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Cæsar introduced into it large canals of water, CIVIL ENGINEERS, see Engineers. which could be quickly covered with vessels, and represent a sea fight. "Pliny; see Amphitheatres, restored in Italy, Germany, &c., 1127; Blair. It

CIVIL LAW. See Codes. Civil law was and Factions.

was introduced into England by Theobald, a NorCIRRHA, a town of Phocis (N. Greece), for man abbot, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury in sacrilege, razed to the ground in the Sacred War, 1138. It is now used in the spiritual courts only, 586 B.C.

and in maritime affairs; see Doctors' Commons, and

Laws. CISALPINE REPUBLIC (N. Italy), formed by the French in May, 1797, from the CIVIL LIST. This now comprehends the Cispadanë and Transpadane republics, acknow

revenue awarded to the kings of England in lieu of ledged by the emperor of Germany, by the treaty their ancient hereditary income. The entire revenue of Campo Formio (which see), 17 Oct. following. of Elizabeth was not more than 600,0001., and that It received a new constitution in Sept. 1798; was of Charles I. was about 800,000l. After the revoluremodelled, and named the Italian republic, with tion a civil list revenue was settled on the new king Napoleon Bonaparte president, 1802; and merged and queen of 700,000l. (in 1660), the parliament into the kingdom of Italy in March, 1805; see

taking into its own hands the support of the forces Italy.

both maritime and military. The civil list of CISPADANE REPUBLIC, with the Geerge II. was increased to 800,000l. ; and that of Transpadane republic, merged into the Cisal- George III., in the 55th year of his reign, was pine republic, Oct. 1797.


In 1831, the civil list of the sovereign was fixed at CISTERCIANS (the order of Citeaux), a

510,000l., and in December, 1837, the civil list of powerful order of monks founded about 1098 by the queen was fixed at 385,000l. Robert, a Benedictine, abbot of Molesme, named Prince Albert obtained an exclusive sum from parfrom Citeaux, in France, the site of the first convent, liament of 30,000l

Feb. 1840 near the end of the uth century. The monks

Sir H. Parnell's motion for inquiry into the civil list observed silence, abstained from flesh, lay on straw,

led to the resignation of the Wellington adminisand wore neither shoes nor shirts. They were re

15 Nov. 1830

A select committee was appointed by the house of formed by St. Bernard; see Bernardines.

commons for the purpose

2 Feb. 1860 CITATE. The Russian general Gortschakoff, CIVIL SERVICE. Nearly 17,000 persons intending to storm_Kalafat, threw up redoubts at

are employed in this service under the direction of Citate, close to the Danube, which were stormed by the treasury, and the home, foreign, colonial, post, the Turks under Omer Pacha, 6 Jan. 1854. The and revenue offices, &c. In 1855, a commission refighting continued on the 7th, 8th and 9th, when ported most unfavourably on the existing system the Russians were compelled to retire to their of appointments, and on 21 May commissioners former position at Krajowa, having lost 1500 killed and 2000 wounded. The loss of the Turks of the candidates, who report annually. By an

were appointed to examine into the qualifications was estimated at 338 killed and 700 wounded. order of council 4 June, 1870, the system of compe

titive examination was made general after i Oct. CITIZEN. It was not lawful to scourge a

1870. The civil service superannuation act passed citizen of Rome. Livy. In England a citizen is a

in April, 1859. (ivil service for the year (ending person who is free of a city, or who doth carry on a trade therein. Camden. Various privileges have 3 March) 1855, cost 7,735,5157.; 1865, 10,205,4137.; been conferred on citizens as freemen in several 1867; 10,523,0191.; 1871, 13,176,6597.' Vote for reigns. — The wives of citizens of London (not being passed 18 Feb. 1873.

a select committee to inquire into this expenditure, aldermen's wives, nor gentlewomen by descent) were obliged to wear minever caps, being white CIVILISATION. The opinion that the civiliwoollen knit three-cornered, with the peaks pro- sation of mankind was gradually developed from a jecting three or four inches beyond their foreheads; low savage state is advocated by sir John Lubbock aldermen's wives made them of velvet, i Eliz. 1558. in his “Origin of Civilisation,” 1870, and by Mr. Stow.-On 10 Oct. 1792, the convention decreed Edward B. Tylor in his “ Primitive Culture, 1871. that “citoyen" and "citoyenne" should be the only titles in France.

CIVIL WARS, see England, France, &c. CITY. (Latin civitas, French cité, Italian CLAMEURS, see Haro. città.) The word has been used in England only since the conquest, when London was called Lon; land, in the reign of Malcolm II., about 1008. The

CLANSHIPS are said to have arisen in Scotdonburgh. Cities were first incorporated 1079. A town corporate is called a a city when made the legal power of the chiefs and other remains of seat of a bishop and having a cathedral church. heritable jurisdiction were abolished in Scotland, Camden.

and liberty was granted to clansmen in 1747, in

consequence of the rebellion of 1745. The following CITY LIBRARY AND MUSEUM, see is a list of all the known clans of Scotland, with Guildhall.

the badge of distinction anciently worn by each.

The chief of each clan wears two eagle's feathers CITY OF LONDON COURT, the name

in his bonnet, in addition to the badge. Chambers. given to the Sheriffs' Court (established 1517); by A history of the clans by Wm. Buchanan was pubthe County Courts act of Aug. 1867.

lished in 1775. CIUDAD RODRIGO, a strong fortified town


Buchanan in Spain invested by the French, 11 June, 1810,

Cameron and surrendered to them 10 July.' It remained in


Myrtle. their possession until it was stormed by the British, Chisholm

Alder under Wellington, 19 Jan. 1812.







sir John Vanbrugh, and was the seat successively Cuniming

Cominon sallow. of the earl of Clare, of lord Clive, lord Galloway, Drummond


and the earl of Tyrconnel. It was purchased of Farquharson

Purple foxglove. Ferguson


Mr. Ellis by government for 65,000l. for the prince Forbes


and princess of Saxe-Coburg; and the former, the Frazer


late king of Belgium, assigned it to prince Albert Gorion.


in 1840. The exiled royal family of France took Graham


up their residence at Claremont, 4 March, 1848 ; Grant

Cranberry heath.

and the king, Louis Philippe, died there, 29 Aug. Gun

Rosewort. Lamont

Crab-apple tree. 1850. M'Alister

Five-leaved heath.

CLARENCIEUX, the second king-at-arms, M.Donald


said to have been nominated by Thomas, son of M'Donnell

Mountain-heath. M.Dougall


Henry IV., created duke of Clarence, 1411. His M.Farlane

Cloud-berry bush. duty was to arrange the funerals of all the lower M'Gregor


nobility, as baronets, knights, esquires, and gentleM Intosh


men, on the south side of the Trent, from whence Mikay


he is also called sur-roy or south-roy. M'Kenzie

Deer-grass. MKinnon

St. John's wort.



enacted at a council held 25 Jan. 1164, at ClarenM Lean

Blackberry heath. M.Leod

Red whortle-berries. don, in Wiltshire, to retrench the power of the M.Yab

Rose blackberries. clergy. They led to Becket's quarrel with Henry II., M.Neil


were annulled by the pope, and abandoned by the M.Pherson

Variegated box-wood.

king, April, 1174. Quarrie

Blackthorn. M Rae

Fir-club moss.

I. All suits concerning advowsons to be determined in Menzies


civil courts. Munro

Eagle's feathers.

II. The clergy accused of any crime be tried by civil Murray


judges. Ogilvie


III. No person of any rank whatever be permitted to Oliphant

Great inaple.

leave the realm without the royal licence. Robertson

Fern, or brechans.

IV. Laics not to be accused in spiritual courts, except Rose


by legal and reputable promoters and witnesses. Ross


V. No chief tenant of the crown to be excommunicated, Sinclair


nor his lands put under interdiet. Stewart


VI. Revenues of vacant sees to belong to the king. Sutherland

Cat's-tail grass.

VII. Goods forfeited to the crown not to be protected

in churches. CLARE AND CLARENCE (Suffolk). Richard VIII. Sons of villeins not to be ordained clerks withde Clare, earl of Gloucester, is said to have seated out the consent of their lord. here a monastery of the order of Friars Eremites, IX. Bishops to be regarded as barons, and be subthe first of this kind of mendicants who came to jected to the burthens belonging to that ránk. England, 1248. Tanner. Lionel, third son of Ed. granted in perpetuity against his will.

X. Churches belonging to the king's see not to be ward III., becoming possessed of the honour of XI. Excommunicated persons not to be bound to give Clare, by marriage, was created duke of Clarence. security for continuing in their abode. The title has ever since belonged to a branch of the XII. No inhabitant in demesne to be excommunicated royal family:

for non-appearance in a spiritual court.

XIII. If any tenant in capite should refuse submission DUKES OF CLARENCE.

to spiritual courts, the case to be referred to the king. 1362. Lionel, born 1338, died, 1369 ; see York.

XIV. The clergy no longer to pretend to the right of 1411. Thomas (second son of Henry IV.), born 1389, enforcing debts contracted by oath or promise. killed at Baugé, 1421.

XV. Causes between laymen and ecclesiastics to be 1461. George (brother of Edward IV.), murdered, 1478.

determined by a jury. 1789. William (third son of George III.), afterwards king

XVI. Appeals to be ultimately carried to the king, and William IV.

no further without his consent. CLARE was the first place in Ireland since 1689 that elected a Roman Catholic M.P.; see Roman CLARENDON PRESS, OXFORD. The Catholics. At the election, held at Ennis, the building was erected by sir John Vanbrugh, in county town, Mr. Daniel O'Connell was returned, 1711-13, the expense being defraved out of the 5 July, 1828. He did not sit till after the passing of profits of lord Clarendon's II istory of the Rebellion, the Catholic Emancipation Act, in 1829, being the copyright of which was given to the university re-elected 30 July, 1829.

by his son. The original building was converted CLARE, NUNS OF St., a sisterhood, called into a museum, lecture-rooms, &c., and a new Minoresses, founded in Italy' by St. Clare and St. printing-office erected by Blore and Robertson, Francis d' Assisi, about 1212. They were also called 1825-30. Urbanists; their rule having been modified by pope CLARION, said by Spanish writers to have Urban IV., who died 1264. This order settled in been invented by the Moors in Spain, about 800, France about 1260, and in England, in the Minories was at first a trumpet, serving as a treble to without Aldgate, London, about 1293, by Blanche, trumpets sounding tenor and base. Ashe. queen of Navarre, wife of Edmund, earl of Lancaster, brother of Edward I. At the suppression, CLARIONET, a wind instrument of the reed the site was granted to the bishopric of Bath and kind, invented by Denner, in Nuremberg, about Wells, 1539. Tanner.

1690. CLAREMONT (Surrey), the residence of the CLASSIS. The name was first used by Tullius princess Charlotte (daughter of the prince-regent, Servius (the sixth king of ancient Rome), in afterwards George IV., married to prince Leopold making divisions of the Roman people, 573 B.C. of Saxe-Coburg, 2 May, 1816): here she died in The first of the six classes were called classici, by childbirth, 6 Nov. 1817. The house was built by way of eminence, and hence authors of the first

rank (especially Greek and Latin) came to be BENEFIT OF CLERGY, Privilegium Clericale arose in the called classics.

regard paid by Christian princes to the church, and

consisted of: ist, an exemption of places consecrated CLAVICHORD, a musical instrument in the to religious duties from criminal arrests, which was form of a spinnet (called also a manichord); much

the foundation of sanctuaries ; 2nd, exemption of the

persons of clergymen from criminal process before the in use in France, Spain, and Germany, in the 17th

secular judge, in particular cases, which was the century.

original meaning of the privilegium clericale. The

benefit of clergy was afterwards extended to everyone CLAY’S ACT, SIR WILLIAM, 14 & 15. Vict., who could read ; and it was enacted, that there should C. 14 (1851), relates to the compound householders.' be a prerogative allowed to the clergy, that if any man

who could read were to be condemned to death, the CLAYTON - BULWER TREATY, see

bishop of the diocese might, if he would, clain him as Bulwer.

a clerk, and dispose of him in some places of the clergy

as he might deem meet. The ordinary gave the priCLEARING-HOUSE. In 1775, a building

soner at the bar a Latin book, in a black Gothic in Lombard-street was set apart for the use of

character, from which to read a verse or two; and if

the ordinary said, “Legit ut Clericus(“ He reads bankers, in which they might, exchange drafts, like a clerk "), the offender was only burnt in the bills, and securities, and thereby save labour and hard ; otherwise, he suffered death, 3 Edw. I. (1274). curtail the amount of floating cash requisite to The privilege was restricted by Henry VII. in 1489, and meet the settlement of the different houses, if abolished, with respect to murderers and other great effected singly. By means of transfer tickets, trans

criminals, by Henry VIII. 1512. Stou. actions to the amount of millions daily are settled

The reading was discontinued by 5 Anne, c. 6 (1706). without the intervention of a bank note. In 1861,

Benefit of Clergy was wholly repealed by 7 & 8 Geo. IV.

C. 28 (1827). the clearing-house was used by ug companies, and

CLERGY CHARITIES. on May, 1864, it was joined by the Bank of England. William Assheton, an eminent theological writer, was the The Railway clearing-house in Seymour-street, near

first proposer of a plan to provide for the families of Euston-square, established in 1842, is regulated

deceased clergy. He died Sept. 1711.

Watis's Life of

Assheton. by an act passed in 1850. In 1808, it regulated Festival of the “Sons of the Clergy," held annually at St. 13,000 miles of railways.

Paul's Cathedral, instituted about 1655 : from it sprang

the charity called the “Sons of the Clergy" (clergy CLEMENTINES, apocryphal pieces, attri orphan and widow corporation), incorporated 1 July, buted to Clemens Romanus, a contemporary of 1678. St. Paul, and said to have succeeded St. Peter as

There are several other charities for relatives of the bishop of Rome. He died 102. Niceron. Also the

clergy. decretals of pope Clement V. who died 1314, pub CLERICAL DISABILITIES ACT, passed lished by his successor. Bowyer. Also Augustine 9 Aug. 1870, relieves persons who have been admonks, each of whom having been a superior nine mitted priests or deacons of certain clerical disyears, then merged into a common monk. abilities upon their resigning their ecclesiastical CLEMENTINES were the adherents of Robert, son of offices and preferments, and declares them incapable the count of Geneva, who took the title of Cle of officiating henceforward. ment VII. on the death of Gregory XI. 1378, and URBANISTS, those of pope Urban VI. Christendom

CLERICAL SUBSCRIPTION ACT, was divided by their claims: France, Castile, Scot- passed July, 1865. land, &c., adhering to Clement; Rome, Italy, and CLERK, see Clergy. England, to Urban. The schism ended in 1409, when Alexander V. was elected pope, and his rivals

CLERKENWELL, a parish, N. E. London, resigned; see Anti-Popes.

so called from a well (fons clericorum) in Ray

street, where the parish clerks occasionally acted CLEPSYDRA, a water-clock; see Clocks. mystery-plays : once before Richard II. in 1390.

Hunt's political meetings in 1817 were held in CLERGY (from the Greek kleros, a lot or in- Spa-fields in this parish. In St. John's parish are heritance) in the first century were termed press the remains of the priory of the knights of St. byters, elders, or bishops, and deacons. The bishops John of Jerusalem. Clerkenwell prison was built (episcopoi or overseers), elected from the presbyters, in 1615, in lieu of the noted prison called the Cage, in the second century assumed higher functions which was taken down in 1614; the then Bride(about 330), and, under Constantine, obtained the well having been found insutficient.

The prison recognition and protection of the secular power. called the House of Detention, erected in 1775, was Under the Lombard and Norman-French kings in rebuilt in 1818; again 1844. For the explosion the 7th and 8th centuries, the clergy began to pos- here, see Fenians, Dec. 1867. At Clerkenwellsess temporal power, as owners of lands; and after close formerly stood the house of Oliver Cromwell, the establishment of monachism, a distinction was where some suppose the death-warrant of Charles I. made between the regular clergy, who lived apart was signed, Jan. 1649. from the world, in accordance with a regula or rule, and the secular (worldly) or beneficed clergy. The

CLERMONT (France). Here was held the English clergy write clerk after their names in

council under pope Urban II. in 1095, in which the legal documents. See Church of England and first crusade against the infidels was determined Bishops.

upon, and Godfrey of Bouillon appointed to com

mand it. In this council the name of pope was The clergy were first styled clerks, owing to the judges first given to the head of the Roman Catholic being chosen after the Norman custom from the sacred church, exclusively of the bishops who used preorder, and the officers being clergy : this gave them

viously to assume the title. that denomination, which they keep to this day. Black

Philip I. of France

was (a second time) excommunicated by this stone. As the Druids kept the keys of their religion and of assembly. Hénault.

letters, so did the priests keep both these to themselves; they alone make profession of letters, and a man of

CLEVES (N. E. Germany). Rutger, count of letters was called a clerk, and hence learning went by Cleves, lived at the beginning of the uth century. the naine of clerkship. Pasquier.

Adolphus, count of Mark, was made duke of Cleves


by the emperor Sigismund, 1417. John William, Repeating clocks and watches invented by Barlow, duke of Cleves, Berg, Juliers, &c., died without

about 1676 issue, 25 March, 1609, which led to a war of suc

The dead beat, and horizontal escapements, by cession. Eventually Cleves was assigned to the

Graham, about 1700 ; compensating pendulum elector of Brandenburg in 1666; seized by the

The spiral balance spring suggested, and the duplex French in 1757; restored at the peace in 1763, and

scapement, invented by Dr. Hooke ; pivot holes

jewelled by Facio; the detached-scapement, now forms part of the Prussian dominions.

invented by Muilge, and improved by Berthould, CLIFTON SUSPENSION - BRIDGE,

Arnold, Earnshaw, and others in the 18th century.

Harrison's time-piece (which see) constructed 1735 over the Avon, connecting Gloucestershire and Clocks and watches taxed, 1797 ; tax repealed

1798 Somersetshire, constructed of the removed Hunger. Church clocks illuminated : the first, St. Bride's, ford-bridge, was completed in Oct. and opened


2 Dec. 1826 8 Dec. 1864. It is said to have the largest span

The Horological Institute established

1858 (702 feet) of any chain bridge in the world. "In

The great Westminster clock set up . 30 May, 1859

266,750 clocks and 88,621 watches imported into 1753 Alderman Vick, of Bristol, bequeathed 10001. the United Kingdoin in 1857 ; 258,628 clocks ; to accumulate for the erection of a bridge over the 372,420 watches imported in

1870 Avon. In 1831 Brunel began one, which was aban- The duty came off

1861 doned after the expenditure of 45,0001.

See Electric Clock, under Electricity: CLIMACTERIC, the term applied to certain periods of time in a man's life (multiples of 7 or 9), of St. Patrick, fixed a bishopric at Clogher, where

CLOGHER (Ireland), St. Macartin, a disciple in which it is affirmed notable alterations in the he also built an abbey "in the street before the bealth and constitution of a person happen, and royal seat of the kings of Ergal.” He died in 506. expose him to imminent dangers. Cotgrave says, Clogher takes it name from a golden stone, from

* Every 7th or oth or 63rd year of a man's life, all which, in times of paganism, the devil used to very dangerous, but the last most. The grand climacteric is 63. 'Hippocrates is said to have referred Apollo Pythius. Sir James' Ware. In 1041 the

pronounce juggling answers, like the oracles of to these periods, 383 B.C.

cathedral was built anew, and dedicated to its CLINICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, for founder. Clogher merged, on the death of its last the cultivation and promotion of practical nedi- prelate (Dr. Tottenham), into the archiepiscopal see cine and surgery, established in Dec. 1867; first of Armagh, by the act of 1833. president, sir Thomas Watson. See Lectures (clinical).

CLONFERT (Ireland). St. Brendan founded

an abbey at Clonfert in 558: his life is extant in CLIO. The initials C. L. I. O., forming the jingling monkish metre in the Cottonian library at name of the muse of history, were rendered famous Westminster. In his time the cathedral, famous from the most admired papers of Addison, in the in ancient days for its seven altars, was erected; Spectator, having been marked by one or other of and Colgan makes St. Brendan its founder and the them, signed consecutively, in 1713. Cibber. first bishop; but it is said, in the Ulster Annals, CLOACA MAXIMA, the chief of the cele- Brenain, went to rest.” Clonfert

, in Irish, signifies

under the year 571, “ Mana, bishop of Clonfertbrated sewers at Rome, the construction of which is attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus (588 B.C.) and merged into that of Killaloe; see Bishops.

a wonderful den or retirement. In 1839 the see his successors.

CLOCK. The clepsydra, or water-clock, was CLONTARF (near Dublin), the site of a battle introduced at Rome about 158 B.C. by Scipio Nasica. fought on Good Friday, 23 April, 1014, between Toothed wheels were applied to them by Ctesibius, the Irish and Danes, the former headed by Bryan about 140 B.C. Clocks said to have been found by Boroimhe, monarch of Ireland, who defeated the Cesar on invading Britain, 55 B.C. The only clock invaders, after a long and bloody engagement, was supposed to be then in the world was sent by pope wounded, and soon afterwards died. His son MurPaul I. to Pepin king of France A.D. 760. Pacificus, chard also fell with many of the nobility; 13,000 archdeacon of Genoa, invented one in the 9th cen- Danes are said to have perished in the battle. tury. Originally the wheels were three feet in diameter. The earliest complete clock of which

CLOSTERSEVEN (Hanover) CONVENTION there is any certain record was made by a Saracen OF, was entered into 8 Sept. 1757, between the mechanic in the 13th century. Alfred is said to duke of Cumberland, third son of George II., have measured time by wax tapers, and to have bardly pressed, and the duke of Richelieu, comused lanterns to defend them from the wind about mander of the French. By it 38,000 Hanoverians 887.

laid down their arms, and were dispersed. Tho

treaty was disavowed by the king; the duke reThe scapement ascribed to Gerbert . A great clock put up at Canterbury cathedral, cosi signed all his commands, and the convention was


soon broken. A clock constructed by Richard, abbot of 'st. Alban's

about 1326

CLOTH, see Woollen Cloth and Calico.
John Visconti sets up a clock at Genoa
A striking clock in West nunster

CLOUD, Sr., a palace near Paris, named from A perfect one made at Paris, by Vick.

1370 prince Clodoald or Cloud, who became a monk The first portable one made


there in 533, after the murder of his brothers, and In England no clock went accurately before that set up at Hampton-court (maker's initials N. 0.) 1540

died in 500. The palace was built in the 16th The pendulum is said to have been applied to clocks century, and in it Henry II. was assassinated by

by the younger Galileo, 1639 : and by Richard Clement, 2 Aug. 1589. This palace, long the Harris (who erected a clock at St. Paul's, Covent

property of the dukes of Orleans, was bought by garden)

1641 Marie Antoinette in 1785. It was a favourite Christian Huyghens said he made his pendulum

residence of the empress Josephine, of Charles X. clock previously to

1658 From antil, a Dutchman, improved the pendulum

and his family, and of the emperor Napoleon III. about 1659 It was burnt during the siege of Paris, having




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been fired upon by the French themselves, 13 Oct. Army and Navy

1837 1870.

Etching, London

1838 Spalding, Aberdeen

1839 CLOUDS consist of minute particles of water, Conservative

1840 often in a frozen state, floating in the air. In 1803 Whittington (founded by Douglas Jerrold and Mr. Luke Howard published his classification of


1846 clouds, now generally adopted, consisting of three

Army and Navy

1851 Grafton

1863 primary forms-cirrus, cumulus, and stratus; three

Cobden Club.

1866 compounds of these forms; and the nimbus or

See Working Men's Club. black rain clouds (cumulo-cirro-stratus.) A new edition of Howard’s Essay on the Clouds appeared They were 'essentially political, and greatly con

CLUBS, FRENCH. The first arose about 1782. in 1865.

cerned in the revolution. The Club Breton became CLOVESHOO (now Cliff), Kent. Here was the celebrated Club des Jacobins, and the Club des held an important council of nobility and clergy Cordeliers comprised among its members Danton concerning the government and discipline of the and Camille Desmoulins. From these two came church, Sept. 747; and others were held here, 800, the Mountain party which overthrew the Girondists 803, 822, 824.

in 1793, and fell in its turn in 1794. The clubs

disappeared with the Directory in 1799. They were CLOYNE ($. Ireland), a bishopric, founded in revived 1848 in considerable numbers, but did not the 6th century by St. Coleman, was in 1431 united attain to their former eminence, and were supto that of Cork, and so continued for 200 years. It pressed by decrees, 22 June, 1849, and 6 June, was united with that of Cork and Ross, 1834 ; see 1850. Bouillet. Bishops.

CLUB-FOOT, a deformity due to the shortenCLUBMEN, associations founded in the ing of one or more of the muscles, although atsouthern and western counties of England, to re, tempted to be relieved by Lorenz in 1784, by strain the excesses of the armies during the civil cutting the tendo Achillis, was not effectually cured wars, 1642-9. They professcá neutrality, but in- till 1831, when Stromeyer of Erlangen cured Dr. clined towards the king, and were considered ene- Little by dividing the tendons of the contracted mies by his opponents.

muscles with a very thin knife. CLUBS, originally consisted of a small number CLUGNY or CLUNY, ABBEY OF, in France, of persons of kindred tastes and pursuits, who met formerly most magnificent, founded by Benedictines, together at stated times for social intercourse. The under the abbot Bern, about 910, and sustained club at the Mermaid tavern, established about the afterwards by William, duke of Berry and Aquiend of the 16th century, consisted of Raleigh, taine. English foundations for Cluniac monks were Shakspeare, and others. Ben Jonson set up a club instituted soon after. at the Devil tavern. Addison, Steele, and others,

CLYDE AND FORTH WALL was built frequently met at Button's coffee-house, as den by Agricola, 84. The Forth and Clyde Canal was scribed in the Spectator.

commenced by Mr. Smeaton, 10 July, 1768, and clubs, some comprising 300, others about 1500 members, possess handsome luxuriously furnished

was opened 28 July, 1790. It forms a communiedifices in or near Pall Mall. The members obtain cation between the seas on the eastern and western

coasts of Scotland. choice viands and wines at moderate charges, and many clubs possess excellent libraries, particularly CNIDUS, in Caria, Asia Minor: near here the Atheneum (which see). The annual payment Conon the Athenian defeated the Lacedæmonian varies from 61. to 11l. 118.; the entrance fee from fleet, under Peisander, 394 B.C. 91. 98. to 311. 118. The following are the principal clubs ; several are described in separate articles :

COACH (from coucher, to lie). Beckmann

states that Charles of Anjou's queen entered Naples Rota (political)

1659 in a caretta (about 1282). Under Francis I. there Kit-Cat (literary)

• 1700 were but two in Paris, one belonging to the Dilettanti (tine arts) Beef Steak (extinct)

queen, the other to Diana, the natural daughter of White's (Tory)

Henry II. There were but three in Paris in 1550;

1736 Royal Society (scientific).

and Henry IV. had one without straps or springs. Boodle's

1962 John de Laval de Bois-Dauphin set up a coach on Literary Club (which see), termed also The Club, account of his enormous bulk. The first coach seen and Johnson's Club

1764 in England was about 1553. Coaches were introBrooke's, originally Almack's (Whig).

duced by Fitz-Alan, earl of Arundel, in 1580. Storo. Alfred (literary)

1808-51 Guariis'

1 May, 1810

A bill was brought into parliament to prevent the Arthur's, early in i8th century ; house built 1811 effeminacy of men riding in coaches, 43 Eliz. 1601. Roxburghe, London

Carte. Repealed 1625. The coach of the duke of United Service

1815 Buckingham had six horses, that of the earl of Travellers'

1819 Northumberland eight, 1619. The coach-tax comUnion United University

menced in 1747. Horace Walpole says that the

1822 Bannatyne, Edinburgh


present royal state coach (first used 16 Nov. 1762), Athena um (which see)


cost 75281. The lord mayor's old state coach was Oriental

not used 9 Nov. 1867; see Car, Carriages, Chariots, United Service (Junior)

1827 | Hackney Coaches, Mail Coaches, &c. Wyndhamn Maitland, Glasgow

COAL.* It is contended, with much seeming Oxford and Cambridge

1829 truth, that coal, although not mentioned by the Carlton (Conservative), founded by the duke of wellington and others

* There are five kinds of fossil fuel : anthracite, coal,

lignite, bituminous shale, and bitumen. No satisfactory Abbotsford, Edinburgh

1835 definition of coal has yet been given. The composition of Reform (Liberul)

1836 wood is 49'1 carbon, 6'3 hydrogen, 44 6 oxygen ; of coal Parthenon

82'6 carbon, 5-6 lıydrogen, nr 8 oxygen.

• 1734


before 1743







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