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Caxton printed "the Game and Playe of the Chesse" 1474 A chess-club formed at Slaughter's coffee-house, St. Martin's-lane

1747

The automaton chess-player (a piece of machinery) exhibited in England

1769

M. F. A. Danican, known as Phillidor, played three matches blindfolded at the Salopian; he died 1795 The London Chess-club founded in 1807, and St. George's

1833

Dec. 1861

Herr Paulsen played ten games at once, of which he won five, and lost one; three were drawn, and one not played out A chess congress was held at New York in 1857, and an international one in London in June and July, 1862 CHESTER (England, N. W.), the British Caerleon and the Roman Deva, the station of the twentieth legion, Valeria Victrix, quitted by them about 406. The city wall was first built by Edelfleda, about 908; and Hugh Lupus, the earl, nephew of William I., rebuilt the Saxon castle in 1084, and the abbey of St. Werburgh. Chester was incorporated by Henry III. and made a distinct county. The palatine jurisdiction was abolished by parliament, 23 July, 1830. The SEE, anciently part of Lichfield, one of whose bishops, Peter, removing the seat hither in 1075, occasioned his successors to be styled bishops of Chester; but it was not made a distinct bishopric until Henry VIII. in 1541 raised it to this dignity, and allotted the church of the abbey of St. Werburgh for the cathedral. After extensive repairs, the cathedral was re-opened 25 Jan. 1872. This see is valued in the king's books at 420l. 18. 8d. per annum. Present income 4500l.

Chester ravaged by Danes
Nearly destroyed by fire

980

1471

Taken, after three months' siege, for the parliament 1645 30 Dec. 1862

Fatal gunpowder explosion
Exchange and town hall burnt

. 1772

A projected attack of Fenians on Chester castle was defeated by the vigilance of the authorities and the arrival of the military 11, 12 Feb. 1867 New town hall opened by the prince of Wales 15 Oct. 1869

RECENT BISHOPS OF CHESTER.

1800. Henry Wm. Majendie, trans. to Bangor, 1809. 1810. Bowyer Edward Sparkie, trans. to Ely, 1812. 1812. George Henry Law, trans. to Bath, 1824. 1824. Chas. J. Blomfield, trans. to London, Aug. 1828. 1828. John Bird Sumner, trans. to Canterbury, 1848. 1848. John Graham, died 15 June, 1865. 1865. William Jacobson.

CHESTER LE STREET, see Durham. CHEVALIER D'EON, see D' Eon. CHEVY CHASE, see Otterburne.

CHICAGO, Illinois, United States, a flourishing city settled in 1831; incorporated 1837; population, 1867, above 200,000; in 1872, about 400,000. Chicago was nearly destroyed by fire, occasioned by

the upsetting of a paraffin lamp, 8, 9, 10, 11 Oct. 1871 About 250 perished, and 98,500 were rendered destitute. The loss was reckoned at 290,000,000 dollars. Large sums were collected for relief of the sufferers in London (10,oool, in a few hours) and other British cities, as well as in North America. The area of the fire was computed at from three to five square miles, and about 25,000 buildings were destroyed. The heart of the city was composed of old wooden buildings. The city was rebuilt most energetically 1872-3 CHICAMAUGA ("the stream of death"), near the Chattanooga, Tennessee, North America. Near here the Confederates under general Bragg, aided by Longstreet, totally defeated the federals under Rosencrans, 19, 20 Sept. 1863. The loss was severe on both sides. The credit of the victory was attributed to Longstreet; its fruitlessness to Bragg.

CHICHESTER (Sussex), built by Cissa, about 540. The cathedral was completed about 1108, burnt with the city in 1114, and rebuilt by bishop Seffrid about 1187. The present cntherdal was erected during the 13th century. The spire fell 20 Feb. 1861, the foundation of a new one was laid 2 May, 1865, completed June, 1866. The cathedral re-opened after repairs, 14 Nov. 1867. The bishopric originated thus: Wilfrid, archbishop of York, compelled to flee by Egfrid, king of Northumberland, preached the gospel in this country, and built a church in the Isle of Selsey, about 673. In 681 Selsey became a bishopric, and so continued until it was removed to Chichester, then called Cissan-Caester, from its builder, Cissa, by Stigand, about 1082. This see has yielded to the church two saints, and to the nation three lord chancellors. It is valued in the king's books at 6777. 18. 3d. per annum. Present income, 4200l.

RECENT BISHOPS OF CHICHESTER.

1798. John Buckner, died 2 May, 1824. 1824. Robert J. Carr, trans. to Worcester, Sept. 1831. 1831. Edward Maltby, translated to Durham, 1836. 1836. Charles Otter, died 20 Aug. 1840. 1840. Philip Nicholas Shuttleworth, died 7 Jan. 1842. 1842. Ashurst Turner Gilbert, died 21 Feb. 1870. 1870. Richard Durnford.

CHICKAHOMINY BATTLES, see Fairoaks, and United States, June, 1862.

CHICORY, the wild endive, or Cichorium Intybus of Linnæus, grows wild in calcareous soils. It was for many years so largely mixed with coffee in England, that it became a matter of serious complaint, the loss of revenue being estimated at 100,000l. a year. An excise order was issued, interdicting the mixture of chicory with coffee, 3 Aug. 1852. The admixture, however, has since been permitted, provided the word "chicory" be plainly printed on each parcel sold. In 1860 a duty of 38. per cwt. was put upon English-grown chicory until April, 1861; after that date to be 58. 6d. per cwt.

CHIGNON, French for the "back-hair" of ladies. In directions for full dress in 1783, it is said: "The hair large and the chignon low behind." Lady's Magazine. Large chignons began to be worn in England in 1866.

CHILDERMAS DAY, 28 Dec., of ancient observance by the Roman Church, in memory of the slaughter of the Holy Innocents. (Matt. ii.)

CHILDREN. Many ancient nations exposed rivers, and the Greeks on highways, when they their infants, the Egyptians on the banks of could not support or educate them; in such cases, they were protected by the state. The old custom of English parents selling their children to the Irish for slaves, was prohibited by Canute, about 1017. See Foundling, Factory Acts, and Infanticide.

CHILI (S. America), discovered by Diego de Almagro, one of the conquerors of Peru, 1535. When Almagro crossed the Cordilleras, the natives, regarding the Spaniards on their first visit as allied to the Divinity, collected for them gold and silver amounting to 290,000 ducats, a present which led to the subsequent cruelties and rapacity of the invaders. Chili was subdued, but not wholly, in 1546. Population in 1870, 1,972,438.

Chili declares its independence of Spain, 18 Sept. 1810 War with varying success: decisive victory gained by San Martin over the royal forces at Chacabuco,

12 Feb. 1817; the province declared independent,

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22 May, 1833 18 Oct. 1856

Present constitution established Manuel Montt elected president Insurrection headed by Pedro Gallo, Dec. 1858, suppressed April, 1859 José J. Perez, president 19 Sept. 1861 Conflagration of the Jesuits' church at Santiago (see Santiago), more than 2000 persons perished

Rupture between Chili and Bolivia respecting the "Guano" isles

8 Dec. 1863 1 March, 1864 Disputes with Spain respecting Peru settled by the Spanish minister, 20 May, disavowed by his government 25 July, 1864 Religious toleration enacted' J. J. Perez again proclaimed president; vigorous prosecution of the war Oct.

July, 1865

The Spanish admiral Pareja appears before Valparaiso claiming satisfaction for Chilian intervention in the war with Peru, 17 Sept.; refused 21 Sept.; he declares a blockade, 24 Sept.; Chili declares war against Spain, 29 Sept. ; joins Peru, 5 Dec.

The Spaniards bombard Valparaiso

End of the blockade

J. J. Perez re-elected president

F. Errazuriz elected president

Gold mines discovered near Iquique.

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12 Feb. 1818

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31 March, 1866 14 April, 18 Sept.

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CHILLED SHOT, see Cannon, 1864-6. CHILLIANWALLAH, BATTLE OF, India, between the Sikh forces in considerable strength, and the British commanded by lord (afterwards viscount) Gough, fought 13 Jan. 1849. The Sikhs were completely routed, but the loss of the British was very severe: 26 officers were killed and 66 wounded, and 731 rank and file killed, and 1446 wounded. The Sikh loss was 3000 killed and 4000 wounded.* On 21 Feb. lord Gough attacked the Sikh army, under Shere Singh, in its position at Goojerat, with complete success; and the whole of the enemy's camp fell into the hands of the British.

18 Sept. 1871 Oct.

"

Act to regulate chimney-sweeping, 28 Geo. III.
The chimney-sweeping machine was invented by
Smart

A statute regulating the trade, the apprenticeship
of children, the construction of flues, preventing
calling "sweep" in the streets, &c., passed
By 3 & 4 Vict. c. 85 (1840), it is not lawful for master
sweeps to take apprentices under sixteen years
of age; and no individual under twenty-one to
ascend a chimney after

CHIMNEY-TAX, see Hearth.

CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in use previous to the invention of chimneys, which were first introduced into these countries, in 1200, when they were confined to the kitchen and large hall. The family sat round a stove, the funnel of which passed through the ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys were general in domestic architecture in 1310. At the chemical works, Glasgow, is a chimney (there termed a stalk) 420 feet in height; the height of the monument in London being 202 feet; of St. Paul's, 404 feet.

CHILTERN HUNDREDS (viz. Burnham, Canal, called the Yu Ho, completed Desborough, and Stoke), an estate of the crown on the chain of chalk hills that pass from east to west through the middle of Buckinghamshire. The stewardship is a nominal office, with a salary of 258., conferred on members of parliament when they wish to vacate their seats. The strict legality of the practice is questioned.

1789

1805

1834

1 July, 1842

I

The enforcement of this law was made more stringent

1864

Joseph Glass, inventor of the sweeping machine now in general use, not patented, died 29 Jan. 1868

The duke of Wellington (commander-in-chief) did not think the victory complete. Gough was superseded, and sir Charles Napier sent out (March 1849), who did not arrive in India till Gough had redeemed his reputa

tion.

is

CHINA (TSING), the "Celestial Empire," in Eastern Asia, for which the Chinese annals claim an antiquity of from 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C., said to have commenced about 2500 B.C.; by others to have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the Noah of the Bible, 2240 B.C. We are told that the Chinese were acute astronomers in the reign of Yao, 2357 B.C. Towards the close of the 7th century B.C., the history of China becomes more distinct. Twenty-two dynasties have reigned, including the present. The population of the empire of China was estimated at 190,348,228 in 1757; at 414,607,000 in 1860; and at 446,500,000 in 1871.

The Chinese state their first cycle begun.

The first dates fixed to his history, by Se-ma-tsien, begin.

Supposed age of Confucius (Kungfutze), the philo

sopher

550

Stupendous wall of China completed. 298 or 211 The dynasty of Han

202 or

206 202

Literature and the art of printing encouraged (?) Battle between Phraates and the Scythians: the Chinese aided the latter, and ravaged the coasts of the Caspian: their first appearance in history (Lenglet.)

A. D. 68-81

The religion of Laot-se begun
Buddhism, or the religion of Fŏ, introduced] about
Nankin becomes the capital
The Nestorian Christians permitted to preach
The atheistical philosopher, San-Shin, flourishes
They are proscribed and extirpated.
China ravaged by Tartars, 9th to 11th centuries.
Seat of government transferred to Pekin
Marco Polo introduces missionaries.
Kublai Khan establishes the Yuen or Mongol
dynasty
Ming dynasty

. B.C. 2700

651

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Another general earthquake destroys 100,000 persons at Pekin, and 80,000 in a suburb In a salute by one of our ships in China, a gun was inadvertently fired, which killed a native; the government demanded the gunner; he was soon strangled

1662

1680

1692 1719-27 1724-32

Earl Macartney's embassy arrives at Pekin; his reception by the emperor [This embassy threw light on the empire: it appeared to be divided into 15 provinces, containing 4402 walled cities; the population of the whole was given at 333,000,000: its annual revenues at 66,000,000l. ; and the army, including the Tartars, 1,000,000 of infantry and 800,000 cavalry; the religion Pagan, and the government absolute. Learning, and the arts and sciences, were encouraged, and ethics studied.]

He is ordered to depart

1731

1785

14 Sept. 1793

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Free-trade ships sail for England
Lord Napier arrives at Macao to
British commerce
Affair between the natives and two British ships of

war; several Chinese killed

5 Sept.
(after-

Lord Napier dies, and is succeeded by Mr.
wards sir John) Davis
Opium dispute begins; the trade prohibited

25 April, 1834 superintend 15 July,

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emperor

11 Oct. by the Nov. 31 Jan. 1835 23 Feb.

Chinese seize the Argyle and crew

Opium burnt at Canton by Chinese Captain Elliot, chief British commissioner 14 Dec. 1836 A British commissioner settled at Canton, March, 1837 Admiral Maitland arrives at Macao 12 July, 1838 Commissioner Lin orders seizure of opium, 18 March; British and other residents forbidden to leave Canton, 19 March; the factories surrounded, and outrages committed 24 March, 1839 Captain Elliot requires British subjects to surrender to him all opium, promising them full value of it, 27 March; half of it is given up as contraband to to the Chinese, 20 April; the remainder (20,283 chests) surrendered, 21 May; captain Elliot and the British merchants leave Canton, 24 May; the opium destroyed by the Chinese 3 June, Affair between the British and American seamen and the Chinese; a native killed 7 July, Hong-Kong taken 23 Aug. The British boat Black Joke attacked, and the crew murdered, 24 Aug.; the British merchants retire from Macao 26 Aug. Affair at Kow-lung between British boats and Chinese junks 4 Sept. Attack by 28 armed junks on the British frigates Volage and Hyacinth: several junks blown up 3 Nov. The British trade with China ceases, by an edict of the emperor, and the last servant of the company leaves this day 6 Dec. Edict of the emperor interdicting all trade and intercourse with England for ever 5 Jan. 1840 The Hellas ship attacked by armed junks, 22 May; blockade of Canton by a British fleet, by orders from sir Gordon Bremer, 28 June; the Blonde with a flag of truce fired on at Amoy, 2 July; Ting-hai, in Chusan, surrenders, 5 July; blockade established along the Chinese coast, 10 July; Mr. Staunton carried off to Canton 6 Aug. Captain Elliot, on board a British steam-ship, enters the Peiho river, near Pekin 11 Aug. The ship Kite lost on a sand-bank, and the captain's wife and a part of the crew are captured by the natives, and confined in cages . 15 Sept. Lin finally degraded; Keshin appointed imperial commissioner, 16 Sept.; capt. Elliot's truce with 6 Nov. British plenipotentiaries off Macao . 20 Nov. Admiral Elliot's resignation announced 29 Nov. Mr. Staunton released 12 Dec. Negotiations cease, owing to breaches of faith on the part of the Chinese emperor 6 Jan. 1841 Chuen-pe and Tae-coc-tow, and 173 guns (some sent to England) captured 7 Jan. Hong-Kong ceded by Keshin to Great Britain, and 6,000,000 dollars agreed to be paid within ten days to the British authorities 20 Jan. Hong-Kong taken possession of 26 Jan. The emperor rejects Keshin's treaty, 11 Feb.; hostilities resumed, 23 Feb.; Chusan evacuated, 24 Feb.; rewards proclaimed at Canton for the bodies of Englishmen, dead or alive; 50,000 dollars to be given for chiefs 25 Feb. Bogue forts taken by sir G. Bremer; admiral Kwan killed; 459 guns captured 26 Feb. The British squadron proceeds to Canton, 1 March; sir Gough takes command of the army, 2 March; hostilities again suspended, 3 March; and again resumed, 6 March; Keshin degraded by the emperor 12 March, Flotilla of boats destroyed, Canton threatened, the foreign factories seized, and 461 guns taken by the British forces 18 March, New commissioners from Pekin arrived at Canton

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14 April,

I May,

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17 May,

25 May, 5,000,000

31 May,

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British forces withdrawn, 1 June; and British trade
re-opened.
16 July, 1841
Arrival at Macao of sir Henry Pottinger, who, as
plenipotentiary, proclaims the objects of his
mission; capt. Elliot superseded

Amoy taken, and 296 guns destroyed
The Bogue forts destroyed

10 Aug.
27 Aug.
14 Sept.

Ting-hae taken, 136 guns captured, and Chusan reoccupied by the British, 1 Oct.; they take Chinhae, 10 Oct.; Ning-po, 13 Oct.; Yu-yaou, Tszekee, and Foong-hua 28 Dec. Chinese attack Ning-po and Chin-hae, and are repulsed with great loss, 10 March; 8000 Chinese are routed near Tze-kee 15 March, 1842 Cha-pou attacked; defences destroyed 18 May, The British squadron enters the river Kiang, 13 June capture of Woosung and of 230 guns and stores, 16 June; Shang-hae taken, 19 June, The British armament anchors near the "Golden Isle," 20 July; Chin-Keang taken; the Tartar general and many of the garrison commit suicide, 21 July the advanced ships reach Nankin, 4 Aug. the whole fleet arrives, and the disembarkation commences, 9 Aug.; Keying arrives at Nankin, with full powers to treat for peace 12 Aug. Treaty of peace signed before Nankin, on board the Cornwallis by sir Henry Pottinger for England, and Keying Elepoo* and Neu-Kien on the part of the Chinese emperor-[Conditions: lasting peace and friendship between the two empires; China to pay 21,000,000 of dollars; Canton, Amoy, Foochoofoo, Ningpo, and Shang-hae to be thrown open to the British, and consuls to reside at these cities; Hong-Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to England, &c.; Chusan and Ku-lang-su to be held by the British until the provisions are fulfilled ] 29 Aug. The ratification signed by queen Victoria and the emperor formally exchanged. 22 July, 1843 Canton opened to the British 27 July, Appointment of Mr. Davis in the room of sir Henry Pottinger 16 Feb. 1844

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*He took part (it was said without authority) in arranging the treaty of Tien-sin in June, 1858. He was in consequence condemned to death-by suicide.

The non-fulfilment of this treaty led gradually to the war of 1856-7.

The emperor Taou-Kwang, who died 25 Feb. 1850, during the latter part of his reign, became liberal in his views, and favoured the introduction of European arts; but his son, the late emperor, a rash and narrow-minded prince, quickly departed from his father's wise policy, and adopted reactionary measures, particularly against English influence. An insurrection broke out in consequence, Aug. 1850, and quickly became of alarming importance. The insurgents at first proposed only to expel the Tartars; but in March, 1851, a pretender was announced among them, first by the name of Tien-teh (Celestial Virtue), but afterwards assuming other names. He is stated to have been a native of Quang-si, of obscure origin, but to have obtained some literary knowledge at Canton about 1835, and to have become acquainted at that time with the principles of Christianity from a Chinese Ch stian, named Leang-afa, and also from the missionary Roberts in 1844. He announced himself as the restorer of the worship of the true God, Shang-ti, and has derived many of his dogmas from the Bible. He declared himself to be the monarch of all beneath the sky, the true lord of China (and thus of all the world), the brother of Jesus, and the second son of God, and demanded universal submission. He made overtures for alliance to lord Elgin in Nov. 1860. His followers are termed Taepings, princes of peace," a title utterly belied by their atrocious deeds. The rebellion was virtu

ally terminated 18 July, 1864, by the capture of Nankin, the suicide of the Tien-Wang, and the execution of the military leaders.

Defeat of Leu, the imperial commissioner, and destruction of half the army. 19 June, 1852 Successful progress of the rebels; the emperor ap plies to the Europeans for help, without success March and April, 1853 The rebels take Nankin, 19, 20 March; Amoy, 19 May; Shang-hae. 7 Sept. And besiege Canton without success Aug.-Nov. 1854 The scanty accounts are unfavourable to the rebels, the imperialists having retaken Shang-hae, Amoy, and many important places Outrage on the British lorcha Arrow, in Canton river*

""

1855 8 Oct. 1856 After vain negotiations with commissioner Yeh, Canton forts attacked and taken 23 Oct. A Chinese fleet destroyed and Canton bombarded, by sir M. Seymour 3, 4 Nov. Imperialists defeated, quit Shang-hae 6 Nov. The Americans revenge an attack by capturing three 21-23 Nov.

25 Nov. Dec. 14 Dec. 30 Dec. charge of 2 Feb. 1857 and lord March,

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forts

Rebels take Kuriking

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Other forts taken by the British The Chinese burn European factories. And murder the crew of the Thistle A-lum, a Chinese baker, acquitted of poisoning the bread Troops arrive from Madras and England; Elgin appointed envoy No change on either side: Yeh said to be straitened for money; the imperialists seem to be gaining ground upon the rebels May, Total destruction of the Chinese fleet by commodore Elliot, 25, 27 May; and sir M. Seymour and commodore Keppel 1 June, Blockade of Canton Aug. Stagnation in the war-lord Elgin departs to Calcutta, with assistance to the English against the Sepoys, 16 July; returns to Hong-Kong 25 Sept. Gen. Ashburnham departs for India, and gen. Strau benzee assumes the command 19 Oct. Canton bombarded and taken by English and French, 28, 29 Dec. 1857; who enter it 5 Jan. 1858 Yeht sent a prisoner to Caleutta Jan. The allies proceed towards Pekin, and take the Peiho forts . 20 May, The expedition arrives at Tien-Sin. 20 May, Negotiations commence, 5 June; treaty of peace signed at Tien-sin by lord Elgin, baron Gros, and Keying (who signed the treaty of 1842)-[Ambassadors to be at both courts; freedom of trade; toleration of Christianity; expenses of war to be paid by China; a revised tariff; term I (barbarian) to be no longer applied to Europeans] 26, 28, 29 June, Lord Elgin visits Japan, and concludes an important treaty with the emperor 28 Aug. The British destroy about 130 piratical junks in the Chinese seas Aug. and Sept. Lord Elgin proceeds up the Yang-tse-Kiang to Nankin, Jan.; returns to England May, 1859 Mr. Bruce, the British envoy, on his way to Pekin, is stopped in the river Pei-ho (or Tien-sin); admiral Hope attempting to force a passage, is repulsed with the loss of 81 killed, and about 390 wounded 25 June, The American envoy Ward arrives at Pekin, and refusing to submit to degrading ceremonies, does not see the emperor 29 July, Commercial treaty with America. 24 Nov. The English and French prepare an expedition against China. Oct. Lord Elgin and baron Gros sail for China, April 26; wrecked near point de Galle, Ceylon, 23 May; arrive at Shang-hae 29 June, 1860

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The allies repulse the Tae-ping rebels attacking Shang-hae, 18-20 Aug.; and take the Taku forts, losing 500 killed and wounded; the Tartar general San-ko-lin-sin retreats 21 Aug. After vain negotiations, the allies advance towards Pekin; they defeat the Chinese at Chang-kia-wan and Pa-li-chiau. 18 & 21 Sept. Consul Parkes, captains Anderson and Brabazon, Mr. de Norman, Mr. Bowlby (the Times' correspondent), and 14 others (Europeans and Sikhs), advance to Tung-chow, to arrange conditions for a meeting of the ministers, and are captured by San-ko-lin-sin; capt. Brabazon and abbé de Luc beheaded, and said to be thrown into the canal; others carried into Pekin 21 Sept. The allies march towards Pekin; the French ravage the emperor's summer palace, 6 Oct. ; Mr. Parkes, Mr. Loch, and others, restored alive, 8 Oct. ; capt. Anderson, Mr. De Norman, and others die of ill8-11 Oct.

Pekin invested; 'surrenders, 12 Oct.; severe proclamation of sir Hope Grant. 15 Oct. The bodies of Mr. De Norman and Mr. Bowlby solemnly buried in the Russian cemetery, Pekin, 17 Oct.; the summer palace (Yuen-ming-yuen) burnt by the British, in memory of the outraged prisoners. 18 Oct. Convention signed in Pekin by lord Elgin and the prince of Kung, by which the treaty of Tien-sin is ratified; apology made for the attack at Pei-ho (25 June, 1859); a large indemnity to be paid immediately, and compensation in money given to the families of the murdered prisoners, &c.; Kowloon ceded in exchange for Chusan, and the treaty and convention to be proclaimed throughout the empire

24 Oct.

*It was boarded by the Chinese officers, 12 men out of the crew of 14 being carried off and the national ensign taken down. Sir J. Bowring, governor of Hong-Kong, being compelled to resort to hostilities, applied to India and Ceylon for troops. On 3 March, 1857, the house of commous, by a majority of 19, censured sir John for the "violent measures" he had pursued. The ministry (who took his part) dissolved the parliament; but obtained a large majority in the new one.

He died peacefully at Calentta, 9 April, 1859. He is said to have ordered the beheading of about 100,000 rebels.

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Allies quit Pekin.

5 Nov.

Treaty between Russia and China-the former ob-
taining free trade, territories, &e.
First instalment of indemnity paid

14 Nov. .30 Nov. Part of the allied troops settled at Tien-sin; consulate established

5 Jan. 1861 Adm. Hope examines Yang-tse-Kiang, &c. Feb. "" English and French embassies established at Pekin

March, The emperor Hienfung dies. . 21 Aug. Canton restored to the Chinese 21 Oct. Ministerial crisis; several ministers put to death,

Nov.; Kung appointed regent.

13 Dec.

Advance of the rebels; they seize and desolate Ningpo and Hang-chow Dec. They advance on Shang-hae, which is placed under protection of the English and French, and fortified

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Jan. 1862 Rebels defeated in two engagements. April, English and French assist the government against the rebels-Ning-po re-taken 10 May, French admiral Protet killed in an attack on rebels 17 May, Captain Sherard Osborne permitted by the British government to organise a small fleet of gunboats to aid the imperialists to establish order

July, Imperialists gain ground, take Kah-sing, &c. Oct. Commercial treaty with Prussia ratified 14 Jan. 1863 The imperialists under col. Charles Gordon defeat the Taepings under Burgevine, &c. . Oct. Gordon captures Sow-chow (after a severe attack, 27, 28 Nov.); the rebel chiefs treacherously butchered by the Chinese 4, 5 Dec. Capt. Osborne came to China; but retired in consequence of the Chinese government departing from its engagements Gordon's successes continue Repulsed; he takes Chang-chow-foo 23 March, He takes Nankin (a heap of ruins); Hun-seu-tseun, the Tien-wang, the rebel emperor, commits suicide by eating gold leaf, 30 June; Chang-wang and Kan-wang, the rebel generals, are "cut into a thousand pieces". 18 July, Great mortality among British troops at Kowloon

31 Dec.

Jan. to April, 1864

..

Jan. 1865

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The Taepings hold Ming-chow; the Mahometan rebellion (Dounganes) progressing in Honan

33

Jan.-March, 1865
Taepings evacuate Ming-chow
23 May,
A rebellion of the Nien-fei in the north; Pekin in
danger
July,
The Chinese general San-ko-lin-sin defeated and
slain; his son more successful
July,
Rebellion in the north advancing
June,
7 Nov.
Pekin,
26 Nov.
Flying

Prince Kung chief of the regency again.
Sir Rutherford Alcock, ambassador at

Chinese newspaper, "Messenger of the
Dragon," appears in London

14 Jan. 1866
Great victory over the Nien-fei announced at Canton
13 March,
June,

Chinese commissioners visit London
Rivalry of two great political chiefs in China, Li-
hung-ching and Tsen-kwo-fan
July,
Reported victory of the Nien-fei over the impe-
rialists

Pekin visited by the duke of Edinburgh, incognito,

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CHINESE EMPERORS.

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1795. Kea-king.

1820. Taou-Kwang.

1850. Hieng-fung, 25 Feb.

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Dec. 1867

Chinese embassy (Mr. Anson Burlinghame, Chin
Kang, and Sun Chia Su) received by president
Johnson at Washington, 5 June; they sign a
treaty, 4 July; arrive in London, Sept. ; received
by the queen

The rebels seize Ningpo
The people at Yang-chow, incited by the "literati"
(learned classes) destroy the Protestant mission-
houses, 22 Aug.; redress not obtained; a British
squadron proceeds to Nankin, 8 Nov.; the vice-
roy is superseded, and the British demands ac-
ceded to
14 Nov.
Chinese embassy received by the emperor at Paris,

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20 Nov. 1868

Oct.

""

Oct.
Supplementary convention to the treaty of Tien-tsin
(June, 1858) for additional commercial freedom,
signed
24 Oct.
Burlinghame dies at St. Petersburg
22 Feb.
Successful rebellion of Mahometans in northwest
provinces reported
May,
Cruel massacre of the French consul at Tien-tsin,
Roman Catholic priests, sisters of mercy (22 per-
sons), besides many native converts, and above
30 children in the orphanage, by a mob, with, it
is said, the complicity of the authorities; the
missionaries were accused of kidnapping children,
21 June,
Increased hatred of the people to foreigners at Tien-
tsin; lukewarm proceedings of the government
against the murderers
July,
Ma, a viceroy of Nankin, favourable to Europeans,
assassinated.
about 22 Aug

Chapels destroyed at Fatshan
21 Sept.
The French ultimatum refused; the murderers of
the nuns unpunished; Chinese warlike prepara-
tions reported
26 Sept.
Judicious mandate from the mandarin Tseng-kwo-
fan, exculpating the missionaries, and condemn-
ing their massacre
Oct.

16 coolies beheaded, 15 Sept., and 23 exiled; in-
demnity to the sufferers by the outrage ordered;
reported
26 Oct.
3 Nov.

End of the difficulty announced
Chang-How, an envoy, arrives in London Aug. 1871
Received at Paris; apologizes for Tien-tsin massa-
cres, and reports redress.
23 Nov.
Memorial addressed to the Chinese government by
Mr. Hart, inspector of customs, recommending
changes in civil and military administration,
autumn,
Reported formidable insurrection in the east, in-
cited by Mahometans,
May, 1872
The young emperor married
16 Oct.

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1861. Ki-tsiang (altered to Toung-chi) 21 Aug. ; born 21 April, 1856; married 16 Oct. 1872.

CHINA GRASS, or RHEA; a prize of 5000l. was offered by the Indian government for machinery to prepare and cleanse the fibre, 11 Jan. 1870. Mr. John Greig's machine was exhibited in Edinburgh, Dec. 1871.

CHINA PORCELAIN, introduced into England about 1531; see Pottery.

CHINA ROSE, &c. The Rosa indica was brought from China, and successfully planted in England, 1786; the Chinese apple-tree, or Pyrus spectabilis, about 1780.

CHINCHA ISLES, see Peru, 1864–5.

CHIOS (now Scro), an isle in the Greek Archipelago, revolted against Athens, 412 and 357 B.C. It partook of the fortunes of Greece, being conquered by the Venetians, A.D. 1124; by the crusaders, 1204; by the Greek emperor, 1329; by the Genoese, 1329; and finally by the Turks in 1594. A dreadful massacre of about 40,000 inhabitants by the Turks took place 11 April, 1822, during the Greek insurrection.

CHIPPAWA (N. America). Here the British under Riall were defeated by the Americans under Brown, 5 July, 1814. The Americans were defeated by the British under Drummond and Riall, 25 July following, but Riall was wounded and taken pri

soner.

CHIVALRY arose out of the feudal system in the latter part of the 8th century (chevalier, or knight, being derived from the caballarius, the equipped feudal tenant on horseback). From the 12th to the 15th century it tended to refine manners. The knight swore to accomplish the duties of his profession, as the champion of God and the ladies, to speak the truth, to maintain the right, to protect the distressed, to practise courtesy, to fulfil obligations, and to vindicate in every perilous adventure his honour and character. Chivalry expired with the feudal system. See Knighthood and Tournaments. By letters patent of James I. the earl-marshal of England had "the like jurisdiction in the courts of chivalry, when the office of lord high constable was vacant, as this latter and the marshal did jointly exercise," 1623.

CHLORALUM, or chloride of alumina, a compound of chlorine and alumina, a new antiseptic disinfectant, invented by Dr. Gamgee about 1870. It is said to be safe and efficacious, and useful in medicine for gargles, washing wounds, &c.

CHLORINE (Greek chloros, pale green), a gas first obtained by Scheele in 1774, by treating manganese with muriatic (hydrochloric) acid. Sir H. Davy, in 1810, proved this gas to be an element, and named it chlorine. Combined with sodium it forms common salt (chloride of sodium), and combined with lime it forms the bleaching powder and disinfectant, chloride of lime; see Bleaching. In 1823 Faraday condensed chlorine into a liquid.

1627. Chwang-lei.

CHLOROFORM (the ter-chloride of the hypothetical radical formyl) is a compound of carbon,

1644. Shun-che (first of the Tsing dynasty).

1662. Kang-he, an able sovereign; consolidated the em- hydrogen, and chlorine, and was made from alcohol, pire, compiled a great Chinese dictionary. 1723. Yung-ching. 1736. Keen-lung, fond of art; greatly embellished

Pekin.

water, and bleaching powder. It was discovered by Soubeiran in 1831, and its composition was determined by Dumas in 1834. The term "chloric ether" was applied in 1820 to a mixture of chlorine and olefiant gas. Chloroform was first applied as an anaesthetic experimentally by Mr. Jacob Bell in

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