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Naples,* is said to have introduced the suspension Palace; and Handel. Colossal peace concerts of the needle, 1302. The compass is also said to were held at Boston, U.S., 15 June, &c. 1869; have been known to the Swedes in the time of 17 June to 4 July, 1872; see Boston. king Jarl Birger, 1250. Its variation was discovered tirst by Columbus, 1492; afterwards by Sebastian

CONCHOLOGY, the science of shells, is Cabot, 1540. The compass box and hanging com

mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny. It was first pass used by navigators were invented by William reduced to a system by John Daniel Major, of Barlowe, an English divine and natural philosopher, Kiel, who published his classification of the Tesin 1608; see Vagnetism. The measuring compass

tacea in 1875. Lister's system was published in was invented by Jost Bing, of Hesse, in 1602. 1685; and that of Largius in 1722. Johnson's

Introduction (1850) and Sowerby's Manual of COMPETITIVE EXAMINATIONS, see Conchology (1842), are useful. Forbes and HanCiril Serrice.

ley's “ British Mollusca and their Shells” (1848-53) COMPIEGNE, a French city north of Paris, is a magnificent work. the residence of the Carlovingian kings. During

CONCILIATION COUNCILS, see the siege, Joan of Arc was captured by the Bur

Councils. gundians, 25 May, 1430, and given up to the English for money. The emperor Napoleon III. and the king CONCLAVE. A range of small cells in the of Prussia met here on 6 Oct. 1861.

hall of the Vatican, or palace of the pope

of Rome,

where the cardinals usually meet to elect a pope, COMPLUTENSIAN BIBLE, see Polyglot. and also the assembly of the cardinals shut up for

COMPOSITE ORDER, a mixture of the the purpose. Clement IV. having died at Viterbo Corinthian and Ionic, and also called the Roman in 1268, the cardinals were nearly three years order, is of uncertain date.

unable to agree in the choice of a successor, and COMPOUND HOUSEHOLDERS (in

were on the point of breaking up, when the magis. regard to the payment of rates) were constituted trates, by the advice of St. Bonaventura, shut the by the Small Tenements act of 1851. Their posi- gates of their city, and locked up the cardinals till tion, with regard to the suffrage, caused much they agreed, 1271. discussion during the passing of the Reform act in CONCORD (Massachusetts, N. America). Near 1867; and their claims were rejected.

here was fought the battle of Lexington (which COMPOUND RADICLE, in organic chem- see), 19 April, 1775. istry, is a substance which although containing CONCORDANCE. An index or alphabetical two or more elements, in ordinary circumstances catalogue of all the words and also a chronological performs the part of an element. The Radical or account of all the transactions in the Bible. The Binary theory was propounded by Berzelius, 1833, first concordance was made under the direction of and by Liebig, 1838; and modified in the nucleus Iugo de St. Caro, who employed as many as 500 theory of Aug. Laurent, 1836. The first compound monks upon it, 1247. Abbé Lenglet. It was based radicle isolated was cyanogen (which see), by Gay- on one compiled by Anthony of Padua. Marbeck's Lussac, in 1815; see Amyl, Ethyl, and Methyl as

concordance was published, 1550. Two Concordother examples.

ances (with royal privileges), by Rob. F. Herrey, COMPROMISE, see Breda.

appeared in 1578. Cruden's Concordance was pubCOMTE PHILOSOPHY, see Positive published by the Queen's printers, was prepared by

lished in London in 1737. The Index to the Bible, Philosophy.

B. Vincent, editor of this volume, and completed in CONCEPTION, IMMACULATE. A festival May, 1848. (on 8 Dec.) appointed in 1389, observed in the

Verbal indexes accompany good editions of the Roman Catholic Church in honour of the Virgin ancient classics. An index to Shakspeare, by Ayscough, Mary's having been conceived and born immacu- appeared in 1790: another by Twiss in 1805; and Mrs. late, or without original sin. Opposition to this Coween Clarke's (late Mary Novello) complete concorddoctrine was forbidden by decree of pope Paul V.

ance to Shakspeare (on which she spent 16 years' labour)

in 1847. Todd's verbal index to Milton, 1809. Clevein 1617, confirmed by Gregory XV. and Alexander

land's concordance to Milton, 1867. Brightwell's conVII. Hénault. On 8 Dec. 1854, pope Pius IX. cordance to Tennyson's works, 1869. promulgated a bull, declaring this dogma to be an article of faith, and charging with heresy those who

CONCORDAT. An instrument of agreeshould doubt it or speak against it. The Concep- ment between a prince and the pope, usually conTIONISTS were an order of nuns in Italy, estab- cerning benefices. The concordat between the emlished in 1488; see Santiago.

peror Henry V. of Germany and pope Calixtus II., CONCERTINA, a musical instrument in

in 1122, has been regarded as the fundamental law

of the church in Germany. The concordat bevented by prof. now sir Charles Wheatstone, about

tween Napoleon Bonaparte and Pius VII., signed 1825, and improved by Mr. G. Case. The sounds

at Paris, 15 July, 1801, re-established the Catholic are produced by free vibrating metal springs.

church and the papal authority in France. NapoCONCERTS. The Filarmonia gare concerts | leon was made in effect the head of the Gallican at Vicenza in the 16th century. The first public church, as bishops were to have their appointments subscription concert was performed at Oxford in from him, and their investiture from the pope. 1605; the first in London is said to have been in Another concordat between the same persons was 1672. The Academy of Ancient Music, which in- signed at Fontainebleau, 25 Jan. 1813. These were troduced concerts in London, began in 1710; the almost nullified by another, 22 Nov. 1817. A conConcerts of Ancient Music in 1776; and the present cordat, signed 18 Aug. 1855, between Austria and Philharmonic Society in 1813; see Music; Crystal Rome, by which a great deal of the liberty of the

Austrian church was given up to the papacy, The statement that the fleur-de-lis was made the

caused much dissatisfaction. In 1868 it was virornament of the northern point of the compass in compliment to Charles, the king of Naples at the time of tually abolished by the legislatures of Hungary the discovery, has been contradicted.

and Austria.

This gave


CONCUBINES were tolerated among the CONFESSIONS OF FAITH, or CREEDS; Jews, Greeks, and Romans, but strictly forbidden see Apostles', Nicene (325), and Athanasian (about by Christ (Mark X., I Cor. vii. 2)., They are men- 434) Creeds. tioned as having been allowed to the priests, 1132;

The confession of faith of the Greek church was see Morganatic Marriages.

presented to Mahommed II, in 1453.

way in 1643 to one composed by Mogila, metroCONDENSATION, see Gas.

politan of Kiev, which is the present standard

of the Russo-Greek church. CONDOTTIERI, conductors or leaders of the creed of Pius VI.,'composed of the Nicene creed, mercenaries, termed free companies or lances, with additional articles which embody all the which became so troublesome in Italy, that the peculiar dogmas of the Roman Catholic church, cities formed a league to suppress them in 1342. published by the council of Trent

1564 Many ravaged France after the peace of Bretigny, The church of England retains the Apostles', in 1360.

Nicene, and Athanasian creeds, with articles :42 in 1552 ; reduced to 39.

1563 CONDUITS. Two remarkable conduits, The confession of Augsbury (that of the Lutherans)

was drawn up principally by Melanchthon, in among a number of others in London, existed

1530, and has since undergone modifications, the early in Cheapside. The “great conduit" was the

last of which is called the “Form of Concord."

1579 first cistern of lead erected in the city, and was The Westminster confession was agreed to in 1643; built in 1285. At the procession of Anna Boleyn, and adopted by the presbyterian chureh of Scoton the occasion of her marriage, it ran with white land; see Westminster

1647 and claret wine all the afternoon, i June, 1533.

The congregational dissenters published a declaration of faith


CONFIRMATION, or laying on hands, was AMERICA. The efforts of the Southern States for practised by the Apostles in 34 and 56 (Acts viii. the extension of slavery, and the zeal of the Northern 7; xix. 6), and was general, according to some States for its abolition, with the consequent political church authorities, in 190. In the church of Engdissensions, led to the great secession of 1860-1. On land it is the public profession of the Christian 4 Nov. 1860, Abraham Lincoln, the Republican or

religion by an adult person, who has been baptized Abolitionist candidate, was elected president of the in infancy. It is made a sacrament by the church

of Rome. United States. Hitherto, a president in the interest of the South had been elected. On 20 Dec., South CONFLANS (near Paris), TREATY OF, Carolina seceded from the Union; and soon after between Louis XI. of France and the dukes of Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Georgia, Louisiana, Bourbon, Brittany, and Burgundy, 5 Oct. 1465. Texas, Virginia (except West Virginia), Arkansas, By its provisions Normandy was ceded to the duke Tennessee, and North Carolina also. Jefferson Davis of Berry, and an end was put to the “War of the was inaugurated president of the Southern Con- Public Good.” It was confirmed by the Treaty of federacy at Montgomery in Alabama, 18 Feb. 1861. Peronne, 1468. For the events of the war which ensued, and the restoration of the Southern States to the Union, CONGE D'ÉLIRE (permission to elect), the see United States, 1861-5.

licence given by the sovereign as bead of the church,

to chapters and other bodies, to elect dignitaries, CONFEDERATION AT PARIS, 14 July, particularly bishops ; the right asserted by Henry 1790; see Champ de Mars, and Bastille.

After the interdict of the pope upon CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE, the made an arrangement with the clergy for the

England had been removed in 1214, king John League of the Germanic States, formed by Napo- election of bishops. leon Bonaparte, 12 July, 1806, when he abolished the Holy Roman Empire, and the emperor of Ger CONGELATION, the act of freezing. Ice many became emperor of Austria. In Dec. it

was produced in summer by means of chemical consisted of France, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, Saxony, mixtures, by Mr. Walker, in 1783. Quicksilver and Westphalia; seven grand duchies; six duchies; was frozen without snow or ice, in 1787. In 1810 and twenty principalities. The princes collectively Leslie froze water in an air-pump by placing a engaged to raise 258,000 troops to serve in case of vessel of sulphuric acid under it. Numerous freezwar, and established a diet at Frankfort. This ing mixtures have been discovered since. Intense league terminated with the career of Bonaparte in cold is produced by the aerification of liquefied 1814; and in 1815 it was replaced by the Germanic carbonic acid gas. În 1857. Mr. Harrison patented Confederation (which see, and Germany).

a machine for manufacturing ice for commercial CONFERENCES, ECCLESIASTICAL. One made large blocks. In 1860, M. Carré devised a

purposes, by means of ether and salt water, and was held at Hampton Court palace, between the method of freezing to 60° below zero by making prelates of the church of England and the dissenting water in a close vessel absorb and give off the gas ministers, in order to effect a general union, at the


Siebe's ice-making machine exhibited instance of the king, James 1., 14-16 Jan. 1601. It at the International Exhibition of 1862, excited led to the new translation of the Bible, now in much admiration. general use in England; executed in 1607-11. Some alterations in the church liturgy were agreed CONGREGATION OF THE LORD, a name upon; but these not satisfying the dissenters, taken by the Scotch reformers, headed by John nothing more was done.-Another conference of the Knox about 1546. Their leaders (the earls of Glenbishops and presbyterian ministers, with the same cairn, Argyle, Morton, and others) called “lords of view, was held in the Savoy, 15 April to 25 July, the congregation,” signed the first bond or covenant 1661. The dissenters' objections were generally which united the protestants under one association, disallowed, but some alterations were recommended 3 Dec. 1557. Tyiler. in the Prayer-book; see Wesleyans.

CONGREGATIONALISTS, see IndepenCONFESSIONAL, see Auricular Confession. dents.

VIII., 1535.

1713 1728


5 Feb. 3 Nov. 9 Oct.



CONGRESS. An assembly of princes or min- laws and customs of the realm, in order to induce isters for the settlement of the affairs of nations or the submission of the people. Formerly our judges of a people. The following are the most remark- were accustomed to reprehend any gentleman at the able congresses of Europe :

bar who said casually William the conqueror,

instead of William I. Selden. Maclise exhibited Münster

1643-8 Nimetuen.


forty-two drawings on the events of the Norman Ryswick

1697 conquest, in May, 1857. Utrecht

CONSCIENCE, LIBERTY OF, a principle Soissons Antwerp

8 April, 1793

of genuine Christianity; repudiated by Romanism, Rastadt

9 Dec. 1797-9 proclaimed by James II. for political purposes, 1687. Chatillon

1814 Vienna

CONSCIENCE CLAUSE, see Education. Aix-la-Chapelle

1818 Carlsbad

i Aug. 1819 CONSCIENCE, COURTS OF, or OF RETroppan

20 Oct.

QUESTS for recovery of small debts, constituted by Laybach

6 May, 1821

a stat. of Hen. VII. 1493, and re-organised by stat. Verona

25 Aug. 1822 Paris

16 Jan.--22 April, 1856

Hen. VIII. 1517. These courts were improved Frankfort (see Germany)

16-31 Aug.' 1863 and amended by various acts; their jurisdiction in See Alliances, Conventions, &c.

London reached to gl. and (until superseded by The first general Congress of the UNITED STATES

county-courts) to 408. in other towns. The practice of AMERICA, preparatory to their declaration of was by summons, and if the party did not appear, independence, when strong resolutions were the commissioners had power to apprehend and passed, also a petition to the king, and an address commit; see County Courts. to the people of England, was held, 5 Sept. 1774. The second was held, 10 May, 1775; the third, CONSCRIPT 'FATHERS (patres

when the independence was declared 4 July, 1776 scriptı) the designation given to the Roman senaThe first federal American congress, under the constitution, was held at New York; George Wash

tors, because their names were written in the regis

ters of the senate. ington, president.

March, 1789 The first congress of the seceding southern states was held at Montgomery, Alabama, 4 Feb. ; it

CONSCRIPTION, a mode (derived from the elected Jefferson Davis president of the con- Romans) adopted for recruiting armies on the confederate states on 9 Feb. For political reasons it tinent. On 5 Sept. 1798, a military conscription adjourned on 24 May, to meet at Richmond, in was ordained in France, comprehending all the Virginia, on

20 July, 1861 In 1863, the emperor Napoleon invited the sove

young men from 20 to 25 years of age: from whom

selections were made. A conscription for 350,000 reigns of Europe to a congress ; which was declined by England 25 Nov., and only conditionally

men took place in Jan. 1813, after the disastrous accedei to by other powers. He proposed a con- Russian campaign, and in Dec. same year, another gress on the affairs of Italy and Rome in Nov. 1867, for 300,000 after the battle of Leipsic. Estimated without effect.

conscription, 1793-1813, 4, 103,000. The law of 1818 CONGREVE ROCKETS, see Rockets.

(modified in 1824, 1832 and 1868) required a certain

annual contingent for each department. The conCONIC SECTIONS. Their properties were scription was enlarged and modified by the army probably known to the Greeks, four or five centuries bill which was enacted in Feb. 1868. The rebefore the Christian era, and their study was culti- organisation of the army began in 1871, after the vated in the time of Plato, 390 B.C. The earliest fatal war with Germany. treatise on them was written by Aristæus, about 330 B.C. Apollonius's eight books were written about

CONSECRATION. Aaron and his sons were 240 B.c. The parabola was applied to projectiles consecrated priests, 1490 B.C. (Lev. viii.) The by Galileo; the ellipse to the orbit of planets by Jewish tabernacle was dedicated,

1490 B.c., and Kepler, and to comets by Newton.

Solomon's'temple, 1004 B.C. (1 Kings viii.) The

consecration of churches begun in the 2nd century. CONJURATION, see Witchcraft.

Anciently the consecration of popes was deferred CONNAUGHT, W. Ireland ; long a nominal election. Gregory IV. desired to have his election

until the emperor had given his assent to their kingdom, divided into counties, 1590.

confirmed by the emperor Louis, in 828. Hénault. CONNECTICUT granted to lord Say and The consecration of churches, places of burial, &c., Broke, 1630; see America and United States.

is admitted in the reformed religion. An act re

lating to the consecration of churchyards passed CONNOR, Ireland. The bishopric was united 20 Aug. 1867, was amended in 1868. The form of to that of Down, 1442. The first prelate, Ængus consecrating bishops in the church of England is Macnisius, died 507. The united sees were added set forth in the prayer-book of 1549. Stow. to Dromore on the death of its last bishop, 1842, in accordance with the Irish Church Temporalities act,

CONSERVATION OF FORCE. The docpassed 1833.

trine that no physical force can be created or deCONQUEST, the era in British history; when Faraday, Grove, Helmholtz, Tyndall, and other

stroyed, but may be transferred, is maintained by William duke of Normandy overcame Harold II. at philosophers; see Correlation. the battle of Hastings, 14 Oct. 1066, and obtained the crown which he asserted had been bequeathed CONSERVATIVES, a name of modern date, to him by Edward the confessor (Edgar being the is given to, and accepted by a political party, whose rightful heir). William has been erroneously styled leading principle is the preservation of our national the Conqueror, for he succeeded to the crown of institutions, since 1830. Conservative in popular England by compact. He defeated Harold, who language is now opposed to Liberal. Sir Robert was himself a usurper, but a large portion of the Peel acknowledged himself a conservative when kingdom afterwards held out against him ; and he, reproached by the Irish party in parliament with unlike a conqueror, took an oath to observe the being an Orangeman; but the party that afterwards




March, 1711



separated from him called their principles conserva

Of Blood, who seized the duke of Ormond, wounded tive in contradistinction to his,-his policy and

him, and would have hanged him, Dec. 1670; and measures being changed.— The Conservative Club

who afterwards attempted to steal the regalia.

9 May, 1671 was founded in 1840; see Protectionists and Clubs.

The pretended conspiracy of the French, Spanish, The party in the north of the United States which

and English Jesuits to assassinate Charles II., supported the president in his conciliatory efforts to revealed by the infamous Titus Oates, Dr. Tongue, re-establish the Union, Jan. 1866, were termed and others

Aug. 1678 Conservatives." A great meeting of the National

The Meal-tub plot (which see) Union of Conservative Associations was held at the

The Rye-house plot to assassinate the king on his

way to Newmarket. (See Ryc-house Plot). Crystal Palace, 24 June, 1872.

Of lord Preston, the bishop of Ely, and others to restore James II.

Jan. 1691 CONSERVATOIRES, a name given to es of Granville, a French chevalier, to murder king tablishments for the cultivation of music and the William in Flanders

1692 arts on the continent. One was established at The Assassination plot (which sre) frustrated

1696 Naples in 1537. The singing school at Paris, Of Simon Fraser, lord Lovat, against queen Anne. founded in 1984, and closed in 1789, was re-opened of the marquis Guiscard

(See Rebellions). in 1793 as the Institut National de Musique," and

Of James sheppard, an enthusiast, to assassinate after being reorganised, was re-named “ Conserva

George I. toire de Musique” in 1795, and flourished under of counsellor Layer and others, to bring in the Cherubini (1822-42).

• The Conservatoire des Pretender Arts et Metiers" was established in 1784. It in of the Corresponding Society, &e: (which see).

1796-8 cludes a museum and library, and lectures are given Of Robert Emmett, in Dublin, when lord Kil.

1802 to workmen there.

warden was killed


of Thistlewood and others, to assassinate the king's ministers. (See Cato-street)

1820 ERTIES. Officers chosen in England to inspect the of the Sepoys in India. (See India) . 10 May, 1857 treasury and correct abuses in administration,

Of the Fenians

1858-68 28 Hen. III. 1244. Rapin. Conservators were

See Rebellions, Chartists, &c. appointed to see the king's peace kept. Pardon. Conservators were formerly appointed in every sea

CONSTABLE OF ENGLAND, LORD HIGH. port to take cognisance of all offences committed The seventh great officer of the crown, and, with

the against the peace upon the main sea out of the earl marshal, formerly a judge of the court of liberty of the Cinque Ports. Bailey.

chivalry, called, in the time of Henry IV., curia

militaris, and subsequently the court of honour. CONSISTORIES for regulating ecclesiastical The power of this officer was so great, that in 1389 discipline and divine worship in the Lutheran a statute was passed for abridging it, and also the church in Germany, were established at the refor- power of the earl marshal (which see). The office mation-the first at Wittenberg in 1542; other existed before the conquest, after which it went by consistories were established after the peace of inheritance to the earls of Hereford and Essex, and Augsburg in 1555.

next in the line of Stafford. In 1521 it was for

feited by Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, CONSISTORY COURT, anciently joined attainted for high treason, and has never since been with the hundred court; and its original, as divided granted to any person, otherwise than pro hic vice therefrom, is found in a law of William I., 1079 (for this occasion), to attend at a coronation or trial quoted by lord justice Coke. The chief and most by combat. The only instance of a trial by combat ancient consistory court of the kingdom belongs to being ordered since this office fell into the hands of the see of Canterbury, and is called the Court of the crown, was that commanded between lord Reay Arches (which see).

and sir David Ramsay, in Nov. 1631; but the king CONSOLIDATED FUND was formed by prevented it. combining the aggregate," “ general," and “South Sea funds," 1786. On 5 Jan. 1816, the ex Queen Anne, Wriothesly, duke of Bedford chequers of Great Britain and Ireland, previously George I., John, Duke of Montague separate, were amalgamated, forming “the consoli- George II., Charles, duke of Richmond dated fund of the United Kingdom.'

George III., John, duke of Bedford

1761 George IV.

1821 CONSOLS, see Stocks.

William IV. Arthur, duke of Wellington

1831 Victoria

1838 CONSORZIO NAZIONALE, see Italy, 1866.


The office was instituted by David I. about 1147CONSPIRACIES. Among the recorded con

The holder had the keeping of the king's sword, spiracies, real or supposed, the following are the most

which the king, at his promotion, delivered to him remarkable: see Rebellions.

naked (and hence the badge of the lord high conOf the duke of Gloucester against Richard II. 1397

stable is a naked sword); and the absolute comOf the earl of Cambridge and others against Henry V. mand of the king's armies while in the field, in the Of Anthony Babington and others against Elizabeth. absence of the king. The office was conferred (See Babington)

1586 heritably in 1321 on sir Gilbert Hay, created earl of Of Lopez, a Jew, and others

Erroll, by Robert Bruce, and with his descendants Of Patrick York, an Irish fencing-master hired by the Spaniards to kill the queen

it still remains, being expressly reserved by the Of Walpole, a Jesuit, and Edward Squyer to poison treaty of union in 1707. The present earl of Erroll the queen.

1598 is the twenty-second lord high constable (1873). Tyrone's insurrection in Ireland


1605 CONSTABLES of Hundreds and Franchises, Tyrone's conspiraey to surprise the castle of Dublin, 1607 instituted in the reign of Edward I., 1285, are now of Penruddock (1655) and of Syndercombe and others to assassinate Oliver Cromwell

called high constables. There are three kinds of

Jan. 1657 Insurrection of the Fifth-monarchy men against constables, high, petty, and special ; the high conCharles II.

Jan. 1661 stable's jurisdiction extends to the whole hundred ;



1702 1714 1727





444 366





the petty constable's to the parish or liberty for superior in the law. Sheridan. Hallam's “ Conwhich he is chosen ; and the special constable is stitutional History of England” was first published appointed for particular emergencies (as in April, in 1827; May's in 1861-3. 1848, on account of the Chartists). The general appointment of parish constables was made un

CONSTITUTIONALIST PARTY, a name necessary by an act passed Aug. 1872. See Special assumed by a combination of Conservatives and Constables and Tower.

seceded Whigs, Aug. 1867, and used during the CONSTABULARY FORCE. For that of

severely contested elections, Nov. 1868. London, see Police. The Constabulary of Ireland CONSUBSTANTIATION, see Transubstanact passed in 1823, when this species of force was tiation. embodied throughout the country, Several subse

CONSULS (meaning colleagues), ROMAN: at quent acts were consolidated in 1836.

the expulsion of the Tarquins, a republic was estaCONSTANCE, a city in Baden (S. Germany). blished, to be ruled by two consuls elected annually: Here was held the seventeenth general council, 1414, the first being Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius which condemned John Huss; and here he was Tarquinius Collatinus, husband of the injured Luburnt, 6 July, 1415; see Hussites.

cretia, 509 B.C. The consular power was in emerCONSTANTINA, the ancient capital of

gencies superseded by dictators and tribunes. Numidia, was taken by the French, 13 Oct. 1837. Government of the Decemviri

B.C. 451-449 During the assault on 12 Oct. the French general Three Military Tribunes with consular


A Plebeian elected consul Damremont was killed. Achmet Bey retired with

[In the reign of Tiberius the consuls were nomi: 12,000 men, as the victors entered Constantina.

minated the senate, and the appointinent beCONSTANTINOPLE (formerly Byzantium)

came henceforth honorary.)

The French consulate established when the direc(which see), now Stamboul, derives its name from

tory was abolished : Bonaparte, Sieyès, and Roger Constantine the Great, who removed the seat of the

Ducos made provisional consular commissioners, Eastern Empire here, dedicating it in May, 330. 10 Nov. ; Bonaparte, Cambacérès, and Lebrun See Eastern Empire.

made consuls .

13 Dec. 1799

Bonaparte was made first consul for io years, 6 May, Seized by Procopius .

365 and for life

2 Aug. 1802 The city suttered much from religious dissensions,

Became emperor

18 May, 1804 and was burnt during the “ Nika" conflicts

Commercial agents were first distinguished by the Rebuilt by Justinian with great splendour

name of consuls in Italy. Lorenzo Strozzi was apSt. Sophia dedicated Resisted the Saracens successfully

pointed by Richard III.

1485 675,716 A British consul first appointed in Portugal And the Russians

865, 904, 941, 1043 Taken by the Latins

1203, 1204 CONTAGIOUS DISEASES ACT for naval Recovered by the Greeks. Vainly besieged by Amurath the Ottoman, June and military stations passed June 1866; amended,

Aug. 1422

1869-71 ; one for animals passed 1866; renewed Taken by Mahomet II. (after 53 days' siege, 29 May, 1453

1867; amended 1869. Although the operation of General ecclesiastical councils against heresy were held the first act was reported to be successful, has here in 381, 553, 680, and 869.

been much opposed. A royal commission appointed For continuation see under Turkey.

to inquire, reported, July, 1871; and alterations ERA OF CONSTANTINOPLE has the creation placed 5508

have been proposed. years B.C. It was used by the Russians until the time of Peter the Great, and is still used in the Greek church. CONTINENTAL SYSTEM, the name given The civil year begins i Sept., and the ecclesiastical year to Napoleon's plan to exclude the British merchanin March; the day is not exactly determined. Το dise from the entire continent. It began publicly reduce it to our era, subtract 5508 years from January

with his Berlin decree in 1806, and occasioned the to August, and 5509 from Sept. to the end. Nicolus.

Orders in Council (which see), and was followed by CONSTELLATIONS. Arcturus, Orion, the similar measures. Pleiades, and Mazzaroth are mentioned in Job ix. 9, and xxxviii. 31, about 1520 B.C. Homer and

CONTINUITY. Mr. (now sir) W. R. Grove, in Hesiod notice constellations ; but our first direct his address as president of the British Association, on knowledge was derived from Claudius Ptolemæus, 22 Aug. 1866, at Nottingham, expounded the opinion about A.D. 140. Hipparchus (about 147 B.C.) made a

held by many philosophers, that all the past changes catalogue of forty-eight constellations, and others in the world have been produced by the continuous were added by Tycho Brahe, Hevelius, Halley, and action of the causes now in operation—that “conothers. The number at present acknowledged 'is 29 tinuity is a law of nature, the true expression of the northern, 45 southern, and 12 zodiacal.

action of Almighty Power.” CONSTITUENCIES, see Commons, House of. CONTRABAND OF WAR, a term said to.

have been first employed in the treaty of SouthampCONSTITUENT, see National Assembly.

ton between England and Spain in 1625. During CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND. It com- the struggle between Spain and Holland, both. prehends the whole body of laws by which the British powers acted with much rigour towards ships of people are governed, and to which it is presump-neutrals conveying goods to the belligerents. This tirely held that every individual has assented. provoked the resistance of England. Å milder policy Lord Somers. This assemblage of laws is distin- was adopted by the treaty of Pyrenees, 1650; and guished from the term government in this respect, by the declaration of Paris, 26 April, 1856.' The that the constitution is the rule by which the sove- subject was much discussed during the North Amerireign ought to govern at all times; and government can conflict, 1861-4. is that by which he does govern at any particular

CONTRACTORS with Government, disquali. time. Lord Bolingbroke. The king of England is not seated on a solitary eminence of power on the fied from sitting in parliament, 1782. contrary, he sees his equals in the co-existing CONTRIBUTIONS, VOLUNTARY, to a vast branches of the legislature, and he recognises his amount have been several times made by the British


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