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London, in Feb., and Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh in Nov. 1847; and was administered in England on 14 Dec. 1848, by Mr. James Robinson, surgeon-dentist. A committee of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society in July, 1864, after examining statistics, reported that the use of anaesthetics had in no degree increased the rate of mortality.

CHOBHAM COMMON, in Surrey. A military camp was formed here on 14 June, 1853, by a force between 8000 and 10,000 strong Only one serious case of misconduct was reported during all

the time.

CHOCOLATE, made of the cocoa berry, introduced into Europe (from Mexico and the Brazils) about 1520, was sold in the London coffee-houses soon after their establishment, 1650.

CHOCZIM, Bessarabia, S. Russia. Here the Turks were totally defeated by John Sobieski, king of Poland, 11 Nov. 1673; and by the Russians, 30 April and 13 July, 1769.

CHOIR. This was separated from the nave of the church in the time of Constantine. The choral service was first used in England at Canterbury, 677; see Chanting.

CHOLERA MORBUS (Asiatic cholera) was described by Garcia del Huerto, a physician of Goa, about 1560. It appeared in India in 1774, and at other times, and became endemic in Lower Bengal in 1817, whence it gradually spread, till it reached Russia in 1830, and Germany in 1831, carrying off more than 900,000 persons in 1829-30. In England and Wales in 1848-9, 53,293 persons died of cholera, and in 1854, 20,097.

Cholera appears at Sunderland

And at Edinburgh

First observed at Rotherhithe and

26 Oct. 1831 6 Feb. 1832 Limehouse,

London, 13 Feb.; and in Dublin 3 March, Mortality very great, but more so on the Continent; 18,000 deaths at Paris, between March and Aug. Cholera rages in Rome, the Two Sicilies, Genoa, Berlin, &c., in July and Aug. Another visitation of cholera in England: the number of deaths in London, for the week ending 15 Sept. 1849, was 3183; the ordinary average, 1008; and the number of deaths by cholera from 17 June to 2 Oct. in London alone, 13,161. The mortality lessened and the distemper disappeared about 13 Oct. 1849 Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham, Tynemouth, and other northern towns, suffer much from cholera,

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1837

Sept. 1853

33

It rages in Italy and Sicily; above 10,000 are said to have died at Naples; it was also very fatal to the allied troops at Varna autumn, 1854 Cholera very severe for a short time in the southern parts of London, and in Soho and St. James's, Westminster Aug. and Sept. Raging in Alexandria, June; abated" July, 1865 Prevailing in Ancona (843 deaths) Aug., subsiding, Sept. Very severe in Constantinople, nearly 50,000 deaths, Aug.; subsides after the great fire 6 Sept. Cases at Marseilles, Toulon, and Southampton, end of Sept. Cholera prevalent at Marseilles, Paris, Madrid, and Naples July-Oct. An international meeting at Constantinople, to consider preventive measures, proposed, Oct. 1865, met 18 Feb. 1866. At the last sitting the conclusions adopted were that cholera may be propagated, and from great distances; and a number of preventive measures were recommended, 26 Sept. 1866 Cholera appears at Bristol, 24 April; at Liverpool, 13 May; at Southampton July, Cholera severe in east of London: 346 deaths in week ending 21 July,

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CHRIST, see Jesus Christ.

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (the Blue-Coat school) was established by Edward VI. 1553, on the site of the Grey Friars' monastery. A mathematical ward was founded by Charles II. 1672. The Times ward was founded in 1841. Large portions of the edifice having fallen into decay, it was rebuilt in 1822 a new infirmary was completed, and in 1825 (25 April) the duke of York laid the first stone of the magnificent new hall. On 24 Sept. 1854, the master, Dr. Jacob, in a sermon in the church of the hospital, censured the system of education and the general administration of the establishment, and many improvements have since been made. Rev. G. C. Bell succeeded Dr. Jacob, 12 Aug. 1868. The subordinate school at Hertford, for 416 younger boys and So girls, was founded in 1683.-Annual income (1870) about 70,000l. 800 boys in London; 200 boys and 20 girls at Hertford. The removal of the school to the country negatived by the governors, 26 April, 1870. The proposal that the buildings and ground should be purchased by the Mid-London Railway Company for 600,000l. was not carried out.

CHRIST'S THORN, conjectured to be the plant of which our Saviour's crown of thorns was composed, came hither from the south of Europe before 1596.

CHRISTIAN ERA, see Anno Domini. CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY was founded in 1698 to promote charity schools, and to disperse Bibles and religious tracts. It has an annual revenue of about 100,000l. MOST CHRISTIAN KING; Christianissimus Rex, a title conferred by pope Paul II. in 1469 on the crafty Louis XI. of France.

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CHROMIUM (Greek, chrome, colour), a rare 643 metal, discovered by Vauquelin in 1797. It is found combined with iron and lead, and forms the colouring matter of the emerald.

CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY, see Printing

in Colours.

. 1575

1638

. 1628

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCE SOCIETY established by earl Russell, the bishop of London,

and others to counteract "the current forms of un

belief among the educated classes." Lectures for this purpose were given in St. George's Hall in 1871, beginning with the archbishop of York, 25 April. A public meeting was held 6 June following. Tracts for circulation are published.

CHRISTINOS, supporters of the queen-regent Christina against the Carlists in Spain during the war, 1833-40.

about 137. In the eastern church, Christmas and the Epiphany, 6 Jan. (which see), are deemed but one and the same feast. The holly and mistletoe used at Christmas are said to be the remains of the religious observances of the Druids; see Anno Domini.

CHRISTMAS-DAY, 25 Dec. (from Christ, and the Saxon masse, signifying the mass and a feast), a festival in commemoration of the nativity of Christ, said to have been first kept 98; and ordered to be held as a solemn feast, by pope Telesphorus,

*It is, traditionally, said that Gregory the Great, shortly before his elevation to the papal chair, passing through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some beautiful children set up for sale, inquired about their country, and finding they were English pagans, he is said to have cried out, "Non Angli sed Angeli forent, si essent Christiani; that is, "They would not be English, but angels, if they were Christians." From that time he ardently desired to convert the nation, and ordered a monk named Austin, or Augustin, and others, to undertake the mission to Britain in the year 596.

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, in the Pacific Ocean, so named by captain Cook, who landed here on Christmas-day, 1777. He had passed Christmasday at Christmas-sound, 1774. On the shore of Christmas Harbour, visited by him in 1776, a man found a piece of parchment inscribed: "Ludovico XV. Galliarum rege, et d. Boynes regi a secretis ad res maritimas, annis 1772 etares Resolution et side captain Cook wrote:

On the other

Discovery de rege Magne Britanniæ, Dec. 1776,”

and placed it in a bottle.

CHRISTOPHER'S, St. (or St. Kitt's), a West India Island, discovered in 1493, by Columbus, who gave it his own name. Settled by the English and French, 1623 or 1626. Ceded to England by the peace of Utrecht, 1713. Taken by the French in 1782, but restored the next year. The town of Basseterre suffered from fires, 3 Sept. 1776; also 3 and 4 July, 1867, when the cathedral and nearly all the town were destroyed.

CHRONICLES. The earliest are those of the Jews, Chinese, and Hindoos. In Scripture there are two "Books of Chronicles"; see Bible. Collections of the British chronicles have been published by Camden, Gale, &c., since 1602; in the present century by the English Historical Society, &c. In 1858, the publication of "Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages," commenced under the direction of the Master of the Rolls (still going on, 1873); Macray's" Manual of British Historians" was published in 1845.

CHRONOLOGY (the science of time) has for its object the arrangement and exhibition of the various events of the history of the world in the order of their succession, and the ascertaining the intervals between them; see Eras and Epochs. les Dates, compiled by the Benedictines (1783-1820). Valuable works on the subject are l'Art de Vérifier Playfair's Chronology, 1784; Blair's Chronology, 1753 (new editions by sir H. Ellis in 1844, and by Mr. Rosse, in 1856). The Oxford Chronological Tables, 1838. Sir Harris Nicolas' Chronology of History, 1833; new edition, 1852. Hales' Chronology, 2nd edition, 1830; Woodward and Cates' Encyclopædia of Chronology, 1872; Mr. H. Fynes-Clinton's Fasti Hellenici and Fasti Romani (1824-50).

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William Armstrong) invented an apparatus for determining the velocity of a projectile in a gun; a second of time is divided into millionths, and the electric spark is employed in recording the rate of the passage. The apparatus was exhibited at Newcastleon-Tyne in Aug. 1869, and in London in April, 1870.

CHRYSOPOLIS, or SCUTARI.

CHUNAR, or CHUNARGHUR, N.W. India, taken by the British, 1763, and ceded to them, 1768. Here was concluded a treaty between the nabob of Oude and governor Hastings, by which the nabob was relieved of his debts to the East India Company, on condition of bis seizing the property of the begums, his mother and grandmother, and delivering it up to the English, 19 Sept. 1781. This treaty enabled the nabob to take the lands of Fyzoola Khan, a Rohilla chief, who had settled at Rampoor, under guarantee of the English. The nabob presented to Mr. Hastings 100,000l.; see Hastings.

CHURCH (probably derived from the 'Greek kyriakos, pertaining to the Lord, Kyrios), signifies both a collected body of Christians, and the place where they meet. In the New Testament, it signinifies "congregation," in the original ekklesia. Christian architecture commenced with Constantine, who erected at Rome churches called basilicas (from the Greek basileus, a king); St. Peter's about 330. His successors erected others, and adopted the heathen temples as places of worship. Several very ancient churches exist in Britain and Ireland. See Architecture; Choir and Chanting; Rome, Modern; Popes.

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The royal supremacy imposed on the clergy by
Henry VIII., 1531; many suffer death for refusing
to acknowledge it
Coverdale's translation of the Bible commanded to

be read in churches

"Six Articles of Religion" promulgated First Book of Common Prayer issued The clergy permitted to marry "Forty-two Articles of Religion" issued Restoration of the Roman forms, and fierce persecution of the Protestants by Mary

The Protestant forms restored by Elizabeth; the

*The church of England consists of three orders of clergy-bishops, priests and deacons; viz., two archbishops and twenty-five bishops, exclusive of the see of Sodor and Man. The other dignities are chancellors, deans (of cathedrals and collegiate churches), archdeacons, prebendaries, canons, minor canons, and priestvicars these and the incumbents of rectories, vicarages, and chapelries, make the number of preferments of the established church, according to official returns, 12,327. The number of benefices in England and Wales, according to parliamentary returns, in 1844, was 11,127, and the number of glebe-houses 5527. The number of parishes is 11,077, and of churches and chapels about 14,100. The number of benefices in Ireland was 1495, to which there were not more than about 900 glebe-houses attached, the rest having no glebe-houses. An act was passed in 1860 for the union of contiguous benefices. In 1867 the beneficed clergy were estimated at 12,888; curates and other clergy without livings about 7000.

. 1535

..

1539 1549

..

1552

1553-8 1558-1603

1563 1604 1611 1644 1649

Puritan dissensions begin
"Thirty-nine" Articles published
Hampton Court conference with the Puritans.
New translation of the Bible published
Book of Common Prayer suppressed and Directory
Presbyterians established by the Commonwealth

established

Act of Uniformity (14 Chas. II. c. 4) passed-2000 nonconforming ministers resign their livings 1662 Attempts of James II. to revive Romanism; "Declaration of Indulgence" published. 1687 Acquittal of the seven bishops on a charge of 1688 The Non-juring bishops and others deprived; (they formed a separate communion) 1 Feb. 1691 "Queen Anne's Bounty," for the augmentation of poor livings

"seditious libel"

Act for building 50 new churches passed
Fierce disputes between the low church and the
high church; trial of Henry Sacheverell, for
seditious sermons; riots

The Bangorian controversy begins
John Wesley and George Whitfield commence
preaching

Rise of the Evangelical party in the church, under
Newton, Romaine, and others, in the latter part
of
18th century
Church of England united with that of Ireland at

the Union.

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1704 1710

Bishop of London's Fund, for remedying spiritual destitution in London, established; the queen engages to give (in three years) 3000l., and prince of Wales 1000l. 7 March

1717

1738

Incorporated Church Building Society established,
Clergy Incapacitation Act passed

6 Feb. 1818 Acts for building and enlarging churches, 1828, 1838 200 new churches erected in the diocese of London under bishop C. J. Blomfield 1828-56 "Tracts for the Times" (No. 1-90) published (much controversy ensued)

Ecclesiastical Commission established New Church Discipline Act (3 & 4 Vict. c. 86) "Essays and Reviews "published, 1860; numerous Replies issued (see Essays and Reviews) [The Church of England is now said to be divided into High, Moderate, Low (or Evangelical), and Broad Church: the last including persons who hold the opinions of the late Dr. Arnold, the Rev. F. D. Maurice, dean Stanley, canon Kingsley, and others.] Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, publishes his work "The Pentateuch," about Oct. 1862; the bishops, in convocation, declare that it contains "errors of the gravest and most dangerous cha racter" 20 May, 1863

on

""

A Church Congress at Manchester 13, 14, 15 Oct.

Bishop Colenso deposed by his metropolitan, Dr. Gray, bishop of Capetown. 16 April, 1864 Church Congress at Bristol Oct. " Church Association (against popery and ritualism) established. District Churches Titles act passed (rectories constituted).

1865

1800 1801

1833-41 1834 1840

1861-2

Bishop Colenso's appeal came before the privy council, which declared bishop Gray's proceedings null and void (since a colonial bishop can have no authority cept what is granted by liament or by the colonial legislature), 21 March, "Oxford Declaration" (authorship ascribed to archdeacon Denison and Dr. Pusey), respecting belief in eternal punishment, drawn up and signed on 25 Feb., and sent by post to the clergy at large for signature: about 3000 are said to have signed; it was presented to the archbishop of Canterbury 12 May, 1864

39

100,4561. received: 72,003l. promised 31 Dec. 1864 The queen engages to give 15,000l. in 10 years, April, 1865 New form of clerical subscription proposed by a commission in 1864; adopted by parliament, July, Church Congress at Norwich : 3-7 Oct. Meeting in London of three English bishops, Dr. Pusey, and nearly 80 of the clergy and laity with counts Orloff and Tolstse, and the ussian chaplain, to consider on the practicability of uniting the English and Russian churches 15 Nov. Bishop Colenso publicly excommunicated at Maritzburg cathedral, by bishop Gray 5 Jan. 1866 Bishop Gray declares himself independent, establishes synods, and calls his see "The Church of South Africa' early in The Church Missionary Society refuses to support colonial bishops, unless they keep within the formularies of the Church of England early in 6 Oct.

Church Congress at York Much excitement caused by the progress of ritualism (which see) Sept.-Nov. Bishop Colenso v. Gladstone and others (trustees of the Colonial Bishopric Fund) for withholding his salary. Verdict of master of the rolls, for plaintiff, with costs 6 Nov. Unqualified condemnation of ritualism by the bishops in convocation, 13 Feb.; the lower house concurred 15 Feb. 1867 The bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Hamilton) in a church asserts the doctrine of the supernatural gifts of priests, the Divine presence in the sacrament; public protest against it 16 May, Trial in Court of Arches: Martin v. Mackonochie, respecting extreme ritualistic practices at St. Alban's, Holborn; case deferred 21 May, Royal Ritualistic Commission appointed to inquire respecting rubricks in the Prayer-Book, table of lessons, &c., 3 June; first report, censuring innovation, signed 19 Ang. Pan-Anglican Synod (which see) meets at Lambeth, 24-27 Sept. Church Congress at Wolverhampton 1 Oct. Meeting of ritualists in St. James's Hall, claiming 19 Nov. Case of Martin v. Mackonochie, begun 4 Dec., lasted 14 days; resumed

16-18 Jan. 1868 Proposal of bishop Gray of Capetown to consecrate Mr. Macrorie bishop of Natal in opposition to bishop Colenso, disapproved of by the English and Scotch bishops Jan.

Bishop of London's Fund, received, 312,309l. 31 Jan. Martin r. Mackonochie decided; verdict for plaintiff; use of incense, mixing water with the wine, and elevation of the elements, in the sacrament, forbidden . 28 March, Great meeting at St. James's Hall, in defence of the Irish Church establishment; 23 bishops present, 6 May, District Churches Act, constituting vicarages (Bishop of Oxford's Act), passed. Church Congress at Dublin 29 Sept. Sharp party contests at a special meeting of the Christian Knowledge Society 8 Dec. Martin e. Mackonochie: appeal case; verdict for plaintiff, declaring certain ritualistic practices illegal . 23 Dec. Warm meeting of ritualists at St. James's Hall, 12 Jan. 1869 First meeting of a Church Reform Society (since named "Liturgical Revision Society "); Lord Ebury, chairman 13 May, 24 May, 5 Oct.

99

""

Church conference at Sheffield Church Congress at Liverpool Martin v. Mackonochie: defendant censured by privy council for evading sentence 4 Dec. Bishop of London's Fund:-411,8391. received, July, 1870 "Clerical Disabilities Act" passed Aug. Church Congress at Southampton 11 Oct. Christian Knowledge Society votes 10,000l. to sup20 Oct. Rev. Mr. Mackonochie suspended from duty for three months by decree of Privy Council for evading former sentence 25 Nov. Rev. C. Voysey sentenced to be deprived for heresy; appeal to judicial committee of privy council disallowed 10 Feb. 18-1

port Church schools

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Hebbert v. Purchas, of Brighton; verdict against
defendant for offences against ecclesiastical law;
considered a great defeat of the ritualists, and
caused much excitement
23 Feb. 1871
Mr. Miall's resolution for disestablishing the church
of England defeated in the commons-374-89,
9 May. 1871
Incumbents' Resignation Act passed
13 July,
Agitation for revival of diocesan synods, Sept. -Oct.
Chi Congress at Nottingham; closed 10 Oct.
Sheppard v. Bennett (for teaching the divine pre-
sence in the sacrament); appeal to privy council,
28 Nov.; judgment adjourned
2 Dec.
Church Defence Association established
Bishop of London's Fund-received 441,199l. 31 Dec.
The convocation authorised to consider alterations
in the Prayer Book
Feb. 1872

Church reform meeting at St. James's Hall; paro-
chial councils recommended
15 Feb.
Rev. John Purchas, of Brighton, to be suspended
from duties for one year, from
18 Feb.

[He died 18 Oct.]
Conference of bishops, deans, and canons at Lam-
beth, to consider cathedral reform 1 March,
Sheppard . Bennett; judgment for defendant, who
is censured
8 June,
Mr. Miall's motion for royal commission to in-
quire into the property of the church lost (295-94)
2 July,
8-11 Oct.

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Church of Ireland disestablished.

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Church Congress at Leeds

CHURCH OF FRANCE. St. Pothinus preached Christianity to the Gauls about 160; became bishop of Lyons, and suffered martyrdom with others, 177; see Huguenots.

A mission of seven bishops arrived in 245; followed
by severe persecution

Christianity tolerated by Constantius Chlorus
Council of Arles convoked by Constantine, about
600 bishops present; the Donatists condemned
Christianity established by Clovis
Pragmatic sanction of St. Louis restraining the im-
positions of the pope; and restoring the right of
electing bishops, &e.
Pragmatic sanction of Bourges, declaring a general
council superior to the pope, and prohibiting
appeals to him

1438

Concordat of Leo X. and Francis I. annulling the pragmatic sanction 18 Aug. 1516 1640

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"An act to put an end to the establishment of the church of Ireland," introduced into the house of commons by Mr. Gladstone, 1 Mar.; vote for second reading, 368; against, 250; 2 A.M., 24 March; for third reading, 361; against, 247. 31 May, 1869 Introduced the house of lords by earl Granville, 1 June; read third time, 12 July: some amendments by the lords accepted, others rejected; received royal assent [to come into effect, 1 Jan. 1871] 26 July, Address of bishops to the clergy and laity, dated, 18 Aug.

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Meeting of the general synod of the Irish church in St. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin, for re-organisation of the general council Conference of the laity; duke of Abercorn chair13 Oct. 1 Jan. 1871

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CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, see Bishops in Scotland. On the abolition of Episcopacy, in 1638, Presbyterianism became the established religion Its formulary of faith, said to have been compiled by John Knox, in 1560, was approved by the parliament and ratified in 1567, finally settled by an act of the Scottish senate in 1696, and secured by the treaty of union with England in 1707; see Discipline, Patronage, and Bishops. The church is regulated by four courts-the general assembly, the synod, the presbytery, and kirk sessions; see Presbyterians. For important secessions, see Burghers (1732), and Free Church (1843).

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CHURCHYARDS, see Consecration. CHURCHING OF WOMEN is the act of returning thanks in the church by women after child-birth. It began about 214. Wheatley; see Purification.

Charles I. to France. John Philips published his poem "Cider" in 1706.

CIDER (Zider, German), when first made in England, was called wine, about 1284. The earl of Manchester, when ambassador in France, is said to have passed off cider for wine. It was subjected to the excise in 1763 et seq. The duty was taken off in 1830. Many orchards were planted in Herefordshire by lord Scudamore, ambassador from

CIGAR SHIP, see under Steam, 1866.

CILICIA, in Asia Minor, partook of the fortunes of that country. It became a Roman province about 64 B.C., and was conquered by the Turks, A.D. 1387.

CIMBRI, a Teutonic race from Jutland, invaded the Roman empire about 120 B.C. They defeated the Romans, under Cneius Papirius Carbo, 113 B.C.; under the consul, Marcus Silanus, 109 B.C., and under Cæpio Manlius, at Arausio, on the banks of the Rhine, where 80,000 Romans were slain, 105 B.C. Their allies, the Teutones, were defeated by Marius in two battles at Aqua Sextia (Aix) in Gaul; 200,000 were killed, and 70,000 made prisoners, 102 B.C. The Cimbri were defeated by Marius and Catulus, at Campus Raudius, when about to enter Italy; 120,000 were killed, and 60,000 taken prisoners, 101 B.C. They were afterwards absorbed into the Teutones or Saxons.

CIMENTO (Italian, experiment). The "Accademia del Cimento," at Florence, held its first meeting for making scientific experiments, 18 June, 1657. It was patronised by Ferdinand, grand duke of Tuscany. The Royal Society of London was founded in 1660, and the Academy of Sciences at Paris in 1666.

CINCHONA, see Jesuits' Bark.

CINCINNATI. A society established by officers of the American army soon after the peace of 1783, "to perpetuate friendship, and to raise a fund for relieving the widows and orphans of those who had fallen during the war." On the badge military influence, and the society dissolved itself. was a figure of Cincinnatus. The people dreaded

CINNAMON, a species of laurel, is mentioned among the perfumes of the sanctuary (Exodus xxx. 23) 1491 B.C. It was found in the American forests by don Ulloa, in 1736, was cultivated in Jamaica and Dominica in 1788, and is now grown in Ceylon.

CINQUE-CENTO (five hundred); ter cento, &c.; see note to article Italy.

CINQUE PORTS, on the south coast of England, were originally five (hence the name)— Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, and Sandwich; Winchelsea and Rye were afterwards added. Jeake. Their jurisdiction was vested in barons, called wardens, for the better security of the coast, these ports being nearest to France, and considered the keys of the kingdom; instituted by William I. in 1078. Rapin. The latest lord-wardens were the duke of Wellington, 1828-52; the marquis of Dalhousie, 1852-60; lord Palmerston, 1861-65; earl Granville, appointed Dec. 1865. Their peculiar jurisdiction was abolished in 1855.

CINTRA (Portugal). Here was signed an

CHUSAN, a Chinese isle; see China, 1840, agreement on 22 Aug. 1808, between the French 1841, 1860. and English the day after the battle of Vimeira. As it contained the bases of the convention signed on 30 Aug. following, it has been termed the convention of Cintra. By it Junot and his army were permitted to evacuate Portugal free, in British ships. The convention was publicly condemned, and a court of inquiry was held at Chelsea, which exonerated the British commanders. Both Wellington and Napoleon justified sir Hew Dalrymple.

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