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1859. Maziere Brady, again. June.

CHAPEL. There are free chapels, chapels of 1866. Francis Blackburne. July. Resigned March, 1867. 1867. Abrahan Brewster.

case, the chapel royal, &c. Cowell. The gentlemen March.

24 1868. Thomas, lord O'Hagan,

pensioners (formerly poor knights of Windsor, who

were instituted by the direction of Henry VIII. in CHANCELLOR OF SCOTLAND, LORD. his testament, 1546-7) were called knights of the The laws of Malcolm II. (1004) says:-" The chapel; see Poor Knights of Windsor.— The Private chancellar sall at al tymes assist the king in giving Chapels act passed 14 Aug. 1871. The place of conhim counsall mair secretly, nor the rest of the ference among printers, and the conference itself, nobility. The chancellar sall be ludgit neir are by them called a chapel, it is said, because the unto the kingis grace, for keiping of his bodie, and first work printed in England by Caxton was exethe seill, and that he may be readie, baith day and cuted in a ruined chapel in Westminster-abbey. nicht, at the kingis command.” Sir James Balfour. Evan was lord chancellor to Malcolm III., Canmore,

CHAPLAIN, a clergyman who performs divine 1057; and James, earl of Seafield, afterwards service in a chapel, for a prince or nobleman. About Findlater, was the last lord chancellor of Scotland, seventy chaplains are attached to the chapel royal. the office having been abolished in 1708; see

The chief personages invested with the privilege of Keeper.

retaining chaplains are the following, with the

number that was originally allotted to each rank, CHANCELLOR OF THE EXCHEQUER. by 21 Hen. VIII. c. 13 (1529) :see Erchequer.


8 Knight of the Garter CHANCELLOR'S AUGMENTATION Duke

6 Duchess ACT, passed 1863, enabled the lord chancellor to


6 Marchioness

Countess. sell the advowson of certain livings in his gift for Marquis

Baroness augmenting poor benefices.


4 Master of the Rolls CHANCELLORSVILLE, Virginia, U.S., a


3 Royal Almoner

Chancellor large brick hotel, once kept by a Mr. Chancellor,

31 Chief Justice was the site of severe sanguinary conflicts between the American federal army of the Potomac under Roman Catholics in reciting the Lord's prayer, Ave

CHAPLETS, the string of beads used by the general Hooker, and the confederates under general | Maria, &c.; see Beads. Lee. On 28 April, 1863, the federal army crossed the Rappahannock; on 2 May, general Stonewall”

CHAPTER. Anciently the bishop and clergy Jackson furiously attacked and routed the right lived in the cathedral, the latter to assist the former wing, but was mortally wounded by his own party in performing holy offices and governing the church, firing on him by mistake. Gen. Stuart took his until the reign of Henry VIII. The chapter is now command, and after a severe conflict on 3 and 4

an assembly of the clergy of a collegiate church or May, with great loss to both parties, the federals cathedral. Cowell. The chapter-house of Westwere compelled to recross the Rappahannock. The minster-abbey was built in 1250. By consent of struggle was compared to that at Hougomont the abbot, the commoners of England held their during the battle of Waterloo. Jackson died 10 parliaments there from 1377 until 1547, when May.

Edward VI. granted them the chapel of St. Stephen. CHANCERY, COURT OF, is said to have CHARCOAL AIR-FILTERS were devised been instituted either in 605, or by Alfred, 887; by Dr. John Stenhouse, F.R.S., in 1853. About refounded by William I., 1067 (slow) or '1070. the end of the last century Löwitz, a German This court had its origin in the desire to render chemist, discovered that charcoal (carbon) possessed justice complete, and to moderate the rigour of the property of deodorising putrid substances, by other courts that are bound to the strict letter of the absorbing and decomposing offensive gases. Airlaw. It gives relief to or against infants, not- filters, based on this property, have been successwithstanding their minority; and to or against fully applied to public buildings, sewers, &c. Dr. married women, notwithstanding their coverture; Stenhouse also invented charcoal respirators. See and all frauds, deceits, breaches of trust and confi- | Fireman's Respirators. dence, for which there is no redress at common law, are relievable here. Blackstone ; see Chan

CHARING CROSS. At the village of Charing allors of England. The delays in chancery pro

stood the last of the memorial crosses erected in ceedings having long given dissatisfaction, the memory of Eleanor, queen of Edward I., in consubject was brought before parliament in 1825, and formity with her will

. She died, 28 Nov. 1290. frequently since; which led to the passing of im- The cross remained till 1647, when it was destroyed portant acts in 1852, 1853, 1855, 1858, and 1867, to

as a monument of popish superstition. The present amend the practice in the court of "chancery. See Company in 1865 by Mr. E. M. Barry. The houses

cross was erected for the South Eastern Railway Accountant, County Courts.

at Charing-cross were built about 1678; alterations CHANDOS CLAUSE, see Counties.

began in 1829. The first stone of Charing-cross CHANNEL TUNNEL COMPANY, regis- hospital was laid by the duke of Sussex, 15 Sept. tered 15 Jan. 1872; see Tunnels.

1831. Hungerford-bridge (or Charing-cross bridge)

was opened i May, 1845; taken down July, 1862, CHANTING the psalms was adopted by and the materials employed in erecting Clifton susAmbrose from the pagan ceremonies of the Romans, pension bridge, beginning March, 1863; see Clifton. about 350. Lenglet. About 602, Gregory the Great | CHARING-CROSS RAILWAY. The first train passed added tones to the Ambrosian chant, and established

over it 2 Dec. 1863, and it was opened to the public singing schools. Chanting was adopted by some on 11 Jan. 1864. The new railway bridge, built dissenters about 1859.

of iron with brick piers, was constructed by Mr. CHANTRY, a chapel endowed with revenue

Hawkshaw. for priests to sing mass for the souls of the donors; CHARIOTS. Chariot racing was a Greek see Chanting. Chantries were abolished in England exercise. The chariot of an Ethiopian officer is

mentioned, Acts viii. 27. Cæsar relates that Cassi

in 1545.

belaunus, after dismissing his other forces, retained rates bombarding Fort Sumter; see United States. no fewer than 4000 war-chariots about his person ; In Dec. 1861, the federals sank a number of vessels see Carriages, &c.

laden with stone in order to choke up the entrance

to Charleston harbour. Unsuccessful attacks were CHARITABLE BEQUESTS, &c. Boards made on Charleston by the federals between April, for their recovery were constituted in 1764, and 1863, and 17 Feb. 1865, when the confederates were 1800, and a board for Ireland (chiefly prelates compelled to retire; and the federals replaced their of the established church), in 1825. The Roman standard on fort Sumter, 14 April, the day on which Catholic Charitable Bequests act passed in 1844, president Lincoln was assassinated. and an act for the better administration of Charitable Trusts in 1853, when commissioners were ap CHARLESTOWN (Massachusetts) was burnt pointed, who have from time to time published by the British forces under general Gage, 17 June, voluminous reports. Amendment acts were passed 1775. Charlestown taken by the British, 7 May, 1779. 1855 and 1871.

“CHARTE CONSTITUTIONNELLE,” CHARITABLE BRETHREN, an order the French political constitution acknowledged by founded by St. John of God, and approved by pope Louis XVIII., 4-10 June, 1814. The infraction of Pius V. 1572; introduced into France, 1601; settled this constitution led to the revolution of 1830. The at Paris, 1602. Hénault.

amended “Charte" was promulgated by Louis

Philippe, 14 Aug. 1830; and set aside by the revoCHARITABLE FUNDS INVESTMENT lution of 1848. ACT passed i Aug. 1870.

CHARTER-HOUSE (a corruption of ChartCHARITABLE TRUSTEES”. INCOR- reuse, which see), London, formerly a Carthusian PORATION ACT passed 27 June, 1872. monastery, founded in 1371 by sir Walter de Manny,

one of the knights of Edward'111., now an extensive CHARITABLE TRUSTS ACTS amended charitable establishment. The last prior, John in 1869.

Houghton, was executed as a traitor, for denying CHARITABLE USES, statute of, 43 Eliz. the king's supremacy, in May, 1535. After the c. 4 (1601), passed “ to redresse the misemployment dissolution of monasteries in 1539, the charterof landes, goodes, and stockes of money, heretofore house passed through various hands till i Nov. given to charitable uses. The law respecting the 1611, when it was sold by the earl of Suffolk to conveyance of land for charitable uses was amended Thomas Sutton for 13,0001., who obtained letters in 1861.

patent directing that it should be called “the hos

pital of king James, founded in the Charter-house," CHARITIES AND CHARITY SCHOOLS, and that "there should be for ever 16 governors, see Education. The Charity Commission reported &c. On the foundation are 80 poor brothers and to parliament that the endowed charities alone of 44 poor scholars. Sutton died 12 Dec. 1611. The Great Britain amounted to 1,500,0001. annually, in expenditure for 1853-4 was 22,3961.; the receipts, 1840. Charity schools were instituted in London to 28,9081. This school was affected by the Public prevent the seduction of the infant poor into Roman Schools' Act, 1868. In Sept. 1872, the school was Catholic seminaries, 3 James II., 1687-8. Mr. Low's opened in new buildings, at Godalming, Surrey; “Charities of London” (third edition) was pub- the old buildings having been adapted for the lished 1873.

Merchant Taylors' (day) School. The buildings CHARITY ORGANISATION SOCIETY, in Nov. entirely new arrangements for them were

were also modified, and see under Poor.

proposed. CHARLEROI, in Belgium; fortified and

CHARTER-PARTY, a covenant between named by the Spanish governor Rodrigo, 1666. Several great battles have been fought near this and cargo, said to have been first used in England

merchants and masters of ships relating to the ship town, especially in 1690 and 1794 ; see Fleurus. about 1243. Charleroi was besieged by the prince of Orange, 1672 and 1677; but he was soon obliged to retire. CHARTERS, granted to corporate towns to Near here, at Ligny, Napoleon attacked the Prus- protect their manufactures by Henry I. in 1132; sian line, making it fall back upon Wavres, 16 June, modified by Charles II. in 1682; the ancient charters 1815.

restored in 1698. Alterations were made by the CHARLES ET GEORGES, two French and Boroughs. Ancient Anglo-Saxon charters are

Municipal Reform Act in 1835. See Magna Charta vessels, professedly conveying, free African emi- printed in Kemble’s “Codex Diplomaticus," 1829. grants (but really slaves), seized by the Portuguese, in Conducia bay, 29 Nov. 1857, sent to Lisbon, and CHARTISTS, the name assumed by large condemned as slavers. The French government bodies of the lower classes, shortly after the passing sent two ships of war to the Tagus, and the vessels of the Reform Bill in 1832, from their demanding were surrendered under protest; but the emperor of the people's Charter, the six points of which were France gave up the free emigration scheme. Universal Suffrage, Vote by Bullot, Annual Parlia

ments, Payment of the Members, the abolition of the CHARLESTON (South Carolina), founded by Property Qualification (which was enacted, June, people from old Charlestown, 1680. The English 1858), and Equal Electoral Districts. In 1838 the Heet here was repulsed with great loss, 28 June, chartists assembled in various parts of the country, 1776. It was besieged by the British troops at the armed with guns, pikes, and other weapons, and latter end of March, 1780, and surrendered 13 May, carrying torches and flugs. A proclamation was following, with 6000 prisoners; it was evacuated issued against them, 12 Dec. Their petition (agreed 14 Dec. 1782. Great commotion arose here in Nov. to at Birmingham,' 6 Aug. 1838) was presented to 1863, through the election of Mr. Lincoln for the parliament by Mr. T. Attwood, 14 June, 1839. presidency, he being opposed to slavery. On They committed great outrages at Birmingham, 12, 13 April, 1861, the war began by the confede- 15 July, 1839, and at Newport (which see), 4 Nov.

1839. They held for some time a sort of parliament CHATHAM (Kent), a principal station of the called the National Convention,” the leading royal navy, the dockyard, commenced by queen men being Feargus O'Connor, Henry Vincent, Mr. Elizabeth, has been recently much extended (1872). Stephens, &c. On 10 April, 1848, they proposed to The Chatham Chest, for the relief of the wounded hold a meeting of 200,000 men on Kennington and decayed seamen, originally established here by common, London, to march thence in procession to the queen and admirals Drake and Hawkins, in Westminster, and present a petition to parliament; 1588, was removed to Greenwich in 1803. 'On but only about 20,000 came. The bank and other 10 June, 1667, the Dutch fleet, under admiral De establishments were fortified by military, preventive Ruyter, sailed up to this town, and burnt several measures adopted, and not less than 150,000 persons men-of-war; but the entrance into the Medway is of all ranks (including Louis Napoleon, afterwards now defended by Sheerness and other forts, and emperor) were voluntarily sworn to act as special additional fortifications were made at Chatham. constables. The chartists dispersed after slight en- On 8-11 Feb. 1861, a violent outbreak of the convicts counters with the police, and the monster petition, was suppressed by the military, and many rioters in detached rolls, was sent in cabs to the house of flogged. About ioool. worth of property was decommons. From this time the proceedings of the stroyed, and many persons were seriously hurt. New chartists became insignificant.

docks and a basin, said to be the largest and finest

in the world, opened by Mr. Göschen, 21 June, 1871. CHARTREUSE, LA GRANDE, chief of the monasteries of the Carthusian order, situated among

CHATHAM ADMINISTRATION,* sucthe rugged mountains near Grenoble, in France, ceeded the first Rockingham administration in Aug. was founded by Bruno of Cologne, about 1084. At 1766: after several changes it terminated Dec. the revolution in 1792, the monks were expelled and 1767. See Grafton. their valuable library destroyed. They returned to

Earl of Chatham, first minister and lord priry seal.

Duke of Grafton, first lord of the treasury. the monastery after the restoration of 1815.

Lord Camden, lord chancellor.

Charles Townshend, chancellor of the exchequer. CHARTS AND MAPS. Anaximander of

Earl of Northington, loril president. Miletus is said to have been the inventor of geo

Earl of Shelburne and general Conway, secretaries of state. graphical and celestial charts, about 570 B.C. Sir Charles Saunders (succeeded by Sir Edward Hawke), Modern sea-charts were brought to England by admiralty. Bartholomew Columbus to illustrate his brother's Marquis of Granby, ordnance. theory respecting a western continent, 1489. The

Lord Hillsborough, first lord of trade.

Viscount Barrington, secretary at war. first tolerably accurate map of England was drawn

Lord North and sir George Cooke, joint paymasters. by George Lilly, who died in 1559. Gerard Mer- Viscount Howe, treasurer of the nary. cator published an atlas of maps in 1595; see Duke of Ancaster, lord de Despenser, &c. Mercator.

CHATILLON (on the Seine, France). Here CHASSEPOT RIFLE, a modified needle- a congress was held by the four great powers allied gun, and a breech-loader (named after its inventor, against France, at which Caulaincourt' attended for Alphonse Chassepot), adopted by the French go- Napoleon, 4 Feb. 1814: the negotiations for peace vernment in 1806. In April, 1867, 10,000 had been were broken off on 19 March following. issued to the troops. In his report on the battle of Mentana (uchich see), 3 Nov. 1807, gen. De Fuilly miles square, in most places so soft as to be in.

CHAT MOSS (Lancashire), a peat bog, twelve said, “ the chassepot has done wonders.” It was generally considered successful in the war, 1870-1. capable of supporting a man or horse, over which ** The range of the chasse pot being 1800 paces, and George Stephenson, the railway engineer, carried that of the needle-gun only between 600 and 700, coming ditticulties considered invincible. The road

the Liverpool and Manchester railway, after overthe Germans in all their charges had to traverse 1200 paces before their arms could be used to pur- (literally a floating one) was completed by 1 Jan. pose." Many Germans were armed with the chasse- .830, when the first experimental train, drawn by pot after the surrender of the French army at Sedan, the Rocket locomotive, passed over it. 2 Sept. 1870.

CHATTANOOGA (Tennessee). Near here

the federal generals, Sherman and Thomas, deCHASTITY. The Roman laws justified homi- feated the confederate general Bragg, after storming cide in defence of one's self or relatives; and our

the entrenchments, 25 Nov. 1863. Bragg retreated laws justify a woman for killing a man in defence into Georgia, and Longstreet into Virginia. of her chastity; and a husband or a father in taking the life of him who attempts to violate his wife or CHAUMONT (on the Marne, France), TREATY daughter. In 1000 years from Numa, 710 B.C., to

OF, entered into between Great Britain, Austria, Theodosius, A.D. 394, only eighteen Roman vestals Russia, and Prussia, 1 March, 1814. This treaty had been condemned for incontinence. See V'estals, was succeeded by that of Paris, 11 April, by which Acre, and Coldingham.

Napoleon renounced his sovereignty; see Paris. CHÂTEAUDUN, an old city, N. C. France, vin, the principal character in Seribe's “Soldat

CHAUVINISM, a term derived from Chauthe residence of the heroic Dunois, who died 1468. Laboureur," a veteran soldier of the first empire, Here were massacred, 20 July, 1183, about 7000 filled with’intense admiration for Napoleon and for Brabançons, fanatic mercenaries who had been hired to exterminate the Albigenses by the cardinal

* William Pitt, earl of Chatham (the "great commoner"), Henry, abbot of Clairvaux, in 1181. They had

born 15 Nov. 1708, entered parliament in 1735; became become the scourge of the country, and the “Capu- secretary of state (virtually the premier) in the Devonchons" were organised for their destruction. Cha-shire alministration, Nov. 1756, secretary in the New

castle administration, Jan. 1757. teaudun was captured by the Germans after a

In 1766 he became severe conflict of about nine hours, 18 Oct. 1870. premier, lord privy scal, and afterwards earl of Chathum,

which lord Chesterfield called a fall upstairs. He opposed Barricades had been erected in the town, and the

the taxation of the American colonies, but protested Garde Mobile fought bravely. The town was re- against the recognition of their independence, 7 April, occupied by the French, 6 Nor.

1778, and died 11 May following:

all that belonged to him. Scribe was born 24 Dec. Thomson, &c. Organic Chemistry has been very 1794, died 20 Feb. 1861.

greatly advanced by Berzelius, Liebig, Dumas,

Laurent, Hofmann, Cahours, Frankland,* &c., CHEATS were punishable by pillory, impri- since 1830; see Pharmacy, Electricity, Galvanism. sonment, and fine, and a rigorous statute was enacted against them in 1542. Persons cheating at analysis,” invented by Kirchhoff

' and 'Bunsen

For the analytical processes termed “ Spectrum play, or winning at any time more than 101. or any (1861), and “ Dialysis" (1861), and“ valuable thing, were deemed infamous, and were (1863), invented by Mr. T. Graham, see those

Almolysis to suffer punishment as in cases of perjury, 9 Anne, articles. — The Royal College of Chemistry, Oxford1711. Blackstone.

street, London, was established in 1845 (now at CHEESE is mentioned by Aristotle, about South Kensington)—the publication of Henry Watts' 350 B.C. It is supposed by Camden and others that great “Dictionary of Chemistry" began in April, the English learned cheese-making from the Romans 1863; ended, May, 1868. M. Ad. Wurtz's equally about the Christian era. Wilts, Gloucester, and great “ Dictionnaire de Chimie," began in 1808. Cheshire make vast quantities; the last alone, an CHEQUES, see Drafts. nually, about 31,000 tons. In 1840 we imported from abroad about 10,000 tons; in 1855, 384,192 arsenal of France on the coast of Brittany, about

CHERBOURG, the great naval fortress and cwt. ; in 1866, 872,342 cwt.; in 1870, 1,041,281 60 or 70 miles equi-distant from Portsmouth and cwt. 'The duty on foreign cheese, producing annually Plymouth. It was captured by our Henry. V. in about 50,0001., was taken off in 1860.

1418, and lost in 1450. Under the direction of CHELSEA (Middlesex). A council held here Louis XIV., some works were erected here by the

&c., were 27 July, 816. Nicolas. A theological college here great Vauban, which with some shi founded by James I. in 1609, was converted by destroyed by the British, 6, 7 Aug. 1758. The Charles II. in 1682 to an asylum for wounded and

works resumed by Louis XVI., were interrupted by

The breakwater, commenced in superannuated soldiers. The erection was carried the revolution. on by James II., and completed by William III. 1783, resumed by Napoleon I. about 1803, and comin 1690. The projector was sir Stephen Fox, pleted in 1813, forms a secure harbour, affording grandfather of the orator C. J. Fox; the architect anchorage for nearly the whole navy of France, and was sir Christopher Wren; and the cost 150,000l. 1858, the rảilway and the Grand Napoleon docks

protected by strong fortifications. On 4, 5 Aug. In 1850 there were 70,000 out, and 539 in-pensioners.—The body of the duke of Wellington lay

were opened, the latter in the presence of the

The British fleet here in state, 10-17 Nov. 1852.—The physic garden queen of England and court. of sir Hans Sloane, at Chelsea, was given to the visited Cherbourg, 15-17 Aug. 1865, receiving much Apothecaries' company, 1721.- The Chelsea water

hospitality works were incorporated, 1722 – The first stone of CHERITON DOWN (Hants). Here sir Wm. the Military Asylum, Chelsea, was laid by Frederick, Waller defeated the royalists under lord Hopton, duke of York, 19 June, 1801.--The bridge, con 29 March, 1644. structed by Mr. T. Page to connect Chelsea with Battersea-park, was opened_March, 1858. The

CHERRY, the Prunus Cerasus (from Cerasus, Albert-bridge was opened 31 Dec. 1872. The par- Lucullus to Rome, about 70 B.C.), first planted in

a city of Pontus, whence the tree was brought by liamentary borough of Chelsea, created by the Britain, it is said, about 100. Fine kinds were Reform act, 15 Aug. 1867, consists of Chelsea, Ken- brought from Flanders, in 1540, and planted in sington, Fulham, and Hammersmith. See Trials, Kent. July, 1870 and 1872.

CHERSON, see Kherson. CHELTENHAM (Gloucestershire). Its celebrated mineral spring was discovered in 1718. CHERSONEUS, see Crimea. The king's-well was sunk in 1778; and other wells CHESAPEAKE. At the mouth of this river by Mr. Thompson in 1806. Magnesian salt was a contest took place between the British admiral first found in the waters in 1811. The theatre was Greaves and the French admiral De Grasse aiding erected in 1804.

the revolted states of America; the former was CHEMICAL SOCIETIES. One formed in obliged to retire, 1781. The Chesapeake and DelaLondon in 1780, did not long continue. The American war of 1812, and the bay was, at that

ware were blockaded by the British fleet in the present Chemical society of London was established period, the scene of great hostilities of various in 1841; that of Paris in 1857.

results. CHEMISTRY was introduced into Spain by CHESAPEAKE, an American frigate, in Boston bay, comthe Moors, about 1150. The Egyptians and Chinese manded by capt. Lawrence (50 guns, 376 men), struck claim an early acquaintance with chemistry. The

to the Shannon, British frigate (38 guns, 330 men) comfirst chemists were the Alchemists (see Alchemy);

manded by capt. Philip Vere Bruke, after a severe

action of eleven ininutes. 1 June, 1813. Eleven minutes but chemistry was not a science till the 17th

elapsed between the firing of the first gun and the century; during which its study was promoted by boarding, and in four minutes more the Chesapeake was Bacon, Hooke, Mayow, and Boyle. In the early the Shannon's prize. Capt. Lawrence died of his wounds. part of the 18th century, Dr. Sephen Hales laid the foundation of Pneumatic Chemistry, and his con

CHESS, a game attributed to Palamedes, 680 temporary Boerhaare combined the study of of chess to the Hindoos.

B.C.; Hyde and sir William Jones refer the origin chemistry with medicine. These were succeeded by Bergman, Stahl, Black, &c. In 1772, Priestley * In 1828 Wohler produced artificially are, a bouly published his researches on air, having discovered hitherto known only as a product of the animal oryanthe gases oxygen, ammonia, &c.; and thus com

Since then, acetic acid, alcohol, grape sugar, menced a new chemical era. He was ably seconded

various essential oils, similar to those of the pine apple, by Cavendish, Scheele, Lavoisier, Chaptal, &c.

pear, garlie, &c., have been formed by combinations of

The The 19th century opened with the brilliant dis

the gases, oxygen, hydrogen, and carbonic acid.

barrier forined by chemists between organic and inorganic coveries of Davy, continued by Dalton, Faraday, bodies is thus broken down.





Caxton printed "the Game and Playe of the Chesse" 1474 CHICHESTER (Sussex), built by Cissa,
I chess-club formed at Slaughter's coffee-house, St. about 540. The cathedral was completed about

The automaton chess-player (a piece of machinery)

1108, burnt with the city in 1114, and rebuilt by 1769

bishop Seffrid about 1187. The present catherdal M.E. A. Danican, known as Phillidor, played three was erected during the 13th century. The spire matches blindfolded at the Salopian ; he died 1795

fell 20 Feb. 1861, the foundation of a new one was The London Chess-club founded in 1807, and St. laid 2 May, 1865, completed June, 1866. The cathe

Herr Paulsen played ten games

at once, of which

1833 dral re-opened after repairs, 14 Nov. 1867. The

bishopric originated thus : Wilfrid, archbishop of he won five, and lost one; three were drawn, and one not played out

Dec. 1861

York, compelled to flee by Egfrid, king of NorthumA chess congress was held at New York in 1857, berland, preached the gospel in this country, and and an international one in London in June and built a church in the Isle of Selsey, about 673. In

July, 1862

681 Selsey became a bishopric, and so continued CHESTER (England, N. W.), the British until it was removed to Chichester, then called Caerleon and the Roman Deva, the station of the Cissan-Caester, from its builder, Cissa, by Stigand, twentieth legion, Valeria Victrix, quitted by them about 1082. This see has yielded to the church about 406. The city wall was first built by Edel

two saints, and to the nation three lord chancellors. fleda, about 308; and Hugh Lupus, the earl, nephew It is valued in the king's books at 6771. 18. 3d. per of William I., rebuilt the Saxon castle in 1084, and

annum. Present income, 42001. the abbey of St. Werburgh. Chester was incorporated by Henry III. and made a distinct county. The palatine jurisdiction was abolished by parliament,

1798. John Buckner, died 2 May, 1824. 23 July, 1830. The SEE, anciently part of Lichfield, 1824. Robert J. Carr, trans, to Worcester, Sept. 1831.

1831. Edward Maltby, translated to Durham, 1836. one of whose bishops, Peter, removing the seat hither 1836. Charles Otter, died 20 Aug. 1840. in 1075, occasioned his successors to be styled bishops 1840. Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, died 7 Jan. 1842. of Chester; but it was not made a distinct bishopric 1842. Ashurst Turner Gilbert, died 21 Feb. 1870. until Henry VIII. in 1541 raised it to this dignity, 1870. Richard Durnford. and allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for the cathedral. After extensive repairs,

CHICKAHOMINY BATTLES, see Fairthe cathedral was re-opened 25 Jan. 1872. "This oaks, and United States, June, 1862. see is valued in the king's books at 4201. 18. 8d. per annum. Present income 45001.

CHICORY, the wild endive, or Cichorium

Intybus of Linnæus, grows wild in calcareous soils. Chester ravaged by Danes

980 It was for many years so largely mixed with coffee Nearly destroyed by fire Taken, after three months' siege, for the parliament 1645 plaint, the loss of revenue being estimated at

in England, that it became a matter of serious comFatal gunpowder explosion .

1772 Exchange and town hall burnt

30 Dec. 1862
100,000l. a year.

An excise order was issued, A projerted attack of Fenians on Chester castle was interdicting the mixture of chicory with coffee, 3

defeated by the vigilance of the authorities and Aug. 1852. The admixture, however, has since been the arrival of the military

11, 12 Feb. 1867 permitted, provided the word "chicory” be plainly New town hall opened by the prince of Wales

printed on each parcel sold. In 1860 a duty of 38. 15 Oct. 1869

per cwt. was put upon English-grown chicory until

April, 1861; after that date to be 58. 6d. per cwt. 1800. Henry Win. Majendie, trans, to Bangor, 1809. 1810. Bowyer Edward Sparkie, trans. to Ely, 1812.

CHIGNON, French for the “back-bair” of 1812. George Henry Law, trans. to Bath, 1824. 1824. Chas. J. Blomtield, trans, to London, Aug. 1828.

ladies. In directions for full dress in 1783, it 1328. John Bird Sumner, trans, to Canterbury, 1848. is said: “The hair large and the chignon low be1848. John Graham, died 15 June, 1865.

hind.” Lady's Magazine. Large chignons began 1865. William Jacobson.

to be worn in England in 1866. CHESTER LE STREET, see Durham.

CHILDERMAS DAY, 28 Dec., of ancient CHEVALIER D'EON, see D'Eon.

observance by the Roman Church, in memory of CHEVY CHASE, see Otterburne.

the slaughter of the Holy Innocents. (Matt. ií.) CHICAGO, Illinois, United States, a flourish

CHILDREN. Many ancient nations exposed ing city settled in 1831; incorporated 1837 ; popu- rivers, and the Greeks on highways, -when they

their infants,-the Egyptians on the banks of lation, 1867, above 200,000; in 1872, about 400,000. could not support or educate them; in such cases, Chicago was nearly destroyed by fire, occasioned by

they were protected by the state. The old custom the upsetting of a paratin lamp, 8, 9, 10, 11 Oct. 1871

of English parents selling their children to the About 250 perished, and 98,500 were rendered destitute. The loss was reckoned at 290,000,000

Irish for slaves, was prohibited by Canute, about dollars. Larye sums were collected for relief of 1017. See Foundling, Fuctory Acts, and Infantithe sufferers in London (10,000l, in a few hours) and cide. other British cities, as well as in North America. The area of the fire was computed at from three CHILI (S. America), discovered by Diego de to five square miles, and about 25,000 buildings Almagro, one of the conquerors of Peru, 1535. were destroyed. The heart of the city was com- When Almagro crossed the Cordilleras, the natives, posed of old wooden buildings. The city was rebuilt most energetically

regarding the Spaniards on their first visit as allied 1872-3

to the Divinity, collected for them gold and silver CHICAMAUGA ("the stream of death"), near amounting to 290,000 ducats, a present which led the Chattanooga, Tennessee, North America. Near to the subsequent cruelties and rapacity of the inhere the Confederates under general Bragg, aided by vaders. Chili was subdued, but not wholly, in 15.46. Longstreet, totally defeated the federals under Population in 1870, 1,972,438. Rosencrans, 19, 20 Sept. 1863. The loss was severe

Chili declares its independence of Spain, 18 Sept. 1810 on both sides. The credit of the victory was attri

War with varying successi decisive victory gained buted to Longstreet; its fruitlessness to Bragg. by Suu Martin over the royal forces at Chacabuco,


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