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peopled by Ham. For its history, see Egypt, Cape, Carthage, Cyrene, Abyssinia, Algiers, Morocco, &c.
Carthage subdued by the Romans 146 B.C.; other provinces gained by Pompey, 82. Revolts subdued by Diocletian, 296; by Theodosius, 373
N. Africa conquered by the Vandals under Genseric, A.D. 429-35; re-conquered by Belisarius, 533-55The Saracens subdue the north of Africa, 637-709. Cape of Good Hope discovered by Diaz, 1487. Vasco de Gama doubles the Cape and explores the coast, 19 Nov. 1497.
Portuguese settlements begun, 1450.
English merchants visit Guinea in 1550; and Elizabeth granted a patent to an African company in 1588. Dutch colony at the Cape founded, 1650. Capt. Stubbs sailed up the Gambia, 1723. Bruce commenced his travels in 1768. Sierra Leone settled by the English, 1787. Mungo Park made his first voyage to Africa, 22 May, 1795; his second, 30 January, 1804, and never returned (see Park).
Africa visited by Salt, 1805 and 1809; Burckhardt, 1812; Campbell, 1813; Hornemann, 1816; Denham and Clapperton, 1822; Laing, 1826; the brothers Lander, 1830.
The great Niger expedition to start a colony in Central Africa (for which parliament voted 60,000l.), consisting of the Albert, Wilberforce, and Soudan steamships, commenced the ascent of the Niger, 20 Aug. 1841; when they reached Iddah, fever broke out among the crews, and they were successively obliged to return, the Albert having ascended the river to Egga, 320 miles from the sea, 28 Sept. The expedition was relinquished owing to disease, heat, and hardships, and all the vessels had cast anchor at Clarence Cove, Fernando Po, 17 Oct. 1841.
James Richardson explored the great Sahara in 1845-6, and in 1849 (by direction of the Foreign Office) he left England to explore central Africa, accompanied by Drs. Barth and Overweg. Richardson died 4 March 1851; and Overweg died, 27 Sept. 1852. Dr. Vögel sent out with reinforcements to Dr. Barth, 20 Feb. 1853; in April, 1857, said to have been assassinated.
Dr. Barth returned to England, and received the Royal Geographical Society's medal, 16 May, 1856. His travels were published in 5 vols. in 1858. Dr. David Livingstone, a missionary traveller, returned to England in Dec. 1856, after an absence of 16 years, during which he traversed a large part of the heart of S. Africa, and walked about 11,000 miles, principally over country hitherto unexplored. His book was published in Nov. 1857. In Feb. 1858, he was appointed British consul for the Portuguese possessions in Africa, and left England shortly after.
Du Chaillu's travels in central Africa, 1856-59, created much controversy, 1861.
Second expedition of Dr. Livingstone, March, 1858. Captains Speke and Grant announce the discovery of a source of the Nile in Lake Nyanza Victoria, 23 Feb. 1863.
Mr. (afterwards sir) Samuel Baker discovered a lake, supposed to be another source of the Nile, which he nained Lake Nyanza Albert, 14 March, 1864.
Dr. Livingstone appointed British consul for inner Africa, 24 March, 1865.
Narrative of Livingstone's Zambesi expedition 1858-64, published 1866.
Livingstone left Zanzibar to continue his search for the sources of the Nile, March, 1866.
[See his narrative below.]
Reports of the murder of Livingstone near Lake Nyassa, in Sept. 1866-March, 1867; doubted, July, 1867. Expedition of E. D. Young in search of Livingstone, sailed 9 July, 1867, returned and reported to the Royal Geographical Society his conviction that Livingstone was alive, 27 Jan. 1868. Letter from Dr. Livingstone dated Bembo, 2 Mar. 1867; heard of down to Dec. 1867.
His dispatch to lord Clarendon, dated 7 July, 1868; read to the Royal Geographical Society, 8 Nov. 1869. Letter dated 30 May, 1869, published Dec. 1869. Uncredited reports of his murder by negroes, Jan; his probable safety reported by Dr. Kirk, 22 June; said to be at Mozambique, Nov. 1870. Expedition of sir Samuel Baker to put down slave trade on the Upper Nile (see Egypt), Jan. 1870. (Unsuccessful, Feb. 1873.)
Expedition in search of Livingstone under lieut. Dawson, organised by the Royal Geographical Society; started 9 Feb. 1872.
[It returned on hearing that Stanley had found Livingstone.]
Dutch Guinea settlements purchased and transferred (see Elmina), 6 April, 1872.
Reports current that Livingstone is alive, May, June, 1872. Expedition sent in search of Livingstone by Mr. James Gordon Bennett, proprietor of the New York Herald, at a cost of about 8,000l. :
Mr. Henry M. Stanley, chief of the expedition, left Zanzibar, and, after much opposition from the native chiefs, accidentally fell in with Livingstone at Ujiji, near Unyanyembe, 10 Nov. 1871, and remained with him till 14 March, 1872, when he brought away his diary and other documents. Mr. Stanley reported that Livingstone had arrived at Ujiji in bad condition, having been robbed and deserted by his attendants. Much controversy ensued between Mr. Stanley, the members of lieut. Dawson's expedition, Dr. Livingstone, Dr. Kirk, the Royal Geographical Society, and others, Aug.---Oct. 1872.
Letter from Dr. Livingstone, at Ujiji, dated Nov. 1871, to Mr. Bennett (printed in New York Herald, 26 July, and reprinted in the Times 27 July, 1872). He describes his explorations and his painful journey to Ujiji; his meeting with Mr. Stanley; and he speaks of the Nile springs being about 600 miles south of the most southerly part of Lake Victoria Nyanza; and also of about 700 miles of watershed in central Africa, of which he had explored about 600; and of the convergence of the watershed first into four, and then into two, mighty rivers in the great Nile valley (?) between 10° and 12° south latitude. Second letter (dated Feb. 1872) describes the horrors of the slave trade in eastern Africa, printed in the Times 29 July, 1872. Livingstone's dispatches, dated Nov. 1 and 15, 1871, received by the Foreign Office, 1 Aug.; letter dated 1 July, received 2 Oct. 1872.
Mr. Stanley described his discovery of Livingstone to the British Association at Brighton in presence of the emperor and empress of the French, 16 Aug., and received a gold snuff-box from the queen about 30 Aug. 1872.
New Expedition, under sir Bartle Frere, to Zanzibar, to suppress the east African slave trade; lieut. V. Lovett Cameron's offer to aid in the furtherance of Livingstone's expedition was accepted; sailed 20 Nov. 1872. Expedition to explore the upper part of the Congo (Mr. Young, of Kelly, will subscribe 2000l. Royal Geographical Society to supplement it), proposed Nov. 1872.
AFRICAN ASSOCIATION, for promoting the exploration of central Africa, was formed in June, 1788, principally by sir Joseph Banks; and under its auspices many additions were made to African geography by Ledyard, Park, Burckhardt, Hornemann, &c. It merged into the Royal Geographical Society, July, 1831.
AFRICAN CHURCH. In 1866 Robert Gray, bishop of Cape town (in consequence of a decision of the privy council; see Church of England), established synods of the Church of South Africa."
AFRICAN COMPANY (merchants trading to Africa), arose out of an association in London, formed in 1588. charter was granted to a joint-stock company in 1618: a second company was created in 1631; a 3rd corporation in 1662; another was formed by letters-patent in 1672; remodelled in 1695. In 1821 the company was AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807, for the abolition of the slave trade, and the civilization of Africa. Many schools have been established with success, particularly at Sierra Leone.
AGAPE (agape, Greek for love, charity), "feasts of charity," referred to Jude 12, and described by Tertullian, of which the first Christians of all ranks partook, in memory of the last time when Christ ate with his disciples. Disorders creeping in, these feasts were forbidden to be celebrated in churches by the councils of Laodicea (366) and Carthage (390). They are still recognised by the Greek church, and are held in their original form weekly by the Glasites or Sandemanians, and in some degree by the Moravians and Wesleyans.
* Prince was born in 1811; educated for the medical profession and licensed to practise, 1832; gave it up for the church and entered St. David's college, Lampeter, and there commenced ultra-revivalist movements in 1836: and finally claimed to be an incarnation of the Deity,
with corresponding authority over his followers. On 22 May, 1850, Thomas Robinson sought to recover the possession of his child from the care of its mother (from whom he had separated); the application was refused by the vice-chancellor, to "save the child from the pollution of the parent's teaching."-On 21 Aug. 1858, Miss Louisa Jane Nottidge died, having transferred her property to Mr. H. J. Prince. Her brother, Mr. Nottidge, by an action, recovered from Prince 57281., as having been fraudulently obtained. Extraordinary disclosures were made during the trial, 25 July, 1860. In the autumn of 1860, the Rev. Mr. Price, after several vain attempts, succeeded in rescuing his wife from the Agapemone. They had both been early supporters of it.
the minority of a male terminates at twenty-one, and of a female in some cases, as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen years; previously to completing which age, his father, Henry VIII., had assumed the reins of government, in 1509.-A male of twelve may take the oath of allegiance; at fourteen he may consent to a marriage, or choose a guardian; at seventeen he may be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of age; but according to the statute of wills, 7 Will. IV. and I Vict. c. 26, 1837, no will made by any person under the age of twenty-one years shall be riage, at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at valid. A female at twelve may consent to a martwenty-one she is of age.
AGINCOURT, OR AZINCOUR (N. France), a village, where Henry V. of England, with about 9000 men, defeated about 60,000 French on St. Crispin's day, 25 Oct. 1415. Of the French, there were, according to some accounts, 10,000 killed, including the dukes of Alençon, Brabant, and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one marshal, thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights, and 14,000 prisoners, among whom were the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentleThe English lost the duke of York, the earl of Suffolk, and about 20 others. St. Rémy asserts with more probability that the English lost 1600 men. Henry V. soon after obtained the kingdom of France.
AGINCOUR, iron-clad. See Navy, 1851.
AGITATORS (or Adjutators), officers appointed by the Parliamentary army in 1647, to take care of its interests: each troop or company had two. The protector Cromwell was eventually obliged to repress their seditious power. At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, shot one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the forces on the ground, and thus restored discipline. Hume.Daniel O'Connell, the agitator of Ireland, was born in 1775. He began to agitate at the elections in 1826; was elected for Clare, 5 July, 1828; the election being declared void, he was re-elected 30 July, 1829. After the passing of the Catholic emancipation bill, he agitated in vain for the repeal of the union, 1834 to 1843. He died 15 May, 1847. -Richard Cobden and John Bright were the chief Anti-corn-law agitators, 1841-45.—Mr. Bright became a Reform agitator in 1866.
AGNADELLO (N. E. Italy). Here Louis XII. of France gained a great victory over the Venetians, some of whose troops were accused of cowardice and The conflict is also treachery; 14 May, 1509. termed the battle of the Rivolta.
AGNOITE (from agnoia, Greek, ignorance). I. A sect founded by Theophronius of Cappadocia about 370: said to have doubted the omniscience of God. II. The followers of Themistius of Alexandria, about 530, who held peculiar views as to the body of Christ, and doubted his divinity.
stan," in the war with the Mahrattas surrendered to the British forces, under general Lake, 17 Oct. 1803, after one day's siege: 162 pieces of ordnance and 240,000l. were captured.-In June, 1857, the city was abandoned to the mutineers by the Europeans, who took refuge in the fort, from which they were rescued by major Montgomery and colonel Greathed.-Allahabad was made capital of the N. W. provinces of India, instead of Agra, in 1861.
AGRARIAN LAW (Agraria lex), decreed an equal division among the Roman people of all the lands acquired by conquest, limiting the acres which each person should enjoy. It was first proposed by the consul Spurius Cassius, 486 B.C., and occasioned his judicial murder when he went out of office in 485.-An agrarian law was passed by the tribune Licinius Stolo, 376; and for proposing further amendments Tiberius Gracchus in 133, and his brother Cornelius in 121, were murdered. Livius Drusus, a tribune, was murdered for the same cause, 91. Julius Cæsar propitiated the plebeians by passing an agrarian law in 59.-In modern times the term has been misinterpreted to signify a division of the lands of the rich among the poor, frequently proposed by demagogues, such as Gracchus Babeuf, editor of the Tribun du Peuple, in 1794. In 1796 he conspired against the directory with the view of obtaining a division of property, was condemned, and killed himself, 27 May, 1797.
AGRICOLA'S WALL, see Roman Walls.
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES.-The earliest mentioned in the British Isles was the Society of Improvers of Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. A Dublin Agricultural Society (1749) gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland; its origin is attributed to Mr. Prior of Rathdowney, Queen's County, in 1731. The Bath and West of England Society established, 1777; and the Highland Society of Scotland, 1793. County Agricultural Societies are now numerous. London Board of Agriculture established by act of parliament, 1793.
Francis, duke of Bedford, a great promoter of agriculture, died 2 March, 1802. Royal Agricultural Society of England established in
1838, by noblemen and gentlemen, the chief landed proprietors in the kingdom, and incorporated by royal charter, 26 March, 1840. It holds two meetings annually, one in London the other in the country; the first country meeting at Oxford in 1839. It awards prizes, and publishes a valuable journal. The London meeting at Battersea in June, 1862, was highly successful.
"Chambers of Agriculture" were established in France in 1851. In Great Britain, 1868, they had increased from 36 to 70. A journal commenced early in 1868. Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester organised, 1842; chartered, 1845.
"History of Agriculture and Prices in England (12591400)," by Professor James T. Rogers, published, June, 1866. AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY.-Sir Humphry Davy delivered lectures on this subject (afterwards published), at the instance of the Board of Agriculture, in 1812; but it excited little attention till the publication of Liebig's work in 1840, which made a powerful impression. Boussingault's "Economie Rurale," an equally important work, appeared in 1844. The immoderate expectations from this study having been somewhat disappointed, a partial reaction took place. Liebig's "Letters on Agriculture," appeared in 1859. AGRICULTURAL GANGS.-In the spring of 1867, most painful exposures were made of the prevalence of much cruelty and immorality in the gang system (in which boys and girls are employed) in several of the eastern and midland counties; and in consequence an act was passed 20 Aug. for regulating these gangs, licensing gang-masters, &c.
A Union of Agricultural Labourers, managed chiefly by Joseph Arch, formerly a labourer, afterwards a Methodist preacher, was inaugurated at Leamington, Warwickshire, 29 March, 1872. The movement spread, being countenanced by Auberon Herbert, M.P., and others.
Excellent horse-shows held here May, 1868, 1869, 1870, 1871. Theatrical bull-fights here stopped, on account of cruelty, 28 Mar. 1870. Workmen's International exhibition opened by the Prince of Wales, 16 July, 1870.
AGRIGENTUM (now Girgenti), a city of Sicily, built about 582 B. C. It was governed by tyrants from 566 to 470; among these werePhalaris (see Brazen Bull); Alcamanes; Theron who, with his step-father Gelon, defeated the Carthaginians at Himera, 480: and Thrasydæus, his son, expelled in 470; when a republic was established. It was taken by the Carthaginians in 405 B. C., and held, except during short intervals, till gained by the Romans in 262 B. C. From A. D. 825 till 1086 it was held by the Saracens.
AHMEDNUGGUR (W. India), once capital of a state founded by Ahmed Shah, about 1493. After having fallen into the hands of the Moguls and the Mahrattas, it was taken from the latter by Arthur Wellesley, 12 Aug. 1803, and annexed to the British dominions, June, 1817.
AID, see Ayde.
AID TO THE SICK AND WOUNDED, NATIONAL SOCIETY FOR. On 4 Aug. 1870, soon after the breaking out of the Franco-Prussian war, a meeting was held in London, which established this society, for immediate communication with the international society established at Geneva: see Geneva Convention. The queen became patron and the prince of Wales president; the duke of Manchester, the earl of Shaftesbury, lords Overstone and Bury, sir John Burgoyne, and col. Loyd Lindsay being very energetic supporters. The operations were directed chiefly by capt. H. Brackenbury and sir Vincent Eyre. Capt. Douglas Galton and Mr. Henry Bonham Carter went to the seat of war as commissioners, in Sept. A meeting to promote the incorporation of the society was held 1 Aug. 1871. It was then reported that 296,2987. had been received; together with stores valued at 45,000l.
Newton, and others, up to the present time have illustrated the agency and influences of this great power by various experiments, and numerous inventions have followed; among others, the AIR-GUN of Guter of Nuremberg about 1656; the AIR-PUMP, invented by Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg about 1650; improved by Robert Boyle in 1657, by Robert Hooke about 1659;* and the AIR-PIPE, invented by Mr. Sutton, a brewer of London, about 1756. The density and elasticity of air were determined by Boyle; and its relation to light and sound by Hooke, Newton, and Derham. The extension of our atmosphere above the surface of the earth, has been long considered as about 45 miles. Its composition, about 77 parts of nitrogen, 21 of oxygen, and 2 of other matters (such as carbonic acid, watery vapour, a trace of ammonia, &c.) was ascertained by Priestley (who discovered oxygen gas in 1774), Scheele (1775), Lavoisier, and Cavendish; and its laws of refraction were investigated by Dr. Bradley, 1737, The researches of Dr. Schönbein, a German chemist of Basel, between 1840 and 1859, led to his discovery of two states of the oxygen in the air, which he calls ozone and antozone. Dr. Stenhouse's Air-filters (in which powdered charcoal is used) were first set up at the Mansion-house, London, in 1854. In 1858, Dr. R. Angus Smith made known a chemical method of ascertaining the amount of organic matter in the air, and published his "Air and Rain" in 1872. See Oxygen, Nitrogen, Ozone, Atmospheric Railway, Balloons, and Pneumatic Despatch.The force of compressed air has been employed in boring the Cenis tunnel (which see.) An airtelegraph, in which the waves of air in a tube are employed instead of electricity, invented by sig. Guattari, was exhibited in London in 1870. It obtained a gold medal in Naples.
AIR or ATMOSPHERE. Anaximenes of Miletus (530 B. C.) declared air to be a self-existent deity, and the first cause of everything created. Posidonius (about 79 B. C.) calculated the height of the atmosphere to be 800 stadia. The pressure of air, about 15 lbs. to the square inch, was discovered by Galileo, 1564, and demonstrated by Torricelli, (who invented the barometer) about A. D. 1643, and was found by Pascal, in 1647, to vary with the height. Halley,
AIR-GAS-LIGHT-COMPANY: propose to use
hydro-carburetted air as a source of light; estab
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (Aachen), a Roman city, now in Rhenish Prussia. Several ecclesiastical councils held here (799-1165). Here Charlemagne was born, 742, and died, 814; having built the minster (796-804), and conferred many privileges on the city, in which fifty-five emperors have since been crowned. The city was taken by the French in Dec. 1792; retaken by the Austrians, March, 1793; by the French, Sept. 1794: ceded to Prussia, 1814.
First Treaty of Peace signed here was between France and Spain, when France yielded Franche Comté, but retained her conquests in the Netherlands, 2 May, 1668. The second celebrated treaty between Great Britain, France, Holland, Germany, Spain, and Genoa. (By it the treaties of Westphalia in 1648, of Nimeguen in 1678 and 1679, of Ryswick in 1697, of Utrecht in 1713, of Baden in 1714, of the Triple Alliance in 1717, of, the Quadruple Alliance in 1718, and of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed.) Signed on the part of England by John, earl of Sandwich, and sir Thomas Robinson, 7 Oct. 1748.
Congress of the sovereigns of Austria, Russia and Prussia, assisted by ministers from England and France, met at Aix-la-Chapelle, and a convention signed, 9 Oct. 1818, which led to the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France.
AIX ROADS, see Rochefort.
ALABAMA, a Southern state, originally part of Georgia, N. America; made a state in 1819: commercial metropolis, Mobile. It seceded from the union by an ordinance passed 11 Jan. 1861, was reunited in 1865; and readmitted to congress, 1868.
ALABAMA, a steam vessel of 900 tons, with engines of 300 horse power, constructed by Messrs. Laird at Birkenhead, for the confederate service; launched 15 May, 1862. During the judicial enquiries after her character, she sailed from the Mersey, 28 July, the day before the British government telegraphed to detain her. Under the command of capt. Semmes, she did great damage to the American mercantile shipping, until her destruction by the federal iron clad Kearsage, capt Winslow, off Cherbourg, 19 June, 1864. Several of his crew were saved by Mr. John Lancaster, in his yacht. Discussion between the two governments, respecting claims for damage by the Alabama
A fruitless convention for their settlement, by a
10 Nov. 1868
Another convention, signed by the earl of Clarendon
Formal meeting of the arbitration commission at
The British government withdraw their application
four, for those done by the Florida; and three for those done by the Shenandoah. The judgment not signed by sir A. Cockburn, whose reasons will be published; the damages awarded (including interest), about 3,229,166l. 138. 4d., those claimed 9,476,166l. 138. 4d. (Decision based on the adadmission of a new ex-post facto international law, by Great Britain by the treaty of Washington.) 14 Sept. 1872 The judgment of sir A. Cockburn (a powerful and indignant reply to unjust aspersions, admitting the award for the Alabama; opposing the other awards; yet counselling submission to the judg ment), signed 14 Sept. and published in London 20 Sept. "" Gazette with other documents It is stated, that about 1,250,000l. too much were Feb. 1873 awarded
ALAND ISLES (Gulf of Bothnia), taken from Sweden by Russia, 1809; see Bomarsund.
ALANI, a Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. They joined the Huns in invading the Roman empire, and were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. They were subdued by the Visigoths, 452, and eventually incorporated with them.
ALARCOS (Central Spain). Here the Spaniards under Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were totally defeated by the Moors, 19 July, 1195.
ALASKA, the name given to the Russian possessions in North America, purchased by the United States by treaty, 13 March, 1867, for 7,200,000 dollars, received 1 Aug. 1868. Sitka is the principal station.
ALBA LONGA, an ancient city of Italy, said to have been founded by Ascanius, son of Eneas, 1152 B. C. Its history is mythical.
Ascanius, son of Eneas, 1152 B. C.; Sylvius Post
humus, 1143; Æneas Sylvius Reign of Latinus, 1048; Alba, 1038; Atys, or Cape
tus, 1002; Capys, 976; Capetus Reign of Tiberinus, 903; being defeated in battle near the river Albula, he throws himself into the stream, is drowned, and hence this river is called the Tiber
Agrippa: Romulus Silvius, 864; Aventinus, 845:
Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome)'
ALBANIA, a province in European Turkey, ormerly part of the ancient Epirus. The Albanians became independent during the decline of the Greek empire. They were successfully attacked by the Turks in 1388. About 1443, under George Castriot (Scanderbeg), they baffled the efforts of Mahomet II. to subdue them till the siege of Scutari in 1478, when they submitted. Ali Pacha, of Janina, in 1812, defeated the Turkish pachas, and governed Albania ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. 1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after surrendering under a solemn promise of safety. A revolt in Albania was suppressed in 1843.
ALBANS, ST. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman Verulam, derived its name from Alban the British protomartyr, said to have been beheaded during the A stately persecution by Diocletian, 23 June, 286. monastery to his memory was erected about 795, by Offa, king of Mercia, who granted it many privileges. Its superior sat as premier abbot in parliament till the dissolution in 1539. A meeting was held 22 June, 1871, to raise a fund for the restoration of the abbey, the earl of Verulam, chairThe results were favourable, and the work was confided to Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, who issued a report in June, 1872. Verulam was built on the site