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12 Feb. 1817; the province declared independent, The enforcement of this law was made more

12 Feb. 1818

1864 Present constitution established

22 May, 1833 Joseph Glass, inventor of the sweeping machine Manuel Montt elected president 18 Oct. 1856 now in general use, not patented, died

29 Jan. 1868 Insurrection headed by Pedro Gallo, Dec. 1858, suppressed

April, 1859 CHINA (TSING), the “Celestial Empire," in José J. Perez, president

19 Sept. 1861 Eastern Asia, for which the Chinese annals claim Conflagration of the Jesuits' church at Santiago (see Santiago), more than 2000 persons perished

an antiquity of from 80,000 to 100,000 years B.C., is 8 Dec. 1863

said to have commenced about 2500 B.C.; by others Rupture between Chili and Bolivia respecting the

to have been founded by Fohi, supposed to be the “Guano" isles

1 March, 1864

Noah of the Bible, 2240 B.C. We are told that the Disputes with Spain respecting Peru settled by the Chinese were acute astronomers in the reign of Yao, Spanish ininister, 20 May, disavowed by his

2357 B.C.

Towards the close of the 7th century government

25 July, 1864 Religious toleration enacted '

B.C., the history of China becomes more distinct.

July, 1865 J. J. Perez again proclaimed president; vigorous Twenty-two dynasties have reigned, including the prosecution of the war

Oct. present. The population of the empire of China The Spanish admiral Pareja appears before Val was estimated at 190,348,228 in 1757 ; at 414,607,000

paraiso claiming satisfaction for Chilian inter in 1860; and at 446,500,000 in 1871.
vention in the war with Peru, 17 Sept. ; refused 21
Sept. ; he declares a blockade, 24 Sept. ; Chili

The Chinese state their first cycle begun. declares war against Spain, 29 Sept. ; joins Peru, The first dates fixed to his history, by Se-ma-tsien,


651 The Spaniards bombard Valparaiso 31 Narch, 1866 supposed age of Confucius (Kungfutze), the philoEnd of the blockade

14 April,

550 J. J. Perez re-elected president

18 Sept.
Stupendous wall of China completed .

298 or F. Errazuriz elected president

18 Sept. 1871
The dynasty of Han

206 Gold mines discovered near Iquique :


Literature and the art of printing encouraged (?)

Battle between Phraates and the Scythians : the CHILLED SHOT, see Cannon, 1864-6.

Chinese aided the latter, and ravaged the coasts

of the Caspian : their first appearance in history CHILLIANWALLAH, BATTLE OF, India, (Lenglet.)

129 between the Sikh forces in considerable strength, The religion of Laot-se begun and the British commanded by lord (afterwards Buddhism, or the religion of Fő, introduced) about viscount) Gough, fought 13 Jan. 1849. The Sikhs

A. D. 68-81 Nankin becomes the capital

420 were completely routed, but the loss of the British

The atheistical philosopher, San-Shin, flourishes

449 was very severe : 26 officers were killed and 66

The Nestorian Christians permitted to preach

635 wounded, and 731 rank and file killed, and 1446 They are proscribed and extirpated .

845 wounded. The Sikh loss was 3000 killed and China ravaged by Tartars, gth to uth centuries. 4000 wounded.* On 21 Feb. lord Gough attacked Seat of government transferred to Pekin

1260 the Sikh army, under Shere Singh, in its position

Marco Polo introduces missionaries.

1275 at Goojerat, with complete success ; and the whole of Kublai Khan establishes the Yuen or Mongol

dynasty the enemy's camp fell into the hands of the British.

Ming dynasty

Canal, called the Yu Ho, completed
Europeans first arrive at Canton

1517 Desborough, and Stoke), an estate of the crown on

Macao is granted to the Portuguese

1536 the chain of chalk hills that pass from east to west Jesuit missionaries are sent from Rome

1575 through the middle of Buckinghamshire. The The country is conquered by the eastern or Mantstewardship is a nominal office, with a salary of 258.,

chou Tartars, who establish the present reigning conferred on members of parliament when they wish

Tsin dynasty

1616-44 Tea brought to England

1660 to vacate their seats. The strict legality of the

An earthquake throughout china, buries 300,000 practice is questioned.

persons at Pekin alone


1680 CHIMNEY-TAX, see Hearth.

Commerce with East India Company begins
Jesuit missionaries preach

1692 CHIMNEYS. Chafing-dishes were in use

Commercial relations with Russia


The Jesuits expelled previous to the invention of chimneys, which were


Another general earthquake destroys 100,000 perfirst introduced into these countries, in 1200, when

sons at Pekin, and 80,000 in a suburb

1731 they were confined to the kitchen and largé hall. In a salute by one of our ships in China, a gun was The family sat round a stove, the funnel of which inadvertently fired, which killed a native the passed through the ceiling, in 1300. Chimneys government demanded the gunner; he was soon were general in domestic architecture in 1310. At


1785 the chemical works, Glasgow, is a chimney (there Earl Macartney's embassy arrives at Pekin; his re

14 Sept. 1793 termed a stalk) 420 feet in height; the height of [This embassy threw light on the empire ; it apthe monument in London being 202 feet; of St. peared to be divided into 15 provinces, containing Paul's, 404 feet.

4402 walled cities ; the population of the whole

was given at 333,000,000 : its annual revenues at Act to regulate chimney-svepping, 28 Geo. III.


66,000,000l. ; and the army, including the Tartars, The chimney-sweeping machine was invented by

1,000,000 of infantry and 800,000 cavalry; the Smart


religion Pagan, and the government absolute. A statute regulating the trade, the apprenticeship

Learning, and the arts and sciences, were encouof children, the construction of flues, preventing

raged, and ethies studied.) calling “sweep” in the streets, &c., passed 1834 He is ordered to depart By 3 & 4 Vict. c. 85 (1840), it is not lawful for master And arrives in England

6 Sept. 1794 sweeps to take apprentices under sixteen years The affair of the company's ship Neptune, when a of age ; and no individual under twenty-one to

Chinese was killed

1807 ascend a chimney after

. 1 July, 1842 Edict against Christianity

Lord Amherst's embassy : he leaves England, 8 Feb. 1816 * The duke of Wellington (commander-in-chief) did (His lord ship failed in the objects of his mission, not think the victory complete. Gough was superseded, having refused to make the prostration of the and sir Charles Napier sent out (March 1849), who did kutou, lest he should thereby compromise the not arrive in India till Gough had redecined his reputa majesty of England. ) tion.

Exclusive rights of the E. I. Co. cease 22 April, 1834

about 1275


about 1400


7 Oct.



23 Feb.

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Free-trade ships sail for England 25 April, 1834 British forces withdrawn, 1 June; and British trade Lord Napier arrives at Macao to superintend re-opened.

16 July, 1841 British commerce

15 July, Arrival at Macao of sir Henry Pottinger, who, as Affair between the natives and two British ships of plenipotentiary, proclaims the objects of his war : several Chinese killed

5 Sept.
mission ; capt. Elliot superseded

10 Aug Lori Napier dies, and is succeeded by Mr. (after- Amoy taken, and 296 guns destroyed

27 Aug. waris sir John) Davis

II Oct.
The Bogue forts destroyed

14 Sept. Opium dispute begins ; the trade prohibited by the Ting-hae taken, 136 guns captured, and Chusan reemperor


occupied by the British, 1 Oct. ; they take ChinChinese seize the Argyle and crew 31 Jan. 1835 hae, 10 Oct. ; Ning-po, 13 Oct. ; Yu-yaou, 'Tszekium burnt at Canton by Chinese

kee, and Foong-hua

28 Dec. Captain Elliot, chief British commissioner 14 Dec. 1836 Chinese attack Ning-po and Chin-hac, and are reA British commissioner settled at Canton, March, 1837 pulsed with great loss, 10 March ; 8000 Chinese Admiral Maitland arrives at Macao 12 July, 1838 are routed near Tze-kee

15 March, 1842 Commissioner Lin orders seizure of opium, 18 Cha-pou attacked ; defences destroyed 18 May,

March ; British and other residents forbidden to The British squadron enters the river Kiang, leave Canton, 19 March ; the factories surrounded,

13 June : capture of Woosung and of 230 guns and outrages committed

24 March, 1839 and stores, 16 June; Shang-hae taken, 19 June, Captain Elliot requires British subjects to surrender The British armament anchors near the “Golden to him all opiun, promising them full value of it,

Isle," 20 July ; Chin-Keang taken ; the Tartar 27 March ; half of it is given up as contraband to

general and many of the garrison commit suicide, to the Chinese, 20 April : the remainder (20,283

21 July : the advanced ships reach Nankin, chests) surrendered, 21 May; captain Elliot and 4 Aug. i the whole fleet arrives, and the disemthe British merchants leave Canton, 24 May; the

barkation commences, 9 Aug. ; keying arrives opium destroyed by the Chinese

3 June,

at Nankin, with full powers to treat for peace Affair between the British and American seamen

12 Aug. and the Chinese ; a native killed

7 July,

Treaty of peace signed before Nankin, on board the Hong-Kong taken

23 Aug

Cornwallis by sir Henry Pottinger for England, The British boat Black Joke attacked, and the crew

and Keying Elepoo* and Neu-Kien on the part of murdered, 24 Aug. ; the British merchants re

the Chinese emperor--(Conditions : lasting peace tire from Macao

26 Aug:

and friendship between the two empires ; China Affair at kow-lung between British boats and

to pay 21,000,000 of dollars ; Canton, Amoy, FooChinese junks

4 Sept.

choofoo, Ningpo, and Shang-hae to be thrown Attack by 28 armed junks on the British frigates open to the British, and consuls to reside at these

Volge and Hyacinth : severa! junks blown up 3 Nov. cities ; Hong-Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to The British trade with China ceases, by an edict of

England, &c. ; Chusan and Ku-lang-su to be held the emperor, and the last servant of the company

by the British until the provisions are fulfilled t] leaves this day

.6 Dec. Edict of the emperor interdicting all trade and

The ratification signed by queen Victoria and the intercourse with England for ever 5 Jan. 1840 emperor formally exchanged.

22 July, 1843 The Hellas ship attacked by armed junks, 22 May ; Canton opened to the British

27 July, blockade of Canton by a British Heet, by orders Appointment of Mr. Davis in the room of sir Henry from sir Gordon Bremer, 28 June; the Blonde


16 Feb. 1844 with a flag of truce fired on at Amoy, 2 July ; Bogue forts captured by the British

5 April, 1847 Tiny-hai, in Chusan, surrenders, 5 July; blockade Hong-Kong and the neighbourhood visited by a established along the Chinese coast, 10 July ; Mr.

violent typhoon ; immense damage done to the Staunton carried off to Canton

6 Aug.

shipping : upwards of 1000 boat-dwellers on the Captain Elliot, on board a British steam-ship, Canton river drowned

Oct. 1848 enters the Peiho river, near Pekin 11 Aug H.M. steam-ship Medea destroys 13 pirate junks in The ship kite lost on a sand-bank, and the captain's

the Chinese seas.

4 March, 1850 wife and a part of the crew are captured by the Rebellion breaks out in Quang-si

Aug. natives, and confined in cages.

15 Sept.

Appearance of the pretender, Tien-teh : March, 1851 Lin finally degradel; Keshin appointed imperial commissioner, 16 Sept. ; capt. Elliot's truce with

* He took part (it was said without authority) in him

6 Nov. arranging the treaty of Tien-sin in June, 1858. He was British plenipotentiaries off Macao

in consequence condemned to death-by suicide. Admiral Elliot's resignation announced

+ The non-fulfilment of this treaty led gradually to the Mr. Staunton released

12 Dec.

war of 1856-7. kezotiations cease, owing to breaches of faith on

The emperor Taou-Kwang, who died 25 Feb. 1850, the part of the Chinese emperor

6 Jan. 1841 during the latter part of his reign, became liberal in his Chuen-pe and Tae-coc-tow, and 173 guns (some sent views, and favoured the introduction of European arts : to England) captured

7 Jan.

but his son, the late emperor, a rash and narrow-minded Hong-Kong ceded by Keshin to Great Britain, and prince, quickly departed from his father's wise policy,

6,000,000 dollars agreed to be paid within ten days and adopted reactionary measures, particularly against to the British authorities

20 Jau.

English influence. An insurrection broke out in conseHong-Kong taken possession of

26 Jan. quence, Aug. 1850, and quickly became of alarming imThe emperor rejects Keshin's treaty, 11 Feb. ; hos- portance. The insurgents at tirst proposed only to expel

tilities resumed, 23 Feb, ; Chusan evacuated, the Tartars ; but in March, 1851, a pretender was an24 Feb. ; rewards proclaimed at Canton for the nounced among them, first by the name of Tien-teh bodies of Englishmen, dead or alive; 50,000 dollars (Celestial Virtue), but afterwards assuming other names. to be given for chiefs

He is stated to have been a native of Quang-si, of Bogne forts taken by sir G. Bremer ; adiniral Kwan

obscure origin, but to have obtained some literary knowkilled : 459 guns captured

26 Feb. leilge at Canton about 1835. and to have become acquainted The British squadron proceeds to Canton, i March; at that time with the principles of Christianity from a

sir H. Gough takes command of the army, Chinese Christian, named Leang-afa, and also from the 2 March ; hostilities again suspended, 3 March : missionary Roberts in 1844. He announced himself as and again resumed, 6 March ; Keshin degraded the restorer of the worship of the true God, Shang-ti, and by the emperor

· 12 March,

has derived many of his dogmas from the Bible. He deFlotilla of boats destroyed, Canton threatened, the clared himself to be the monarch of all beneath the sky,

foreign factories seized, and 461 guns taken by the true lord of China (and thus of all the world), the the British forces

18 Mareh, brother of Jesus, and the second son of God, and deNew commissioners from Pekin arrived at Canton manded universal submission. He made overtures for

alliance to lord Elgin in Nov. 1860. His followers are Hong Kong Gazette first published , 1 May, termed Taepings, "princes of peace," a title utterly Capt. Elliot prepares to attack Canton

belied by their atrocious deeds. The rebellion was virtuHeights behind Canton taken

25 May,

ally terminated 18 July, 1864, by the capture of Nankin, The city ransomed for 6,000,000 dollars ; 5,000,000 the suicide of the Tien-Wang, and the execution of the paid down; hostilities cease

31 May,

military leaders.

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29 Nov.


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23 Oct.

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Defeat of Leu, the imperial commissioner, and destruction of half the army

19 June, 1852 Successful progress of the rebels ; the emperor applies to the Europeans for help, without success

March and April, 1853 The rebels take Nankin, 19, 20 March ; Amoy,

19 May ; Shang-hae. And besiege Canton without success Aug.-Nov. 1854 The scanty accounts are unfavourable to the rebels,

the imperialists having retaken Shang-hae, Amoy, and many important places

1855 Outrage on the British lorcha Arrow, in Canton river *

8 Oct. 1856 After vain negotiations with commissioner Yeh,

Canton forts attacked and taken
A Chinese fleet destroyed and Canton bombarded,

by sir M. Seymour
Imperialists defeated, quit Shang-hae . 6 Nov.
The Americans revenge an attack by capturing three

Rebels take Kuriking
Other forts taken by the British

The Chinese burn European factories
And murder the crew of the Thistle
A-lum, a Chinese baker, acquitted of charge of
poisoning the bread

2 Feb. 1857 Troops arrive from Madras and England ; and lord Elgin appointed envoy.

March, No change on either side: Yeh said to be straitened

for money; the imperialists seem to be gaining ground upon the rebels

May, Total destruction of the Chinese fleet by commodore

Elliot, 25, 27 May; and sir M. Seymour and commodore Keppel

1 June, Blockade of Canton

Aug. Stagnation in the war-lord Elgin departs to Cai

cutta, with assistance to the English against the

Sepoys, 16 July ; returns to Hong-Kong 25 Sept. Gen. Ashburnham departs for India, and gen. Strani.

benzee assumes the command Canton bombarded and taken by English and

French, 28, 29 Dec. 1857; who enter it 5 Jan. 1858 Yeht sent a prisoner to Calcutta

Jan. The allies proceed towards Pekin, and take the Pei

ho forts The expedition arrives at Tien-Sin.

20 May, Negotiations commence, 5 June ; treaty of peace

signed at Tien-sin by lord Elgin, baron Gros, and
Keying (who signed the treaty of 1842)-(Ambas-
sadors to be at both courts ; freedom of trade ;
toleration of Christianity ; expenses of war to be
paid by China; a revised tariff ; term I (bar.
barian) to be no longer applied to Europeans)

26, 28, 29 June, Lord Elgin visits Japan, and concludes an im

portant treaty with the emperor 28 Aug. The British destroy about 130 piratical junks in the Chinese seas

Aug. and Sept. Lord Elgin proceeds up the Yang-tse-Kiang to Nankin, Jan. ; returns to England

May, 1859 Mr. Bruce, the British envoy, on his way to Pekin,

is stopped in the river Pei-ho (or Tien-sin); ad-
miral Hope attempting to force a passage, is re-
pulsed with the loss of 81 killed, and about 390

25 June, The American envoy Ward arrives at Pekin, and refusing to submit to degrading ceremonies, does

not see the emperor Commercial treaty with America. The English and French prepare an expedition against China.

Lord Elgin and baron Gros sail for China, April 26 ;

wrecked near point de Galle, Ceylon, 23 May ;
arrive at Shang-hae

29 June, 1860

19 Oct.

24 Oct. 5 Nov.

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The war begins: the British commanded by sir Hope

Grant, the French by general Montauban. The
Chinese defeated in a skirmish near the Pei-ho

12 Ang. 1860 The allies repulse the Tae-ping rebels attacking

Shang-hae, 18-20 Aug. ; and take the Taku forts, losing 500 killed and wounded; the Tartar general San-ko-lin-sin retreats

21 Aug. After vain negotiations, the allies advance towaris

Pekin ; they defeat the Chinese at Chang-kia-wan and Pa-li-chiau .

18 & 21 Sept. Consul Parkes, captains anderson and Brabazon,

Mr. de Norman, Mr. Bowlby (the Times' cor. respondent), and 14 others (Europeans and Sikhs), advance to Tung-chow, to arrange conditions for a meeting of the ministers, and are captured by San-ko-lin-sin; capt. Brabazon and abbé de Luc beheaded, and said to be thrown into the canal ; others carried into Pekin

21 Sept. The allies march towards Pekin; the French ravage

the emperor's summer palace, 6 Oct. ; Mr. Parkes, Mr. Loch, and others, restored alive, 8 Oct.; capt. Anderson, Mr. De Norman, and others die of ill

8-11 Oct. Pekin invested ; surrenders, 12 Oct. ; severe pro

clamation of sir Hope Grant. The bodies of Mr. De Norman and Mr. Bowlby solemnly buried in the Russian cemetery, Pekin, 17 Oct. ; the summer palace (Yuen-ming-yuen) burnt by the British, in memory of the outraged prisoners

18 Oet. Convention signed in Pekin by lord Elgin and the

prince of Kung, by which the treaty of Tien-sin is ratified ; apology made for the attack at Pei-ho (25 June, 1859); a large indemnity to be paid immediately, and compensation in money given to the families of the murdered prisoners, &c.; Kowloon ceded in exchange for Chusan, and the treaty and convention to be proclaimed throughout the

empire Allies quit Pekin. Treaty between Russia and China-the former ob

tutining free trade, territories, &c. First instalment of indemnity paid Part of the allied troops settled at Tien-sin ; consulate established

5 Jan, 1861 Adm. Hope examines Yang-tse-Kiang, &c. Feb. English and French embassies established at Pekin

March, The emperor Hienfung dies

. 21 Aug. Canton restored to the Chinese

21 Oct. Ministerial crisis ; several ministers put to death,

Nov. ; Kung appointed regent. Advance of the rebels ; they seize and desolate Ningpo and Hang-chow

Dec. They advance on Shang-hae, which is placed under protection of the English and French, and fortified

Jan, 1862 Rebels defeated in two engagements April, English and French assist the government against the rehels—Ning-po re-taken

10 May, French admiral Protet killed in an attack on rebels

17 May, Captain Sherard Osbome permitted by the British

government to organise a small fleet of gunboats to aid the imperialists to establish order

July, Imperialists gain ground, take Kah-sing, &c.

Oct. Commercial treaty with Prussia ratified 14 Jan. 1863 The imperialists under col. Charles Gordon defeat the Taepings under Burgevine, &c. .

Oct. Gordon captures Sow-chow (after a severe attack,

27, 28 Nov.); the rebel chiefs treacherously

butchered by the Chinese Capt. Osborne came to China ; but retired in conse

quence of the Chinese government departing from

its engagements Gordon's successes continue Jan, to April, 1864 Repulsed ; he takes Chang-chow-foo

23 March, He takes Nankin (a heap of ruins); Hun-seu-tseun,

the Tien-wang, the rebel emperor, commits suicide by eating gold leaf, 30 June; Chang-wang and Kan-wang, the rebel generals, are " cut into a thousand pieces".

18 July, Great mortality among British troops at Kowloon

Jan. 1865

· 20 May,

14 Nov. 30 Nov.

· 13 Dec.

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4, 5 Dec.

31 Dec.

It was boarded by the Chinese officers, 12 men out of the crew of 14 being carried off and the national ensign taken down. Sir J. Bowring, governor of Hong-Kong, being compelled to resort to hostilities, applied to India and Ceylon for troops. On 3 March, 1857, the house of commons, by a inajority of 19, censured sir John for the “violent measures" he had pursued. The ministry (who took his part) dissolved the parliament; but obtained a large majority in the new one.

+ He died peacefully at Calcutta, 9 April, 1859. He is said to have ordered the beheading of about 100,000 rebels.

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The Taepings hold Ming-chow; the Mahometan 1861. Ki-tsiang (altered to Toung-chi) 21 Aug. ; born 21 rebellion (Dounganes) progressing in Honan

April, 1856; married 16 Oct. 1872.

Jan-March, 1865 Taepings evacuate Ming-chow

23 May,

CHINA GRASS, or Rura; a prize of 5000l. A rebellion of the Nieu-fei in the north ; Pekin in

was offered by the Indian government for machinery danger

July, The Chinese general San-ko-lin-sin defeated and

to prepare and cleanse the fibre, 11 Jan. 1870. slain; his son more successful


Mr. John Greig's machine was exhibited in EdinRebellion in the north advancing


burgh, Dec. 1871. Prince kung chief of the regency again. Sir Rutherford Alcock, ambassador at Pekin, CHINA PORCELAIN, introduced into Eng

26 Nov, land about 1531 ; see Pottery. Chinese newspaper, “Messenger of the Flying Dragon," appears in London

14 Jan. 1866 CHINA ROSE, &c. The Rosa indica was Great victory over the Nien-fei announced at Canton

brought from China, and successfully planted in

13 March, Chinese commissioners visit London

England, 1786; the Chinese apple-tree, or Pyrus

June, Rivalry of two great political chiefs in China, Li- spectabilis, about 1780. hung-ching and Tsen-kwo-fan

July, Reported victory of the Nien-fei over the impe

CHINCHA ISLES, see Peru, 1864-5. rialists

Dec. 1867 Chinese embassy (Mr. Anson Burlinghame, Chin

CHIOS (now Scro), an isle in the Greek ArchiKang, and Sun Chia Su) received by president

pelago, revolted against Athens, 412 and 357 B.c, Johnson at Washington, 5 June ; they sign a

It partook of the fortunes of Greece, being conquered treaty, 4 July; arrive in London, Sept. ; received by the Venetians, A.D. 1124; by the crusaders, 1204; by the queen

20 Nov. 1868 by the Greek emperor, 1329; by the Genoese, 1329; The rebels seize Ningpo

Oct. The people at Yang-chow, incited by the literati":

and finally by the Turks in 1594. A dreadful mas(learned classes) destroy the Protestant mission

sacre of about 40,000 inhabitants by the Turks took houses, 22 Aug ; redress not obtained ; a British place 11 April, 1822, during the Greek insurrection. squadron proceeds to Nankin, 8 Nov. ; the viceroy is superseded, and the British demands ac

CHIPPAWA (N. America). Here the British (eded to

under Riall were defeated by the Americans under Chinese embassy received by the einperor at "Paris,

Brown, 5 July, 1814. The Americans were defeated

24 Jan. 1869 by the British under Drummond and Riall, 25 July Pekin visited by the duke of Edinburgh, incognito,

following, but Riall was wounded and taken pri

Oct. Supplementary convention to the treaty of Tien-tsin (June, 1858) for additional commercial freedom,

CHIVALRY arose out of the feudal system in signed Burlinghame dies at St. Petersburg

22 Feb). 1870

the latter part of the 8th century (chevalier, or Successful rebellion of Mahometans in northwest knight, being derived from the caballarius, the provinces reported

May, equipped feudal tenant on horseback). From the Cruel massacre of the French consul at Tien-tsin,

12th to the 15th century it tended to refine manners. Roman Catholic priests, sisters of mercy (22 per- The knight swore to accomplish the duties of his sons), besides many native converts, and above 30 children in the orphanage, by a mob, with, it

profession, as the champion of God and the ladies, is said, the complicity of the authorities; the

to speak the truth, to maintain the right, to protect missionaries were accused of kidnapping children, the distressed, to practise courtesy, to fulfil obliga

21 June, tions, and to vindicate in every perilous adventure Increased hatred of the people to foreigners at Tien- his honour and character. Chivalry expired with tsin ; lukewarm proceedings of the government

the feudal system. See Knighthood and Tournaagainst the murderers

July, Ma, a viceroy of Nankin, favourable to Europeans,

ments. By letters patent of James I. the earl-marassassinated

about 22 Aug

shal of England had “the like jurisdiction in the Chapels destroyed at Fatshan

21 Sept. courts of chivalry, when the office of lord high conThe French ultimatun refused ; the murderers of stable was vacant, as this latter and the marshal did

the nuns unpunished ; Chinese warlike prepara- jointly exercise," 1623. tions reported

26 Sept. Judicious mandate from the mandarin Tseng-kwo

CHLORALUM, or chloride of alumina, a comfan, exculpating the missionaries, and condemn

pound of chlorine and alumina, a new antiseptic ing their massacre

Oct. 16 coolies beheaded, 15 Sept., and 23 exiled ; in

disinfectant, invented by Dr. Gamgee about 1870. demnity to the sufferers by the outrage ordered ;

It is said to be safe and efficacious, and useful in reported

26 Oct. medicine for gargles, washing wounds, &c. End of the difficulty announced Chang-How, an envoy, arrives in London

Aug. 1871 CHLORINE (Greek chloros, pale green), a gas Received at Paris ; apologizes for Tien-tsin massa- first obtained by Scheele in 1774, by treating man

cres, and reports redress Memorial addressed to the Chinese government by

ganese with muriatic (hydrochloric) acid. Sir H. Mr. Hart, inspector of customs, recommending

Davy, in 1810, proved this gas to be an element, and changes in civil and military administration,

named it chlorine. Combined with sodium it forms

autumn, common salt (chloride of sodium), and combined Reported formidable insurrection in the east, in- with lime it forms the bleaching powder and disincited by Mahometans.

May, 1872 fectant, chloride of lime; see Bleaching. In 1823 The young emperor married

16 Oct.

Faraday condensed chlorine into a liquid. 1627. Chwang-lei.

CHLOROFORM (the ter-chloride of the hypo1644. Shun-che (first of the Tsing dynasty).

thetical radical formyl) is a compound of carbon, 1662. Kang-he, an able sovereign : consolidated the em- hydrogen, and chlorine, and was made from alcohol,

pire, compiled a great Chinese dictionary. water, and bleaching powder. It was discovered by 1723. Yung-ching.

Soubeiran in 1831, and its composition was deter1736. Keen-lung, fond of art; greatly embellished mined by Dumas in 1834. The term “chloric

Pekin. 1795. Kea-king.

ether" was applied in 1820 to a mixture of chlorine 1820. Taou-Kwang.

and olefiant gas. Chloroform was first applied as an 1850. Hieng-fung, 25 Feb.

anesthetic experimentally by Mr. Jacob Bell in

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3 Nov.

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31 Oct. 1 Dec.



London, in Feb., and Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh in House to house visitation ; Metropolitan Relief Nov. 1847; and was administered in England on 14

Association formed ; large subscriptions received Dec. 1848, by Mr. James Robinson, surgeon-dentist.

(Queen's 5001.)

July and Aug. 1866 A committee of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical | Very severe at Naples

Cholera subsides


Sept. Society in July, 1864, after examining statistics, Cholera Relief Committee closes reported that the use of anæsthetics had in no degree Cholera declared to be extinct in London increased the rate of mortality.

Cholera in Rome, Naples, and Sicily, Aug.-Sept. ; in Switzerland

Oct. 1857 CHOBHAM COMMON, in Surrey. A mili

Alarm of approaching cholera, July; said to be tary camp was formed here on 14 June, 1853, by

severe in Konigsbery in Prussia

Aug. 1871 a force between 8000 and 10,000 strong Only one serious case of misconduct was reported during all | Greek feasts, &c. Stesichorus (or Tysias) received

CHORAGUS, the regulator of the chorus in the time.

this name, having first taught the chorus to dance CHOCOLATE, made of the cocoa berry, intro- to the lyre, 556 B.C. Quintil. duced into Europe (trom Mexico and the Brazils) about 1520, was sold in the London coffee-houses CHORUS-SINGING was early practised at soon after their establishment, 1650.

Athens. Hypodicus, of Chalcides, carried off the

prize for the best voice, 508 B.C. Parian marbles ; CHOCZIM, Bessarabia, S. Russia. Here the

see Music Turks were totally defeated by John Sobieski, king of Poland, 11 Nov. 1673; and by the Russians, 30 during the war of La Vendée in 1792, from their

CHOUANS, a name given to the Bretons April and 13 July, 1769.

chief Jean Cottereau, using the cry of the ChatCHOIR. This was separated from the nave of luant, or screech-owl, as a signal. He was killed the church in the time of Constantine. The choral in 1794. Georges Cadoudal, their last chief, was service was first used in England at Canterbury, said to be connected with Pichegru in a conspiracy 677; see Chanting.

against Napoleon when tirst consul, and was executed

in 1804. CHOLERA MORBUS (Asiatic cholera) was described by Garcia del Huerto, a physician of Goa,

CHRISM, consecrated oil, was used early in the about 1560. It appeared in India in 1774, and at

ceremonies of the Greek and Roman churches. other times, and became endemic in Lower Bengal | Musk, saffron, cinnamon, roses, and frankincense, m 1817, whence it gradually spread, till it reached are mentioned as used with the oil, in 1541. It was Russia in 1830, and Germany in 1831, carrying off ordained that chrism should consist of oil and more than 200,000 persons in 1829–30. In England balsam only; the one representing the human and Wales in 1848-9, 53,293 persons died of cholera, nature of Christ, and the other his divine nature, and in 1854, 20,097. Cholera appears at Sunderland

26 Oct. 1831 CHRIST, see Jesus Christ. And at Edinburgh

6 Feb. 1832 First observed at Rotherhithe and Limehouse,

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL (the Blue-Coat London, 13 Feb. ; and in Dublin 3 March, Mortality very great, but more so on the Continent;

school) was established by Edward VI. 1553, on the 18,000 deaths at Paris, between March and Aug.

site of the Grey Friars' monastery. A mathiematical Cholera rages in Rome, the Two Sicilies, Genoa, ward was founded by Charles II. 1672. The Times Berlin, &e., in

July and Aug. 1837 ward was founded in 1841. Large portions of the Another visitation of cholera in England: the num edifice having fallen into decay, it was rebuilt : in ber of deaths in London, for the week ending 15

1822 a new infirmary was completed, and in 1825 Sept. 1849, was 3183 ; the ordinary average, 1008 ; and the number of deaths by cholera from 17

(25 April) the duke of York laid the first stone of June to 2 Oct. in London alone, 13,161. The

the magnificent new hall. On 24. Sept. 1854, the mortality lessened and the distemper disappeared master, Dr. Jacob, in a sermon in the church of the

about 13 Oct. 1849 | hospital, censured the system of education and the Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Hexham, Tynemouth, and general administration of the establishment, and other northern towns, suffer much from cholera,

inany improvements have since been made. Rev.

Sept. 1853 G. Č. Bell succeeded Dr. Jacob, 12 Aug. 1868. It rages in Italy and Sicily ; above 10,000 are said to have died at Naples ; it was also very fatal to

The subordinate school at Hertford, for 416 younger the allied troops at Varna

autumn, 1854 boys and 80 girls, was founded in 1683. - Annual Cholera very severe for a short time in the southern income (1870) about 70,000l. 800 boys in London; parts of London, and in Soho and St. James's, 200 boys and 20 girls at Hertford. The removal Westminster

Aug. and Sept. of the school to the country negatived by the Raging in Alexandria, June ; abated July, 1865 Prevailing in Ancona (843 deaths) Aug., subsiding,

governors, 26 April, 1870. The proposal that the Sept.

buildings and ground should be purchased by the Very severe in Constantinople, nearly 50,000 deaths, Mid- London Railway Company for 600,000l. was

Aug. ; subsides after the great fire 6 Sept. not carried out. Cases at Marseilles, Toulon, and Southampton,


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end of Sept.

CHRIST'S THORN, conjectured to be the Cholera prevalent at Marseilles, Paris, Madril, and plant of which our Saviour's crown of thorns was Naples

July-Oct. An international meeting at Constantinople, to con

composed, came hither from the south of Europe sier preventive measures, proposed, Oct. 1865,

before 1596. met 18 Feb. 1866. At the last sitting the conclusions adopted were that cholera may be propa

CHRISTIAN ERA, see Anno Domini. Chrisgated, and from great distances ; and a num TIAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY was founded in 1698 to ber of preventive measures were recommended, promote charity schools, and to disperse Bibles and

26 Sept. 1866 religious tracts. It has an annual revenue of about Cholera appears at Bristol, 24 April ; at Liverpool,

100,000l. Most CHRISTIAN KING; Christianissi13 May; at Southampton

July, Cholera severe in east of London : 346 deaths in

mus Kex, a title conferred by pope Paul II. in 1469 week ending

21 July, on the crafty Louis XI. of Frunce.


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