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Circassia surrendered to Russia by Turkey by the treaty of Adrianople (but the Circassians, under Schamyl, long resist) 14 Sept. 1829 Victories of Orbelliani over them, June, Nov., Dec. 1857 He subdues much country, and expels the inhabiApril, 1858 Schamyl, the great Circassian leader, captured, and treated with much respect 7 Sept. 1859 About 20.000 Circassians emigrate to Constantinople, suffer much distress, and are relieved. 28 April, 1860 Vaidar, the last of the Circassian strongholds captured, and the grand duke Michael declares the war at an end. 8 June. 1864 Many thousand Circassians emigrate into Turkey; partially relieved by the sultan's government, June, et seq. Schamyl and his son at the marriage of the czarowitch, 9 Nov. 1866; he dies
CIRCENSIAN GAMES were combats in the Roman circus (at first in honour of Consus, the god of councils, but afterwards of Jupiter, Neptune, Juno, and Minerva), said to have been instituted by Evander, and established at Rome, 732 B.C. by Romulus. Tarquin named them Circensian; their celebration continued from 4 to 12 Sept.
CIRCLE. The quadrature, or ratio of the diameter of the circle to its circumference, has exercised the ingenuity of mathematicians of all ages. Archimedes, about 221 B.C., gave it as 7 to 22; Abraham Sharp (1717) as I to 3 and 72 decimals; and Lagny (1719) as 1 to 3 and 122 decimals.
CIRCLES OF GERMANY (formed by Maximilian I. about 1500, to distinguish the members of the diet of the empire) were, in 1512, Franconia, Bavaria, Upper Rhine, Suabia, Westphalia, and Lower Saxony; in 1512, Austria, Burgundy, Lower Rhine, the Palatinate, Upper Saxony and Brandenburg were added. In 1804 these divisions were annulled by the establishment of the Confederation of the Rhine, in 1806 (which see).
CIRCUITS IN ENGLAND were divided into three, and three justices were appointed to each, 1176. They were afterwards divided into four, with five justices to each division, 1180. Rapin. They have been frequently altered. England and Wales are at present divided into eight-each travelled in spring and summer for the trial of civil and criminal cases, the larger towns are visited in winter for trials of criminals only; this is called "going the circuit." There are monthly sessions for the city of London and county of Middlesex.
1740, failed; but similar institutions at Bath and in London succeeded, and others were established throughout the kingdom. There was a circulating library at Crane-court, London, in 1748, of which a catalogue in two vols. was published.-No books can be taken from the British Museum except for judicial purposes, but the libraries of the Royal Society and the principal scientific societies, except that of the Royal Institution, London, are circulating. The London Library (circulating) was founded 24 June, 1840, is of great value to literary individuals, that founded by Mr. C. E. Mudie, in men. Of the subscription libraries belonging to New Oxford-street, is the most remarkable for the large quantity and good quality of the books: several hundreds, sometimes thousands, of copies of a new work being in circulation. It began in 1842, and grew into celebrity in Dec. 1848, when the first two volumes of Macaulay's History of England were published, for which there was an unprecedented demand, supplied by this library. The hall, having the walls covered with shelves filled with new books, was opened in Dec. 1860. The "Circulating Library Company" was founded in Jan. 1862, and other companies since.
CIRCULATING LIBRARY. Stationers lent books on hire in the middle ages. The public circulating library in England, opened by Samuel Fancourt, a dissenting minister of Salisbury, about
CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD, see Blood.
CIRCUMCISION (instituted 1897 B.C.) was the seal of the covenant made by God with Abraham. It was practised by the ancient Egyptians, and is still by the Copts and some oriental nations. The Festival of the Circumcision (of Christ), originally the octave of Christmas, is mentioned about 487. It was introduced into the liturgy in 1550.
CIRCUMNAVIGATORS. Among the most daring human enterprises at the period when it was first attempted, was the circumnavigation of the earth in 1519-22.
Magellan or Magalhaens, a native of Portugal, in the service of Spain, by keeping a westerly course returned to the same place he had set out from in 1519. (The voyage was completed in 3 years and 29 days.) He entered the Pacific Ocean, 27 Nov. 1520; killed by Indians 17 April, 1521 Grijalva, Spaniard. Alvaradi, Spaniard Mendana, Spaniard
Sir Francis Drake, first English
On his death the voyage was continued by King
1567 1577-80 1586-88 1615-17
1766-69 1766-9 1768-71
1788 1826-36 836-42 1838-42
See North-West Passage.
CIRCUS (Greek, Hippodrome.) There were eight (some say ten) buildings of this kind at Rome; the largest the Circus Maximus, was built by the elder Tarquin, 605 B.C. It was an oval figure: length three stadia and a half, or more than three English furlongs; breadth 960 Roman feet. It was enlarged by Julius Cæsar so as to seat 150.000 persons, and was rebuilt by Augustus. Julius
Cæsar introduced into it large canals of water, which could be quickly covered with vessels, and represent a sea fight. Pliny; see Amphitheatres,
CIRRHA, a town of Phocis (N. Greece), for sacrilege, razed to the ground in the Sacred War, 586 B.C.
CISALPINE REPUBLIC (N. Italy), formed by the French in May, 1797, from the Cispadane and Transpadane republics, acknowledged by the emperor of Germany by the treaty of Campo Formio (which see), 17 Oct. following. It received a new constitution in Sept. 1798; was remodelled, and named the Italian republic, with Napoleon Bonaparte president, 1802; and merged into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805; see Italy.
CISPADANE REPUBLIC, with the Transpadane republic, merged into the Cisalpine republic, Oct. 1797.
CISTERCIANS (the order of Citeaux), a powerful order of monks founded about 1098 by Robert, a Benedictine, abbot of Molesme, named from Citeaux, in France, the site of the first convent, near the end of the 11th century. The monks observed silence, abstained from flesh, lay on straw, and wore neither shoes nor shirts. They were reformed by St. Bernard; see Bernardines.
CITATE. The Russian general Gortschakoff, intending to storm Kalafat, threw up redoubts at Citate, close to the Danube, which were stormed by the Turks under Omer Pacha, 6 Jan. 1854. The fighting continued on the 7th, 8th and 9th, when the Russians were compelled to retire to their former position at Krajowa, having lost 1500 killed and 2000 wounded. The loss of the Turks was estimated at 338 killed and 700 wounded.
CITY. (Latin civitas, French cité, Italian città.) The word has been used in England only since the conquest, when London was called Londonburgh. Cities were first incorporated 1079. A town corporate is called a a city when made the seat of a bishop and having a cathedral church. Camden.
CITY LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, see Guildhall.
CITY OF LONDON COURT, the name given to the Sheriffs' Court (established 1517); by the County Courts act of Aug. 1867.
CIUDAD RODRIGO, a strong fortified town in Spain invested by the French, 11 June, 1810, and surrendered to them 10 July. It remained in their possession until it was storined by the British, under Wellington, 19 Jan. 1812.
CIVIL ENGINEERS, see Engineers.
restored in Italy, Germany, &c., 1127. Blair. It CIVIL LAW. See Codes. Civil law was was introduced into England by Theobald, a Norman abbot, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury in 1138. It is now used in the spiritual courts only, and in maritime affairs; see Doctors' Commons, and Laws.
CIVIL LIST. This now comprehends the revenue awarded to the kings of England in lieu of their ancient hereditary income. The entire revenue of Elizabeth was not more than 600,000l., and that of Charles I. was about 800,000l. After the revolution a civil list revenue was settled on the new king and queen of 700,000l. (in 1660), the parliament taking into its own hands the support of the forces both maritime and military. The civil list of Geerge II. was increased to 800,000l.; and that of George III., in the 55th year of his reign, was 1,030,000l.
CITIZEN. It was not lawful to scourge a citizen of Rome. Livy. In England a citizen is a person who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade therein. Camden. Various privileges have been conferred on citizens as freemen in several reigns.-The wives of citizens of London (not being aldermen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) were obliged to wear minever caps, being white woollen knit three-cornered, with the peaks pro-sation of mankind was gradually developed from a jecting three or four inches beyond their foreheads; low savage state is advocated by sir John Lubbock aldermen's wives made them of velvet, 1 Eliz. 1558. in his "Origin of Civilisation," 1870, and by Mr. Stow.-On 10 Oct. 1792, the convention decreed Edward B. Tylor in his "Primitive Culture, 1871. that "citoyen" and "citoyenne" should be the only titles in France. CIVIL WARS, see England, France, &c. CLAMEURS, see Haro.
CIVILISATION. The opinion that the civili
CIVIL SERVICE. Nearly 17,000 persons are employed in this service under the direction of the treasury, and the home, foreign, colonial, post, and revenue offices, &c. In 1855, a commission reported most unfavourably on the existing system of appointments, and on 21 May commissioners were appointed to examine into the qualifications of the candidates, who report annually. By an order of council 4 June, 1870, the system of competitive examination was made general after 1 Oct. 1870. The civil service superannuation act passed in April, 1859. Civil service for the year (ending 31 March) 1855, cost 7,735,515.; 1865, 10,205,4137.; 1867, 10,523,0197.; 1871, 13,176,6597. Vote for passed 18 Feb. 1873. a select committee to inquire into this expenditure,
CLANSHIPS are said to have arisen in Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm II., about 1008. The legal power of the chiefs and other remains of heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scotland, and liberty was granted to clansmen in 1747, in consequence of the rebellion of 1745. The following is a list of all the known clans of Scotland, with the badge of distinction anciently worn by each. The chief of each clan wears two eagle's feathers in his bonnet, in addition to the badge. Chambers. A history of the clans by Wm. Buchanan was pub
lished in 1775.
DUKES OF CLARENCE.
1362. Lionel, born 1338, died, 1369; see York.
1411. Thomas (second son of Henry IV.), born 1389,
CLARE was the first place in Ireland since 1689 that elected a Roman Catholic M.P.; see Roman Catholics. At the election, held at Ennis, the county town, Mr. Daniel O'Connell was returned, 5 July, 1828. He did not sit till after the passing of the Catholic Emancipation Act, in 1829, being re-elected 30 July, 1829.
sir John Vanbrugh, and was the seat successively of the earl of Clare, of lord Clive, lord Galloway, and the earl of Tyrconnel. It was purchased of Mr. Ellis by government for 65,000l. for the prince and princess of Saxe-Coburg; and the former, the late king of Belgium, assigned it to prince Albert in 1840. The exiled royal family of France took up their residence at Claremont, 4 March, 1848; and the king, Louis Philippe, died there, 29 Aug. 1850.
CLARE, NUNS OF ST., a sisterhood, called Minoresses, founded in Italy by St. Clare and St. Francis d'Assisi, about 1212. They were also called Urbanists; their rule having been modified by pope Urban IV., who died 1264. This order settled in France about 1260, and in England, in the Minories without Aldgate, London, about 1293, by Blanche, queen of Navarre, wife of Edmund, earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I. At the suppression, the site was granted to the bishopric of Bath and Wells, 1539. Tanner.
CLAREMONT (Surrey), the residence of the princess Charlotte (daughter of the prince-regent, afterwards George IV., married to prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg, 2 May, 1816): here she died in childbirth, 6 Nov. 1817. The house was built by
CLARENCIEUX, the second king-at-arms, said to have been nominated by Thomas, son of Henry IV., created duke of Clarence, 1411. His duty was to arrange the funerals of all the lower nobility, as baronets, knights, esquires, and gentlemen, on the south side of the Trent, from whence he is also called sur-roy or south-roy.
CLARE AND CLARENCE (Suffolk). Richard de Clare, earl of Gloucester, is said to have seated here a monastery of the order of Friars Eremites, the first of this kind of mendicants who came to England, 1248. Tanner. Lionel, third son of Ed-granted in perpetuity against his will. ward III., becoming possessed of the honour of Clare, by marriage, was created duke of Clarence. The title has ever since belonged to a branch of the royal family.
CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF, were enacted at a council held 25 Jan. 1164, at Clarendon, in Wiltshire, to retrench the power of the clergy. They led to Becket's quarrel with Henry II., were annulled by the pope, and abandoned by the king, April, 1174.
I. All suits concerning advowsons to be determined in civil courts.
II. The clergy accused of any crime be tried by civil judges.
III. No person of any rank whatever be permitted to leave the realm without the royal licence.
IV. Laics not to be accused in spiritual courts, except by legal and reputable promoters and witnesses.
V. No chief tenant of the crown to be excommunicated, nor his lands put under interdict.
VI. Revenues of vacant sees to belong to the king. VII. Goods forfeited to the crown not to be protected in churches.
VIII. Sons villeins not to be ordained clerks without the consent of their lord.
IX. Bishops to be regarded as barons, and be subjected to the burthens belonging to that rank.
X. Churches belonging to the king's see not to be
XI. Excommunicated persons not to be bound to give security for continuing in their abode,
XII. No inhabitant in demesne to be excommunicated for non-appearance in a spiritual court.
XIII. If any tenant in capite should refuse submission to spiritual courts, the case to be referred to the king. XIV. The clergy no longer to pretend to the right of enforcing debts contracted by oath or promise.
XV. Causes between laymen and ecclesiastics to be determined by a jury.
XVI. Appeals to be ultimately carried to the king, and no further without his consent.
CLARENDON PRESS, OXFORD. building was erected by sir John Vanbrugh, in 1711-13, the expense being defrayed out of the profits of lord Clarendon's History of the Rebellion, the copyright of which was given to the university by his son. The original building was converted into a museum, lecture-rooms, &c., and a new printing-office erected by Blore and Robertson, 1825-30.
CLARION, said by Spanish writers to have been invented by the Moors in Spain, about 800, was at first a trumpet, serving as a treble to trumpets sounding tenor and base. Ashe.
CLARIONET, a wind instrument of the reed kind, invented by Denner, in Nuremberg, about 1690.
CLASSIS. The name was first used by Tullius Servius (the sixth king of ancient Rome), in making divisions of the Roman people, 573 B.C. The first of the six classes were called classici, by way of eminence, and hence authors of the first
rank (especially Greek and Latin) came to be called classics.
CLAVICHORD, a musical instrument in the form of a spinnet (called also a manichord); much in use in France, Spain, and Germany, in the 17th century.
CLAY'S ACT, SIR WILLIAM, 14 & 15 Vict. c. 14 (1851), relates to the compound householders.' CLAYTON - BULWER TREATY, see Bulwer.
CLEARING-HOUSE. In 1775, a building in Lombard-street was set apart for the use of bankers, in which they might exchange drafts, bills, and securities, and thereby save labour and curtail the amount of floating cash requisite to meet the settlement of the different houses, if effected singly. By means of transfer tickets, transactions to the amount of millions daily are settled without the intervention of a bank note. In 1861, the clearing-house was used by 117 companies, and on May, 1864, it was joined by the Bank of England. The Railway clearing-house in Seymour-street, near Euston-square, established in 1842, is regulated by an act passed in 1850. In 1868, it regulated 13,000 miles of railways.
CLEMENTINES, apocryphal pieces, attributed to Clemens Romanus, a contemporary of St. Paul, and said to have succeeded St. Peter as bishop of Rome. He died 102. Niceron. Also the decretals of pope Clement V. who died 1314, published by his successor. Bowyer. Also Augustine monks, each of whom having been a superior nine years, then merged into a common monk.CLEMENTINES were the adherents of Robert, son of the count of Geneva, who took the title of Clement VII. on the death of Gregory XI. 1378, and URBANISTS, those of pope Urban VI. Christendom was divided by their claims: France, Castile, Scotland, &c., adhering to Clement; Rome, Italy, and England, to Urban. The schism ended in 1409, when Alexander V. was elected pope, and his rivals resigned; see Anti-Popes.
CLEPSYDRA, a water-clock; see Clocks.
CLERGY (from the Greek kleros, a lot or inheritance) in the first century were termed presbyters, elders, or bishops, and deacons. The bishops (episcopoi or overseers), elected from the presbyters, in the second century assumed higher functions (about 330), and, under Constantine, obtained the recognition and protection of the secular power. Under the Lombard and Norman-French kings in the 7th and 8th centuries, the clergy began to possess temporal power, as owners of lands; and after the establishment of monachism, a distinction was made between the regular clergy, who lived apart from the world, in accordance with a regula or rule, and the secular (worldly) or beneficed clergy. The English clergy write clerk after their names in legal documents. See Church of England and Bishops.
The clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges being chosen after the Norman custom from the sacred order, and the officers being clergy: this gave them that denomination, which they keep to this day. Blackstone.
BENEFIT OF CLERGY, Privilegium Clericale arose in the regard paid by Christian princes to the church, and consisted of: 1st, an exemption of places consecrated to religious duties from criminal arrests, which was the foundation of sanctuaries; 2nd, exemption of the persons of clergymen from criminal process before the secular judge, in particular cases, which was the original meaning of the privilegium clericale. The benefit of clergy was afterwards extended to everyone who could read; and it was enacted, that there should be a prerogative allowed to the clergy, that if any man who could read were to be condemned to death, the bishop of the diocese might, if he would, claim him as a clerk, and dispose of him in some places of the clergy as he might deem meet. The ordinary gave the prisoner at the bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic character, from which to read a verse or two; and if the ordinary said, Legit ut Clericus" ("He reads like a clerk"), the offender was only burnt in the hard; otherwise, he suffered death, 3 Edw. I. (1274). The privilege was restricted by Henry VII. in 1489, and abolished, with respect to murderers and other great criminals, by Henry VIII. 1512. Stow.
The reading was discontinued by 5 Anne, c. 6 (1706). Benefit of Clergy was wholly repealed by 7 & 8 Geo. IV. c. 28 (1827).
As the Druids kept the keys of their religion and of letters, so did the priests keep both these to themselves; they alone make profession of letters, and a man of letters was called a clerk, and hence learning went by the name of clerkship. Pasquier.
CLERKENWELL, a parish, N. E. London, so called from a well (fons clericorum) in Raystreet, where the parish clerks occasionally acted mystery-plays: once before Richard II. in 1390. Hunt's political meetings in 1817 were held in Spa-fields in this parish. In St. John's parish are the remains of the priory of the knights of St. John of Jerusalem. Clerkenwell prison was built in 1615, in lieu of the noted prison called the Cage, which was taken down in 1614; the then Bridewell having been found insufficient. The prison called the House of Detention, erected in 1775, was rebuilt in 1818; again 1844. For the explosion here, see Fenians, Dec. 1867. At Clerkenwellclose formerly stood the house of Oliver Cromwell, where some suppose the death-warrant of Charles I. was signed, Jan. 1649.
CLERMONT (France). Here was held the council under pope Urban II. in 1095, in which the first crusade against the infidels was determined upon, and Godfrey of Bouillon appointed to command it. In this council the name of pope was first given to the head of the Roman Catholic church, exclusively of the bishops who used previously to assume the title. Philip I. of France was a second time) excommunicated by this assembly. Hénault.
CLEVES (N. E. Germany). Rutger, count of Cleves, lived at the beginning of the 11th century. Adolphus, count of Mark, was made duke of Cleves
by the emperor Sigismund, 1417. John William, duke of Cleves, Berg, Juliers, &c., died without issue, 25 March, 1609, which led to a war of succession. Eventually Cleves was assigned to the elector of Brandenburg in 1666; seized by the French in 1757; restored at the peace in 1763, and now forms part of the Prussian dominions.
Repeating clocks and watches invented by Barlow,
CLIFTON SUSPENSION - BRIDGE, over the Avon, connecting Gloucestershire and Somersetshire, constructed of the removed Hunger-Church clocks illuminated: the first, St. Bride's, ford-bridge, was completed in Oct. and opened 8 Dec. 1864. It is said to have the largest span (702 feet) of any chain bridge in the world. In 1753 Alderman Vick, of Bristol, bequeathed 1000l. to accumulate for the erection of a bridge over the Avon. In 1831 Brunel began one, which was abandoned after the expenditure of 45,000l.
2 Dec. 1826 1858 30 May, 1859
CLIMACTERIC, the term applied to certain periods of time in a man's life (multiples of 7 or 9), in which it is affirmed notable alterations in the health and constitution of a person happen, and expose him to imminent dangers. Cotgrave says, "Every 7th or 9th or 63rd year of a man's life, all very dangerous, but the last most.' The grand climacteric is 63. Hippocrates is said to have referred to these periods, 383 B.C. CLINICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, for the cultivation and promotion of practical medicine and surgery, established in Dec. 1867; first president, sir Thomas Watson. See Lectures (clinical).
CLIO. The initials C. L. I. O., forming the name of the muse of history, were rendered famous from the most admired papers of Addison, in the Spectator, having been marked by one or other of them, signed consecutively, in 1713. Cibber.
CLOACA MAXIMA, the chief of the celebrated sewers at Rome, the construction of which is attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus (588 B.C.) and
CLOCK. The clepsydra, or water-clock, was introduced at Rome about 158 B.C. by Scipio Nasica. Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesibius, about 140 B.C. Clocks said to have been found by Cæsar on invading Britain, 55 B.C. The only clock supposed to be then in the world was sent by pope Paul I. to Pepin king of France A.D. 760. Pacificus, archdeacon of Genoa, invented one in the 9th century. Originally the wheels were three feet in diameter. The earliest complete clock of which there is any certain record was made by a Saracen mechanic in the 13th century. Alfred is said to have measured time by wax tapers, and to have used lanterns to defend them from the wind about 887.
The scapement ascribed to Gerbert.
A clock constructed by Richard, abbot of St. about 1326
John Visconti sets up a clock at Genoa
A striking clock in Westminster
A perfect one made at Paris, by Vick.
In England no clock went accurately before that
The Horological Institute established
The great Westminster clock set up
See Electric Clock, under Electricity.
CLOGHER (Ireland). St. Macartin, a disciple of St. Patrick, fixed a bishopric at Clogher, where he also built an abbey "in the street before the royal seat of the kings of Ergal." He died in 506. Clogher takes it name from a golden stone, from which, in times of paganism, the devil used to pronounce juggling answers, like the oracles of Apollo Pythius. Sir James Ware. In 1041 the cathedral was built anew, and dedicated to its founder. Clogher merged, on the death of its last prelate (Dr. Tottenham), into the archiepiscopal see of Armagh, by the act of 1833.
CLONFERT (Ireland). St. Brendan founded an abbey at Clonfert in 558: his life is extant in jingling monkish metre in the Cottonian library at Westminster. In his time the cathedral, famous in ancient days for its seven altars, was erected; and Colgan makes St. Brendan its founder and the first bishop; but it is said, in the Ulster Annals, under the year 571, "Mana, bishop of ClonfertBrenain, went to rest." Clonfert, in Irish, signifies a wonderful den or retirement. In 1839 the see merged into that of Killaloe; see Bishops.
CLONTARF (near Dublin), the site of a battle fought on Good Friday, 23 April, 1014, between the Irish and Danes, the former headed by Bryan Boroimhe, monarch of Ireland, who defeated the invaders, after a long and bloody engagement, was wounded, and soon afterwards died. His son Murchard also fell with many of the nobility; 13,000 Danes are said to have perished in the battle.
CLOSTERSEVEN (Hanover) CONVENTION OF, was entered into 8 Sept. 1757, between the duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., hardly pressed, and the duke of Richelieu, commander of the French. By it 38,000 Hanoverians laid down their arms, and were dispersed. The treaty was disavowed by the king; the duke resigned all his commands, and the convention was soon broken.
CLOTH, see Woollen Cloth and Calico.
CLOUD, ST., a palace near Paris, named from prince Clodoald or Cloud, who became a monk there in 533, after the murder of his brothers, and died in 560. The palace was built in the 16th century, and in it Henry II. was assassinated by Clement, 2 Aug. 1589. This palace, long the property of the dukes of Orleans, was bought by Marie Antoinette in 1785. It was a favourite residence of the empress Josephine, of Charles X. and his family, and of the emperor Napoleon III. It was burnt during the siege of Paris, having