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CHRISTIANIA, the capital of Norway, built about 137:+ In the eastern church, Christmas and in 1624, by Christian IV. of Denmark, to replace the Epiphany, 6 Jan. (which sce), are deemed but Opslo (the ancient capital founded by Harold Haard- one and the same feast. The holly and mistletoe ride, 1058), which had been destroyed by fire. On used at Christmas are said to be the remains of the 13 April, 1858, Christiania suffered by fire, the loss religious observances of the Druids; see Anno Dobeing about 250,000l. The university was established mini. in 1811. New Storthing (parliament house) built

CHRISTMAS ISLAND, in the Pacific Ocean, 1861-2.

so named by captain Cook, who landed here on CHRISTIANITY. The name Christian was

Christmas-day, 1777. He had passed Christmasfirst given to the disciples of Christ at Antioch, in day, at Christmas-sound, 1774. On the shore of Syria. 43 (Acts xi. 26; 1 Peter iv. 6). The first Christmas Harbour, visited by him in 1776, a man Christians were divided into episcopoi (bishops or

found a piece of parchment inscribed : Ludovico overseers) or presbytero: (elders), diaconoi (ministers XV. Galliarum rege, et d. Boynes regi a secretis ad

On the other or deacons), and pistoi (believers), afterwards were added catechumens, or learners, and energumens, who side captain Couk wrote : were to be exorcised; see Persecutions.

Discovery de rege Magnæ Britannic, Dec. 1776,

and placed it in a bottle. Christianity said to be taught in Britain, about a. D. 64; and propagated with some success (Bele).

CHRISTOPHER’S, St. (or St. Kitt's), a West

156 Christianity said to be introduced into Scotland in

India Island, discovered in 1493, by Columbus, who the reign of Donald I. about

gave it his own name. Settled by the English and Constantine the Great professes the Christian French, 1623 or 1626. Ceded to England by the

religion Frumentius preaches in Abyssinia

peace of Utrecht, 1713. Taken by the French about 346

in 1782, but restored the next year. The town of Introduced among the Goths by Ulfilas Into Ireland in the second century, but with more

Basseterre suffered from fires, 3 Sept. 1776; also suceess after the arrival of St. Patrick

3 and 4 July, 1867, when the cathedral and nearly Christianity established in France by Clovis

all the town were destroyed. Conversion of the Saxons* by Augustin

CHROMIUM (Greek, chrome, colour), a rare Introduced into Helvetia, by Irish missionaries into Flanders in the 7th century.

643 metal, discovered by Vauquelin in 1797. It is found Into Saxony, by Charlemagne


combined with iron and lead, and forms the colourInto Denmark, under Harold


ing matter of the emerald. Into Bohemia, under Borsivoi

894 Into Russia, by Swiatoslaf

CHROMO-LITHOGRAPHY, see Printing about

in Colours. Into Poland, under Meicislaus I. Into Hungary, under Geisa .

CHRONICLES. The earliest are those of the Into Norway and Iceland, under Olaf i.

998 Jews, Chinese, and Hindoos. In Scripture there Into Swelen, between roth and uth centuries.

are two “ Books of Chronicles"; see Bible. ColInto Prussia, by the Teutonic knights, when they

lections of the British chronicles have been pubwere returning from the holy wars

1227 Into Lithuania ; paganism was abolished about.

lished by Camden, Gale, &c., since 1602; in the

1386 Into Guinea, Angola, and Congo, in the 15th present century by the English Historical Society, century.


In 1858, the publication of “Chronicles and Into China, where it made some progress (but was Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the afterwards extirpated, and thousands of Chinese Middle Ages," commenced under the direction of Christians were put to death)

• 1575 Into India and America, in the 16th century.

the Master of the Rolls (still going on, 1873); Into Japan, by Xavier and the Jesuits, 1549; but

Macray's “ Manual of British Historians” was pubthe Christians were exterminated

1638 lished in 1845. Christianity re-established in Greece



its object the arrangement and exhibition of the established by earl Russell, the bishop of London, various events of the history of the world in the and others to counteract "the current forms of un

order of their succession, and the ascertaining the belief among the educated classes.” Lectures for this intervals between them; see Eras and Epochs. purpose were given in St. George's Hall in 1871; lex Dates, compiled by the Benedictines (1783-1820).

Valuable works on the subject are l'Art de l'érifier beginning with the archbishop of York, 25 April. A public meeting was beld 6 June following. Tracts Playfair's Chronology, 1784; Blair's Chronology, for circulation are published.

1753 (new editions by sir H. Ellis in 1844, and by

Mr. Rosse, in 1856). The Oxford Chronological CHRISTINOS, supporters of the queen-regent Tables, 1838. Sir Harris Nicolas' Chronology of Christina against the Carlists in Spain during the History, 1833; new edition, 1852. Hales' Chronwar, 1833-40.

ology, 2nd edition, 1830; Woodward and Cates' Ency

clopædia of Chronology, 1872; Mr. H. Fynes-ClinCHRISTMAS-DAY, 25 Dec. (from Christ, ton's Fasti Hellenici and Fasti Romani (1824-50). and the Saxon messe, signifying the mass and a feast), a festival in commemoration of the nativity

CHRONOMETER, see Clocks, and Harrison. of Christ, said to have been first kept 98; and ordered

CHRONOSCOPE, an apparatus invented bv to be held as a solemn feast, by pope Telesphorus, professor Wheatstone in 1840, to measure small

intervals of time. It has been applied to the velocity * It is, traditionally, said that Gregory the Great,

of projectiles and of the electric current. A chronoshortly before his elevation to the papal chair, passing scope was invented by Pouillet, in 1844, and by through the slave-market at Rome, and perceiving some others since. Capt. Andrew Noble (engaged by sir beautiful children set up for sale, inquired about their country, and finding they were English pagans, he is said † Diocletian, the Roman emperor, keeping his court to have cried out, "Non Angli sed Angeli forent, si essent at Nicomedia, being informed that the Christians were Christiani;" that is, " They would not be English, but assembled on this day in great multitudes to celebrate angels, if they were Christians." From that time he ar- Christ's nativity, ordered the doors to be shut, and the dently desired to convert the nation, and ondered a monk church to be set on fire, and 600 perished in the burning named Austin, or Augustin, and others, to undertake the pile. This was the commencement of the tenth persecumission to Britain in the year 596.

tion, which lasted ten years, 303.

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William Armstrong) invented an apparatus for The royal supremacy imposed on the clergy by determining the velocity of a projectile in a gun;

Henry VIII., 1531 ; many suffer death for refusing a second of time is divided into millionths, and the

to acknowledge it

1535 electric spark is employed in recording the rate of the

Coverdale's translation of the Bible commanded to

be read in churches passage. The apparatus was exhibited at Newcastle “Six Articles of Religion' promulgated

1539 on-Tyne in Aug. 1869, and in London in April, 1870. First Book of Common Prayer issued


The clergy permitted to marry
* Forty-two Articles of Religion" issued

1552 CHUNAR, or CHUNARGHUR, N.W. India, Restoration of the Roman fornus, and fierce persetaken by the British, 1763, and ceded to them, 1768.

cution of the Protestants by Mary Here was concluded a treaty between the nabob of

The Protestant forms restored by Elizabeth ; the
Puritan dissensions begin

1558-1603 Oude and governor Hastings, by which the nabob

" Thirty-nine" Articles published

1563 was relieved of his debts to the East India Company, Hampton Court conference with the Puritans. 1604 on condition of bis seizing the property of the be. New translation of the Bible published

16 gums, his mother and grandmother, and delivering Book of Common Prayer suppressed and Directory it up to the English, 19 Sept. 1781. This treaty Prestoyterians established by the Commonwealth

1644 enabled the nabob to take the lands of Fyzoola Khan, Act of Uniformity (14 Chas. II. C. 4) passed-2000

1649 a Rohilla chief, who had settled at Rampoor, under nonconforming ministers resign their livings 1662 guarantee of the English. The nabob presented to Attempts of James II, to revive Romanismi; “DeMr. Hastings 100,000l. ; see Hastings.

claration of Indulgence" published .

1687 CHURCH (probably derived from the 'Greek Acquittal of the seven bishops on a charge of

1688 kyriakos, pertaining to the Lord, Kyrios), signifies The Non-juring bishops and others deprived ; (they both a collected body of Christians, and the place formed a separate communion)

i Feb. 1691 where they meet. In the New Testament, it signi Queen Anne's Bounty,” for the augmentation of nifies" congregation," in the original ekklesia. poor livings

1704 Christian architecture commenced with Constantine, Act for building 50 new churches passed

1710 who erected at Rome churches called basilicas (from

Fierce disputes between the low church and the

high church ; trial of Henry Sacheverell, for the Greek basileus, a king); St. Peter's about 330. seditious sermons; riots His successors erected others, and adopted the The Bangorian controversy begins

1717 heathen temples as places of worship. Several very John Wesley and George Whitfield commence ancient churches exist in Britain and Ireland. See preaching

1738 Architecture ; Choir and Chanting ; Rome, Modern;

Rise of the Evangelical party in the church, under Popes.

Newton, Romaine, and others, in the latter part of

18th century CHURCH CONGRESS, see under Church of Church of England united with that of Ireland at England.

the Union


1801 CHURCH DISCIPLINE ACT (3 & 4 Incorporated Church Building Society established,

Clergy Incapacitation Act passed Vict. c. 86), passed 7 Aug. 1840, enables bishops to

6 Feb. 1818 issue commissions of inquiry, and on conviction to Acts for building and enlarging churches, 1828, 1838 inhibit clergymen from performing service, &c.

200 new churches erected in the diocese of London

1828-56 CHURCH OF ENGLAND. * The following Tracts for the Times" (No. 1-90) published (much

under bishop C. J. Blomfield are leading facts in her history : for details, refer controversy ensued)

1833-41 to separate articles; see Clergy.

Ecclesiastical Commission established Britain converted to Christianity (" Christo sub

New Church Discipline Act (3 & 4 Vict. c. 86)

1840 dita," Tertullian).

2nd century.

Essays and Reviews" published, 1860 ; numerous Invasion of the Saxons, 477; converted by Augus

Replies issued (see Essays and Rerieus)

1861-2 tin and his companions

596 [The Church of England is now said to be divided Dunstan establishes the supremacy of the monastic

into High, Moderate, Low (or Evangelical), and orders, about

Broad Church : the last including persons who The aggrandising policy of the Church, fostered by hold the opinions of the late Dr. Arnold, the Rev. Edward the Confessor, checked by William I. and

F. D. Maurice, dean Stanley, canon Kingsley, and his successors

1066 et seq.

others.) Contest between Henry II. and Becket respecting

Dr. Colenso, bishop of Natal, publishes his work “ Constitutions of Clarendon "

“ The Pentateuch," about Oct. 1862; the




1164-1170 John surrenders his crown to the papal legate

bishops, in convocation, declare that it contains Rise of the Lollards-- Wicklitte publishes tracts

“errors of the gravest and most dangerous cha. against the errors of the church of Roine, 1356 ;


20 May, 1863 and a version of the Bible, about

A Church Congress at Manchester 1383

13, 14, 15 Oct. The clergy regulated by parliament, 1529; they lose

Bishop Colenso deposed by his metropolitan, Dr. the first fruits

Gray, bishop of Capetown.

16 April, 1864 1534 Church Congress at Bristol


Church Association (against popery and ritualism) * The church of England consists of three orders of established.

1865 clergy-bishops, priests and deacons ; viz., two arch District Churches Titlies act passed (rectories conbishops and twenty-five bishops, exclusive of the see of Sodor and Man. The other dignities are chancellors, Bishop Colenso's appeal came before ihe privy deans (of cathedrals and collegiate churches), archdea council, which declared bishop Gray's proceedcons, prebendaries, canons, minor canons, and priest ings null and void (since a colonial bishop can vicars : these and the incumbents of rectories, vicarages, have no authority except what is granted by parand chapelries, make the number of preferments of the liament or by the colonial legislature), 21 March, established church, according to official returns, 12,327. “Oxford Declaration" (authorship ascribed to archThe number of benefices in England and Wales, according deacon Denison and Dr. Pusey), respecting belief to parliamentary returns, in 1844, was 11,127, and the in eternal punishment, drawn up and signed on number of glebe-houses 5527. The number of parishes is 25 Feb., and sent by post to the clergy at large 11,077, and of churches and chapels about 14,100, The for signature: about 3000 are said to have signed; number of benetices in Ireland was 1495, to which there it was presented to the archbishop of Canterbury were not more than about goo glebe-houses attached, the

12 May, 1864 rest having no glebe-houses. An act was passed in 1860 for Bishop of London's Fund, for remedying spiritual the union of contiguous benefices. In 1867 the beneficed destitution in London, established ; the queen clergy were estimated at 12,888; curates and other clergy engages to give (in three years) 3000l., and prince without livings about 7000.

of Wales roool.


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100,4561. received ; 72,003l. promised 31 Dec. 1864 | Hebbert u. Purchas, of Brighton; verdict against The queen engages to give 15,00ol. in 10 years,

defendant for offences against ecclesiastical law;

April, 1865 considered a great defeat of the ritualists, and New form of clerical subscription proposed by it

caused much excitement

23 Feb. 1871 commission in 1864 ; adopted by parliament, Mr, Miall's resolution for disestablishing the church


of England defeated in the commons-374-89, Church Congress at Norwich

9 May. 1871 Meeting in London of three English bishops, Dr. Incumbents' Resignation Act passed

13 July, Pusey, and nearly 80 of the clergy and laty with Agitation for revival of diocesan synods, Sept.-Oct. counts Orloff and Tolstse, an Russian chap Church Congress at Nottingham ; closed 10 Oct. lain, to consider on the practicability of uniting Sheppard v. Bennett (for teaching the divine prethe English and Russian Churches

sence in the sacrament); appeal to privy council, Bishop Colenso publicly excommunicated at Maritz- 28 Nov. ; judgment adjourued. burg cathedral, by bishop Gray

5 Jan. 1866 Church Defence Association established Bishop Gray declares himself independent, estab- Bishop of London's Fund--received 441,1991. 31 Dec.

lishes synods, and calls his see “The Church of The convocation authorised to consider alterations South Africa"

early in
in the Prayer Book

Feb. 1872 The Church Missionary Society refuses to support Church reform meeting at st. James's Hall ; parocolonial bishops, unless they keep within the for

chial councils recommended mularies of the Church of England early in Rev. John Purchas, of Brighton, to be suspended Church Congress at York

6 Oct.
from duties for one year, from

18 Feb. Much excitement caused by the progress of rituale

(He died 18 Oct.) ism (vhich see)

Sept.-Nov. Conference of bishops, deans, and canons at LamBishop Colenso v. Gladstone and others (trustees of beth, to consider cathedral reform i March,

the Colonial Bishoprie Fund) for withholding his Sheppard v. Bennett ; judgincnt for defendant, who salary. Verdict of master of the rolls, for plaintiff,

is censured

8 June, with costs

6 Nov. Mr. Miall's motion for royal commission to inUnqualified condemnation of ritualism hy the

quire into the property of the church lost (295-94) bishops in convocation, 13 Feb. ; the lower house

2 July, concurred 15 Feb. 1867 Church Congress at Leeds

8-11 Oct. The bishop of Salisbury (Dr. Hamilton) in a church asserts the doctrine of the supernatural gifts of

CHURCH OF FRANCE. St. Pothinus preached priests, the Divine presence in the sacrament ; Christianity to the Gauls about 160; became bishop public protest against it

16 May, Trial in Court of Arches : Martin . Mackonochie'


of Lyons, and suffered martyrdom with others, 177;

see Huguenots. respecting extreme ritualistic practices at St.

Alban's, Holborn ; case deferred 21 May, A mission of seven bishops arrived in 245; followed Royal Ritualistic Commission appointed to inquire by severe persecution

286-288 respecting rubricks in the Prayer-Book, table of Christianity tolerated by Constantius Chlorus

292 lessons, &c., 3 June ; first report, censuring in- Council of Arles convoked by Constantine, about novation, signed

19 Aug.
600 bishop's present; the Donatists condemned

314 Pan-Anglican Synod (which see) ineets at Lambeth, Christianity established by Clovis

24-27 Sept. Pragmatic sanction of St. Louis restraining the imChurch Congress at Wolverhampton

i Oct.

positions of the pope; and restoring the right of Merting of ritualists in St. James's Hall, claiming electing bishops, &c.

1269 Case of Martin 2. Mackonochie, begun 4 Dec.,

Praginatie sanction of Bourges, declaring a general

council superior to the pope, and prohibiting lasted 14 days; resumed

16-18 Jan. 1868 appeals to him Proposal of bishop Gray of Capetown to consecrate Concordat of Leo x. and Francis I. annulling the Mr. Macrorie bishop of Natal in opposition to

pragmatie sanction

18 Aug. 1515 bishop Colenso, disapproved of by the English Disputes between the Jesuits and Jansenists

1640 and scotch bishops

Jan. Declaration of the clergy (drawn up by Bossuet) in Bishop of London's Fund, received, 312,309). 31 Jan. accordance with the pragmatic sanctions, conMartin r. Mackonochie decided ; verdiet for plain

firmed by the king

23 March, 1682 tiff: use of incense, mixing water with the wine, The Jansenists excommunicated by the Bull Uniand elevation of the elements, in the sacrament,


• 1713 forbidden

. 28 March, Concordat with Pius vil and Napoleon 1801 and 1813 Great meeting at St. James's Hall, in defence of the The principles of the concordat of Leo X. restored Irish Church establishunent ; 23 bishop's present,

by Pius VII. and Louis XVIII.


The archbishop of Paris and other prelates resist District Churches Act, constituting vicarages

the dogma of papal infallibility at the council at (Bishop of Oxford's Act), passed .


1870 Church Congress at Dublin

29 Sept. Sharp party contests at a special meeting of the

CHURCH OF IRELAND, founded by St. Christian Knowledge Society

8 Dec,

Patrick in the 5th century; accepted the ReformaMartin r. Mackonochie : appeal case : verdiet for tion about 1550 ; united with that of England as

plaintiff, declaring certain ritualistic practices the United Church of England and Ireland in 1800;

illegal Warun meeting of ritualists at St. James's' Hall,

see Bishops and Ireland, 1868. 12 Jan. 1869

An act to put an end to the establishment of the First meeting of a Church Reform Society (since

church of Ireland," introduced into the house of named Liturvical Revision Society "); Lord

commons by Mr. Gladstone, I Mar. ; vote for Ebury, chairman

second reading, 368; against, 250; 2 A.M., 24 Church conference at Sheffield

24 May,

March; for third reading, 361 ; against, 247, Church Congress at Liverpool

31 May, 1869 Martin v. Mackonochie: defendant censured by

Introduced into the house lords by earl Granprivy council for evading sentence 4 Dec.

ville, I June; read third time, 12 July; some Bishop of London's Fund:-411,8391, received, July, 1870

amendments by the lords accepted, others re* Clerical Disabilities Act" passed


jectel; received royal assent (to come into effect, Church Congress at Southampton

1 Jan. 1871)

26 July, II Oct. Christian Knowledge Society votes 10,oool. to sup

Address of bishops to the clergy and laity, dateů, fort Church schools

18 Aug 20 Oct. Rev. Mr. Mackonochie suspended from duty for

Meeting of the general synod of the Irish church in three months by decree of Privy Council for

St. Patrick's cathedral, Dublin, for re-organisaevading former sentence

tion of the general council

14 Sept. Rev. C. Voysey sentenced to be deprivel for heresy; Conference of the laity; duke of Abercorn chairappeal to judicial committee of privy council

i Jan. 1871 disallowed

10 Feb, 18-1 | Church of Ireland disestablished



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A sustentation fund established (well supported) Charles I. to France. John Philips published his


“ Cider" in 1706.
First elected bishop'(Dr. Maurice Day, bishop of
Cashel) consecrated at St. Patrick's, Dublin,

CIGAR SHIP, see under Steam, 1866.

14 April, 1872 The new ecclesiastical cout meets : tries a case of

CILICIA, in Asia Minor, partook of the forritual practices

26 June, The Irisli Church Act amended

tunes of that country. It became a Roman province

Received for the sustentation fund, 33,5731. up to about 64 B.C., and was conquered by the Turks,

A.D. 1387.
CHURCH OF NORTH AMERICA, was estab CIMBRI, a Teutonic race from Jutland, in-
lished in Nov. 1784, when bishop Seabury, chosen vaded the Roman empire about 120 B.C. They
by the churches in Connecticut, was consecrated in defeated the Romans, under Cneius Papirius Carbo,
Scotland. The first convention was held at Phila 113 B.C.; under the consul, Marcus Silanus, 109
delphia in 1785. On 4 Feb. 1787, two more American B.C., and under Capio Manlius, at Arausio, on the
bishops were consecrated at Lambeth. In 1851 banks of the Rhine, where 80,000 Romans were
there were 37 bishops; see Pan-Anglican Synod. slain, 105 B.C. Their allies, the Teutones, were

CHURCH OF SCOTLAND, see Bishops in defeated by Marius in two battles at Aqua Sextiæ
Scotland. On the abolition of Episcopacy, in 1638, made prisoners, '102 B.c. The Cimbri

were defeated

(Aix) in Gaul; 200,000 were killed, and 70,000 Presbyterianism became the established religion Its formulary of faith, said to have been compiled by Marius and Catulus, at Campus Raudius, when by John Knox, in 1560, was approved by the par, 60,000 taken prisoners, 101 B.C. They were after

about to enter Italy; 120,000 were killed, and liament and ratified in 1567, finally setiled by an act of the Scottish senate in 1696, ind secured by wards absorbed into the Teutones or Saxons. the treaty of union with England in 1707; see Discipline, Patronage, and Bishops. The church demia del Cimento,” at Florence, held its tirst

CIMENTO (Italian, experiment). The “Accais regulated by four courts-the general assem

meeting for making scientific experiments, 18 June, bly, the synod, the presbytery, and kirk sessions; see Presbyterians. For important secessions, of 'Tuscany. The Royal Society of London was

1657; It was patronised by Ferdinand, grand duke see Burghers (1732), and Free Church (1843).

founded in 1660, and the Academy of Sciences at The first general assembly of the church was held Paris in 1666. 20 Dec. 1560.

The general assembly constitutes the highest ecclesi CINCHONA, see Jesuits' Bark. astical court in the kingdom; it meets annually in Elinburgh in May, and sits about ten days. It consists of a CINCINNATI. A society established by grand commissioner, appointed by the sovereign, and officers of the American army soon after the peace delegates froin presbyteries, royal boroughs, and universities, some being laymen. To this court all appeals fund for relieving the widows and orphans of those

of 1783, “ to perpetuate friendship, and to raise a from the inferior ecclesiastical courts lie, and its decision

who had fallen during the war." On the badge CHURCH - RATES. The maintaining the

was a figure of Cincinnatus. The people dreaded church in repair belongs to the parishioners, who military influence, and the society dissolved itself. have the sole power of taxing themselves for the

CINNAMON, a species of laurel, is mentioned expense when assembled in vestry. The enforce- among the perfumes of the sanctuary (Erodus xxx. ment of payment, which is continually disputed by 23) 1491 b.č. It was found in the American forests dissenters and others, belonged to the ecclesiastical by don Ulloa, in 1736, vas cultivated in Jamaica

Many attempts were made to abolish and Dominica in 1788, and is now grown in
church-rates before Mr. Gladstone's “Compulsory Ceylon.
Church-rate Abolition" Bill, passed 31 July, 1868.
CHURCH SERVICES were ordered by pope

CINQUE-CENTO (five hundred); ter cento,
Vitellianus to be read in Latin, 663; by queen &c.; see note to article Italy.
Elizabeth in 1558 to be read in English.

CINQUE PORTS, on the south coast of CHURCH-WARDENS, officers of the England, were originally five (hence the name) – church, appointed by the tirst canon of the synod of Dover, Hastings, Hythe, Romney, and Sandwich; London in 1127. Üverseers in every parish were Winchelsea and Rye were afterwards added. Jeake. also appointed by the same body, and they continue Their jurisdiction was vested in barons, called warnow nearly as then constituted. Johnson's Canons. dens, for the better security of the coast, these ports Church-wardens, by the canons of 1603, are to be being nearest to France, and considered the keys chosen annually.

of the kingdom; instituted by William I. in 1078.

Rapin. The latest lord-wardens were the duke of CHURCHYARDS, see Consecration.

Wellington, 1828-52; the marquis of Dalhousie, CHURCHING OF WOMEN is the act of 1852-60; lord Palmerston, 1861-05; earl Granville, returning thanks in the church by women after appointed Dec. 1865. Their peculiar jurisdiction child-birth. It began about 214. Wheatley; see

was abolished in 1855. Purification.

CINTRA (Portugal). Lere was signed an CHUSAN, a Chinese isle; see China, 1840, agreement on 22 Aug. 1808, between the French 1841, 1860.

and English the day after the battle of Vimeira.

As it contained the bases of the convention signed CIDER (Zider, German), when first made in

on 30 Aug. following, it has been termed the conEngland, was called wine, about 1284. The earl vention of Cintra. By it Junot and his army were of Manchester, when ambassador in France, is said permitted to evacuate Portugal free, in British to have passed off' cider for wine. It was subjected ships. The convention was publicly condemned, to the excise in 1763 et seq. The duty was taken and a court of inquiry was held at Chelsea, which off in 1830. Many orchards were planted in Here- exonerated the British commanders. Both Welfordshire by lord Scudamore, ambassador from lington and Napoleon justitied sir Hew Dalrymple.



the war at an end.

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CIPHER, a secret manner of writing. Julius :740, failed; but similar institutions at Bath and Cæsar and Augustus when writing secret despatches in London succeeded, and others were established are said to have employed the second or third letter throughout the kingdom. There was a circulating instead of the first, and the same sequence with library at Crane-court, London, in 1748, of which regard to the others. This cipher was in use till a catalogue in two vols. was published.-No books the reign of Sixtus IV. (1471-84), when the secret

can be taken from the British Museum except for was divulged by Leon Battista Alberti, and a new judicial purposes, but the libraries of the Royal sort of cipher sprang up. The father of Venetian Society and the principal scientific societies, except cipher was Zuan Soro, who flourished about 1516. that of the Royal Institution, London, are circuRaudon Brown.-See Cryptograph.

lating.– The London Library (circulating) was. CIRCASSIA (Asia, on N. side of the Caucasus). men.–Of the subscription libraries belonging to

founded 24 June, 1840, is of great value to literary The Circassians, said to be descended from the Al- individuals, that founded by Mr. C. E. Mudie, in banians, were unsubdued, even by Timour. In the New Oxford-street, is the most remarkable for the 16th century they acknowledged the authority of large quantity and good quality of the books : the czar Ivan II. of Russia, and about 1745, the

several hundreds, sometimes thousands, of copies princes of Kabarda took oaths of fealty. Many of a new work being in circulation. It began in Circassians became Mahometans in the 18th century. 1842, and grew into celebrity in Dec. 1848, when Circassia surrendered to Russia by Turkey by the the tirst two volumes of Macaulay's History of Eng

treaty of Adrianople (but the Circassians, under land were published, for which there was an un

Schamyl, long resist)
Victories of Orbelliani'over them, June, Nov.,

Dec. 1857 hall, having the walls covered with shelves filled

14 Sept. 1829 precedented demand, supplied by this library. The He sublues much country, and expels the inhabi

April, 1858

with new books, was opened in Dec. 1860. The Schamvl, the great Circassian leader, captured, and “ Circulating Library Company” was founded in treated with much respect

7 Sept. 1859 Jan. 1862, and other companies since. About 20.000 Circassians emigrate to Constanti. nople, suffer much distress, and are relieved. CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, see Blood.

28 April, 1860 Vaidar, the last of the Circassian strongholds CIRCUMCISION (instituted 1897 B.C.) was captured, and the grand duke Michael declares the seal of the covenant made by God with Abra

8 June. 1864 ham. It was practised by the ancient Egyptians, Many thousand Circassians emigrate into Turkey;

and is still by the Copts and some oriental nations. partially relieved by the sultan's government,

June, et sell.

The Festival of the Circumcision of Christ), origiSchamyl and his son at the marriage of the czaro- nally the octave of Christmas, is mentioned about witch, , Nov. 1866; he dies

March, 1871 487. It was introduced into the liturgy in 1550. CIRCENSIAN GAMES were combats in CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the most the Roman circus (at first in honour of Consus, the daring human enterprises at the period when it was god of councils, but afterwards of Jupiter, Neptune, first attempted, was the circumnavigation of the Juno, and Minerva), said to have been instituted by earth in 1519-22. Evander, and established at Rome, 732 B.C. by Romulus. Tarquin named them Circensian; their Magellan or Magalhaens, a native of Portugal, in the

service of Spain, by keeping a westerly course celebration continued from 4 to 12 Sept.

returned to the same place he had set out from in

(The voyage was completed in 3 years and CIRCLE. The quadrature, or ratio of the

29 days.) He entered the Pacific Ocean, 27 Nov. diameter of the circle to its circumference, has

1520; killed by Indians

17 April, 1521 erercised the ingenuity of mathematicians of all Grijalva, Spaniard 1. ages. Archimedes, about 221 B.C., gave it as 7 to Alvaradi, Spaniard 22 ; Abraham Sharp (1717) as I to 3 and 72 deci

Mendana, Spaniard

1567 Sir Francis Drake, first English .

1577-80 mals; and Lagny (1719) as I to 3 and 122 decimals.

Cavendish, first voyage


1615-17 CIRCLES OF GERMANY (formed by Maxi- Le Maire, Dutch

Cuiros, Spaniard

1625 milian I. about 1500, to distinguish the members of

Tasman, Dutch

1642 the diet of the empire) were, in 1912,


Cowley, British Bavaria, Upper Rhine, Suabia, Westphalia, and Dampier, English.

1689 Lower Saxony; in 1512, Austria, Burgundy, Lower Cooke, English:

1708 Rhine, the Palatinate, Upper Saxony and Bran- Clipperton, British denburg were added. In 1804 these divisions were

Reggewein, Dutch


Anson (afterwards lord) annulled by the establishment of the Confedera

Byron, English.

1764-66 tion of the Rhine, in 1806 (which see).

Wallis, British


Carteret, English CIRCUITS IN ENGLAND were divided into | Bougainville, French


1766-9 three, and three justices were appointed to each, James Cook

1768-71 1176. They were afterwards divided into four, On his death the voyage was continued by King

1779 with five justices to each division, 1180. Rapin. Portlocke, British

· 1783

1826-36 They have been frequently altered. England and King and Fitzroy, British Wales are at present divided into eight-each Wilkes, American


1838-42 travelled in spring and summer for the trial of civil

See North-West Passage. and criminal cases, the larger towns are visited in winter for trials of criminals only; this is called CIRCUS (Greek, Hippodrome.) There were: "going the circuit." There are monthly sessions eight (some say ten) buildings of this kind at for the city of London and county of Middlesex. Rome; the largest the Circus Maximus, was built

by the elder Tarquin, 605 B.C. It was an oval CIRCULATING LIBRARY. Stationers figure: length three stadia and a half, or more than lent books on hire in the middle ages. The public three English furlongs; breadth 960 Roman feet. circulating library in England, opened by Samuel It was enlarged by Julius Cæsar so as to seat 150,000 Fancourt, a dissenting minister of Salisbury, about persons, and was rebuilt by Augustus. Julius






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