting poor benefices.

CHANCELLORSVILLE, Virginia, U.S., a large brick hotel, once kept by a Mr. Chancellor, was the site of severe sanguinary conflicts between the American federal army of the Potomac under general Hooker, and the confederates under general Lee. On 28 April, 1863, the federal army crossed the Rappahannock; on 2 May, general "Stonewall" Jackson furiously attacked and routed the right wing, but was mortally wounded by his own party firing on him by mistake. Gen. Stuart took his command, and after a severe conflict on 3 and 4 May, with great loss to both parties, the federals were compelled to recross the Rappahannock. The struggle was compared to that at Hougomont during the battle of Waterloo. Jackson died 10 May.

CHANCERY, COURT OF, is said to have been instituted either in 605, or by Alfred, 887; refounded by William I., 1067 (Stow) or 1070. This court had its origin in the desire to render justice complete, and to moderate the rigour of other courts that are bound to the strict letter of the law. It gives relief to or against infants, withstanding their minority; and to or against married women, notwithstanding their coverture; and all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confidence, for which there is no redress at common law, are relievable here. Blackstone; see Chancellors of England. The delays in chancery proceedings having long given dissatisfaction, the subject was brought before parliament in 1825, and frequently since; which led to the passing of important acts in 1852, 1853, 1855, 1858, and 1867, to amend the practice in the court of chancery. See Accountant, County Courts.

CHANDOS CLAUSE, see Counties. CHANNEL TUNNEL COMPANY, registered 15 Jan. 1872; see Tunnels.

service in a chapel, for a prince or nobleman. About CHAPLAIN, a clergyman who performs divine The chief personages invested with the privilege of seventy chaplains are attached to the chapel royal. retaining chaplains are the following, with the number that was originally allotted to each rank,

CHANTING the psalms was adopted by Ambrose from the pagan ceremonies of the Romans, about 350. Lenglet. About 602, Gregory the Great added tones to the Ambrosian chant, and established singing schools. Chanting was adopted by some dissenters about 1859.

CHANTRY, a chapel endowed with revenue for priests to sing mass for the souls of the donors; see Chanting. Chantries were abolished in England in 1545.





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8 Knight of the Garter




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Countess .

Master of the Rolls

Royal Almoner

Chief Justice

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CHARCOAL AIR-FILTERS were devised by Dr. John Stenhouse, F.R.S., in 1853. About the end of the last century Löwitz, a German chemist, discovered that charcoal (carbon) possessed the property of deodorising putrid substances, by absorbing and decomposing offensive gases. Airnot-filters, based on this property, have been successfully applied to public buildings, sewers, &c. Dr. Stenhouse also invented charcoal respirators. See Fireman's Respirators.

CHAPLETS, the string of beads used by the Roman Catholics in reciting the Lord's prayer, Ave Maria, &c.; see Beads.

CHAPTER. Anciently the bishop and clergy lived in the cathedral, the latter to assist the former in performing holy offices and governing the church, until the reign of Henry VIII. The chapter is now an assembly of the clergy of a collegiate church or cathedral. Cowell. The chapter-house of Westminster-abbey was built in 1250. By consent of the abbot, the commoners of England held their parliaments there from 1377 until 1547, when Edward VI. granted them the chapel of St. Stephen.

CHARING CROSS. At the village of Charing stood the last of the memorial crosses erected in

memory of Eleanor, queen of Edward I., in conformity with her will. She died, 28 Nov. 1290. The cross remained till 1647, when it was destroyed as a monument of popish superstition. The present Company in 1865 by Mr. E. M. Barry. The houses cross was erected for the South Eastern Railway

at Charing-cross were built about 1678; alterations began in 1829. The first stone of Charing-cross hospital was laid by the duke of Sussex, 15 Sept. 1831. Hungerford-bridge (or Charing-cross bridge) was opened 1 May, 1845; taken down July, 1862, and the materials employed in erecting Clifton suspension bridge, beginning March, 1863; see Clifton. CHARING-CROSS RAILWAY. The first train passed over it 2 Dec. 1863, and it was opened to the public on II Jan. 1864. The new railway bridge, built of iron with brick piers, was constructed by Mr. Hawkshaw.

CHARIOTS. Chariot racing was a Greek exercise. The chariot of an Ethiopian officer is mentioned, Acts viii. 27. Cæsar relates that Cassi

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CHARITABLE FUNDS INVESTMENT lution of 1848. ACT passed I Aug. 1870.

CHARITIES AND CHARITY SCHOOLS, see Education. The Charity Commission reported to parliament that the endowed charities alone of Great Britain amounted to 1,500,000l. annually, in 1840. Charity schools were instituted in London to prevent the seduction of the infant poor into Roman Catholic seminaries, 3 James II., 1687-8. Mr. Low's "Charities of London" (third edition) was published 1873.


CHARLEROI, in Belgium; fortified and named by the Spanish governor Rodrigo, 1666. Several great battles have been fought near this town, especially in 1690 and 1794; see Fleurus. Charleroi was besieged by the prince of Orange, 1672 and 1677; but he was soon obliged to retire. Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prussian line, making it fall back upon Wavres, 16 June, 1815.

rates bombarding Fort Sumter; see United States. In Dec. 1861, the federals sank a number of vessels laden with stone in order to choke up the entrance to Charleston harbour. Unsuccessful attacks were made on Charleston by the federals between April, 1863, and 17 Feb. 1865, when the confederates were compelled to retire; and the federals replaced their standard on fort Sumter, 14 April, the day on which president Lincoln was assassinated.

CHARLES ET GEORGES, two French vessels, professedly conveying free African emigrants (but really slaves), seized by the Portuguese, in Conducia bay, 29 Nov. 1857, sent to Lisbon, and condemned as slavers. The French government sent two ships of war to the Tagus, and the vessels were surrendered under protest; but the emperor of France gave up the free emigration scheme."

CHARLESTON (South Carolina), founded by people from old Charlestown, 1680. The English fleet here was repulsed with great loss, 28 June, 1776. It was besieged by the British troops at the latter end of March, 1780, and surrendered 13 May, following, with 6000 prisoners; it was evacuated 14 Dec. 1782. Great commotion arose here in Nov. 1860, through the election of Mr. Lincoln for the presidency, he being opposed to slavery. On 12, 13 April, 1861, the war began by the confede

CHARLESTOWN (Massachusetts) was burnt by the British forces under general Gage, 17 June, 1775. Charlestown taken by the British, 7 May, 1779.

"CHARTE CONSTITUTIONNELLE," the French political constitution acknowledged by Louis XVIII., 4-10 June, 1814. The infraction of this constitution led to the revolution of 1830. The amended "Charte" was promulgated by LouisPhilippe, 14 Aug. 1830; and set aside by the revo

CHARTER-HOUSE (a corruption of Chartreuse, which see), London, formerly a Carthusian monastery, founded in 1371 by sir Walter de Manny, one of the knights of Edward III., now an extensive charitable establishment. The last prior, John Houghton, was executed as a traitor, for denying the king's supremacy, in May, 1535. After the dissolution of monasteries in 1539, the charterhouse passed through various hands till 1 Nov. 1611, when it was sold by the earl of Suffolk to Thomas Sutton for 13,000l., who obtained letters patent directing that it should be called "the hospital of king James, founded in the Charter-house," and that "there should be for ever 16 governors,' &c. On the foundation are 80 poor brothers and 44 poor scholars. Sutton died 12 Dec. 1611. The expenditure for 1853-4 was 22,3961; the receipts, 28,908. This school was affected by the Public Schools' Act, 1868. In Sept. 1872, the school was opened in new buildings, at Godalming, Surrey; the old buildings having been adapted for the Merchant Taylors' (day) School. The buildings for the "poor brethren were also modified, and in Nov. entirely new arrangements for them were proposed.

CHARTER-PARTY, a covenant between merchants and masters of ships relating to the ship and cargo, said to have been first used in England about 1243.

CHARTERS, granted to corporate towns to protect their manufactures by Henry I. in 1132; modified by Charles II. in 1682; the ancient charters restored in 1698. Alterations were made by the Municipal Reform Act in 1835. See Magna Charta and Boroughs. Ancient Anglo-Saxon charters are printed in Kemble's "Codex Diplomaticus," 1829.

CHARTISTS, the name assumed by large bodies of the lower classes, shortly after the passing of the Reform Bill in 1832, from their demanding the people's Charter, the six points of which were Universal Suffrage, Vote by Ballot, Annual Parliaments, Payment of the Members, the abolition of the Property Qualification (which was enacted, June, 1858), and Equal Electoral Districts. In 1838 the chartists assembled in various parts of the country, armed with guns, pikes, and other weapons, and carrying torches and flags. A proclamation was issued against them, 12 Dec. Their petition (agreed to at Birmingham, 6 Aug. 1838) was presented to parliament by Mr. T. Attwood, 14 June, 1839. They committed great outrages at Birmingham, 15 July, 1839, and at Newport (which see), 4 Nov.

1839. They held for some time a sort of parliament called the "National Convention," the leading men being Feargus O'Connor, Henry Vincent, Mr. Stephens, &c. On 10 April, 1848, they proposed to hold a meeting of 200,000 men on Kennington common, London, to march thence in procession to Westminster, and present a petition to parliament; but only about 20,000 came. The bank and other establishments were fortified by military, preventive measures adopted, and not less than 150,000 persons of all ranks (including Louis Napoleon, afterwards emperor) were voluntarily sworn to act as special constables. The chartists dispersed after slight encounters with the police, and the monster petition, in detached rolls, was sent in cabs to the house of commons. From this time the proceedings of the chartists became insignificant.

CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, chief of the monasteries of the Carthusian order, situated among the rugged mountains near Grenoble, in France, was founded by Bruno of Cologne, about 1084. At the revolution in 1792, the monks were expelled and their valuable library destroyed. They returned to the monastery after the restoration of 1815.

CHARTS AND MAPS. Anaximander of Miletus is said to have been the inventor of geographical and celestial charts, about 570 B.C. Modern sea-charts were brought to England by Bartholomew Columbus to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, 1489. The first tolerably accurate map of England was drawn by George Lilly, who died in 1559. Gerard Mercator published an atlas of maps in 1595; see Mercator.

CHASSEPOT RIFLE, a modified needlegun, and a breech-loader (named after its inventor, Alphonse Chassepot), adopted by the French government in 1866. In April, 1867, 10,000 had been issued to the troops. In his report on the battle of Mentana (which see), 3 Nov. 1867, gen. De Failly said, "the chassepot has done wonders." generally considered successful in the war, 1870-1.


The range of the chassepot being 1800 paces, and that of the needle-gun only between 600 and 700, the Germans in all their charges had to traverse 1200 paces before their arms could be used to purpose.' Many Germans were armed with the chassepot after the surrender of the French army at Sedan, 2 Sept. 1870.

CHASTITY. The Roman laws justified homicide in defence of one's self or relatives; and our laws justify a woman for killing a man in defence of her chastity; and a husband or a father in taking the life of him who attempts to violate his wife or daughter. In 1000 years from Numa, 710 B.C., to Theodosius, A.D. 394, only eighteen Roman vestals had been condemned for incontinence. See Vestals, Aere, and Coldingham.

CHÂTEAUDUN, an old city, N. C. France, the residence of the heroic Dunois, who died 1468. Here were massacred, 20 July, 1183, about 7000 Brabançons, fanatic mercenaries who had been hired to exterminate the Albigenses by the cardinal Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, in 1181. They had become the scourge of the country, and the "Capuchons" were organised for their destruction. Châteaudun was captured by the Germans after a severe conflict of about nine hours, 18 Oct. 1870. Barricades had been erected in the town, and the Garde Mobile fought bravely. The town was reoccupied by the French, 6 Nov.

CHATHAM (Kent), a principal station of the royal navy, the dockyard, commenced by queen Elizabeth, has been recently much extended (1872). The Chatham Chest, for the relief of the wounded and decayed seamen, originally established here by the queen and admirals Drake and Hawkins, in 1588, was removed to Greenwich in 1803. On 10 June, 1667, the Dutch fleet, under admiral De Ruyter, sailed up to this town, and burnt several men-of-war; but the entrance into the Medway is now defended by Sheerness and other forts, and additional fortifications were made at Chatham. On 8-11 Feb. 1861, a violent outbreak of the convicts was suppressed by the military, and many rioters flogged. About 1000l. worth of property was destroyed, and many persons were seriously hurt. New docks and a basin, said to be the largest and finest in the world, opened by Mr. Göschen, 21 June, 1871.

CHATHAM ADMINISTRATION,* succeeded the first Rockingham administration in Aug. 1766: after several changes it terminated Dec. 1767. See Grafton.

Earl of Chatham, first minister and lord privy seal.
Duke of Grafton, first lord of the treasury.
Lord Camden, lord chancellor.
Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer.
Earl of Northington, lord president.

Earl of Shelburne and general Conway, secretaries of state. Sir Charles Saunders (succeeded by Sir Edward Hawke), admiralty.

Marquis of Granby, ordnance.
Lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade.
Viscount Barrington, secretary at war.
Lord North and sir George Cooke, joint paymasters.
Viscount Howe, treasurer of the navy.
Duke of Ancaster, lord de Despenser, &c.

CHATILLON (on the Seine, France). Here a congress was held by the four great powers allied against France, at which Caulaincourt attended for Napoleon, 4 Feb. 1814: the negotiations for peace were broken off on 19 March following.

CHAT MOSS (Lancashire), a peat bog, twelve

miles square, in most places so soft as to be incapable of supporting a man or horse, over which George Stephenson, the railway engineer, carried the Liverpool and Manchester railway, after overcoming difficulties considered invincible. The road (literally a floating one) was completed by 1 Jan. 1830, when the first experimental train, drawn by the Rocket locomotive, passed over it.

CHATTANOOGA (Tennessee). Near here the federal generals, Sherman and Thomas, defeated the confederate general Bragg, after storming the entrenchments, 25 Nov. 1863. Bragg retreated into Georgia, and Longstreet into Virginia.

CHAUMONT (on the Marne, France), TREATY OF, entered into between Great Britain, Austria, Russia, and Prussia, 1 March, 1814. This treaty was succeeded by that of Paris, 11 April, by which Napoleon renounced his sovereignty; see Paris.

CHAUVINISM, a term derived from ChauLaboureur," a veteran soldier of the first empire, vin, the principal character in Scribe's "Soldat filled with intense admiration for Napoleon and for

William Pitt, earl of Chatham (the "great commoner"), born 15 Nov. 1708, entered parliament in 1735; became secretary of state (virtually the premier) in the Devonshire administration, Nov. 1756, secretary in the Newcastle administration, Jan. 1757. In 1766 he became premier, lord privy seal, and afterwards earl of Chatham, which lord Chesterfield called a fall upstairs. He opposed the taxation of the American colonies, but protested against the recognition of their independence, 7 April, 1778, and died 11 May following.


all that belonged to him. Scribe was born 24 Dec. Thomson, &c. Organic Chemistry has been very 1794, died 20 Feb. 1861. greatly advanced by Berzelius, Liebig, Dumas, Laurent, Hofmann, Cahours, Frankland,* &c., since 1830; see Pharmacy, Electricity, Galvanism. For the analytical processes termed "Spectrum analysis," invented by Kirchhoff and Bunsen (1861), and "Dialysis" (1861), and “ Atmolysis" (1863), invented by Mr. T. Graham, see those articles.-The Royal College of Chemistry, Oxfordstreet, London, was established in 1845 (now at South Kensington)-the publication of Henry Watts' great "Dictionary of Chemistry" began in April, 1863; ended, May, 1868. M. Ad. Wurtz's equally great "Dictionnaire de Chimie," began in 1868. CHEQUES, see Drafts.

CHEATS were punishable by pillory, imprisonment, and fine, and a rigorous statute was enacted against them in 1542. Persons cheating at play, or winning at any time more than 107. or any valuable thing, were deemed infamous, and were to suffer punishment as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, 1711. Blackstone.

CHEESE is mentioned by Aristotle, about 350 B.C. It is supposed by Camden and others that the English learned cheese-making from the Romans about the Christian era. Wilts, Gloucester, and Cheshire make vast quantities; the last alone, annually, about 31,000 tons. In 1840 we imported from abroad about 10,000 tons; in 1855, 384,192 ewt.; in 1866, 872,342 ewt.; in 1870, 1,041,281 cwt. The duty on foreign cheese, producing annually about 50,000l., was taken off in 1860.

CHELSEA (Middlesex). A council held here 27 July, 816. Nicolas. A theological college here founded by James I. in 1609, was converted by Charles II. in 1682 to an asylum for wounded and superannuated soldiers. The erection was carried on by James II., and completed by William III. in 1690. The projector was sir Stephen Fox, grandfather of the orator C. J. Fox; the architect was sir Christopher Wren; and the cost 150,000l. In 1850 there were 70,000 out- and 539 in-pensioners.-The body of the duke of Wellington lay here in state, 10-17 Nov. 1852.-The physic garden of sir Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, was given to the Apothecaries' company, 1721.-The Chelsea waterworks were incorporated, 1722-The first stone of the Military Asylum, Chelsea, was laid by Frederick, duke of York, 19 June, 1801.-The bridge, constructed by Mr. T. Page to connect Chelsea with Battersea-park, was opened March, 1858. The Albert-bridge was opened 31 Dec. 1872. The parliamentary borough of Chelsea, created by the Reform act, 15 Aug. 1867, consists of Chelsea, Kensington, Fulham, and Hammersmith. See Trials, July, 1870 and 1872.

CHELTENHAM (Gloucestershire). Its celebrated mineral spring was discovered in 1718. The king's-well was sunk in 1778; and other wells by Mr. Thompson in 1806. Magnesian salt was first found in the waters in 1811. The theatre was erected in 1804. CHEMICAL SOCIETIES. One formed in London in 1780, did not long continue. The present Chemical society of London was established in 1841; that of Paris in 1857.

CHEMISTRY was introduced into Spain by the Moors, about 1150. The Egyptians and Chinese claim an early acquaintance with chemistry. The first chemists were the Alchemists (see Alchemy); but chemistry was not a science till the 17th century; during which its study was promoted by Bacon, Hooke, Mayow, and Boyle. In the early part of the 18th century, Dr. Sephen Hales laid the foundation of Pneumatic Chemistry, and his contemporary Boerhaave combined the study of chemistry with medicine. These were succeeded by Bergman, Stahl, Black, &c. In 1772, Priestley published his researches on air, having discovered the gases oxygen, ammonia, &c.; and thus commenced a new chemical era. He was ably seconded by Cavendish, Scheele, Lavoisier, Chaptal, &c. The 19th century opened with the brilliant discoveries of Davy, continued by Dalton, Faraday,

CHERBOURG, the great naval fortress and arsenal of France on the coast of Brittany, about Plymouth. It was captured by our Henry V. in 60 or 70 miles equi-distant from Portsmouth and 1418, and lost in 1450. Under the direction of Louis XIV., some works were erected here by the great Vauban, which with some shipping, &c., were destroyed by the British, 6, 7 Aug. 1758. The works resumed by Louis XVI., were interrupted by the revolution. The breakwater, commenced in 1783, resumed by Napoleon I. about 1803, and completed in 1813, forms a secure harbour, affording anchorage for nearly the whole navy of France, and protected by strong fortifications. On 4, 5 Aug. 1858, the railway and the Grand Napoleon docks were opened, the latter in the presence of the queen of England and court. The British fleet visited Cherbourg, 15-17 Aug. 1865, receiving much hospitality.

CHERITON DOWN (Hants). Here sir Wm. Waller defeated the royalists under lord Hopton, 29 March, 1644.

CHERRY, the Prunus Cerasus (from Cerasus, a city of Pontus, whence the tree was brought by Britain, it is said, about 100. Lucullus to Rome, about 70 B.C.), first planted in Fine kinds were brought from Flanders, in 1540, and planted in Kent.

CHERSON, see Kherson.
CHERSONEUS, see Crimea.

CHESAPEAKE. At the mouth of this river a contest took place between the British admiral Greaves and the French admiral De Grasse aiding the revolted states of America; the former was

obliged to retire, 1781. The Chesapeake and Delaware were blockaded by the British fleet in the American war of 1812, and the bay was, at that

period, the scene of great hostilities of various


CHESAPEAKE, an American frigate, in Boston bay, commanded by capt. Lawrence (50 guns, 376 men), struck to the Shannon, British frigate (38 guns, 330 men) commanded by capt. Philip Vere Broke, after a severe action of eleven minutes, 1 June, 1813. Eleven minutes elapsed between the firing of the first gun and the boarding, and in four minutes more the Chesapeake was the Shannon's prize. Capt. Lawrence died of his wounds.

CHESS, a game attributed to Palamedes, 680 B.C.; Hyde and sir William Jones refer the origin of chess to the Hindoos.

In 1828 Wohler produced artificially urea, a body hitherto known only as a product of the animal organism. Since then, acetic acid, alcohol, grape sugar, various essential oils, similar to those of the pine apple, pear, garlic, &c., have been formed by combinations of the gases, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbonic acid. barrier formed by chemists between organic and inorganic bodies is thus broken down.


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