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Feb. 1873

AKERMAN (Bessarabia). After being several four, for those done by the Florida ; and three for times taken, it was ceded to Russia in 1812. Here those done by the Shenandoul. The judgment the celebrated treaty between Russia and Turkey

not signed by sir A. Cockburn, whose reasons was concluded, 4 Sept. 1826, which secured for the

will be published ; the damages awarded (including former the navigation of the Black Sea, recognised

interest), about 3,229,1661. 138. 4d., those claimed

9,476,1661. 138. 4d. (Decision based on the adthe Danubian principalities, &c.

admission of a new ex-post facto international law, AKHALZIKH (Armenia). Near here prince

by Great Britain by the treaty of Washington.) Paskiewitch and the Russians defeated the Turks,

14 Sept. 1872 24 Aug., and gained the city, 28 Aug. 1828.

The judgment of sir A. Cockburn (a powerful and

indignant reply to unjust aspersions, admitting ALABAMA, a Southern state, originally part

the award for the Alabama ; opposing the other of Georgia, N. America; made a state in 1819:

awards ; yet counselling submission to the juilg. commercial metropolis, Mobile. It seceded from

ment), signed 14 Sept. and published in London

Gazete with other documents the union by an ordinance passed 11 Jan. 1861, was

20 Sept.

It is stated, that about 1,250,000l. too much were reunited in 1865; and readmitted to congress, 1868. awarded

ALABAMA, a steam vessel of 900 tons, with ALAND ISLES (Gulf of Bothnia), taken from engines of 300 horse power, constructed by Messrs. Sweden by Russia, 1809; see Bomarsund. Laird at Birkenhead, for the confederate service;

ALANI, a Tartar race, invaded Parthia, 75. launched 15 May, 1862. During the judicial enquiries after her character, she sailed from the They joined the lIuns in invading the Roman Mersey, 28 July, the day before the British govern; They were subdued by the Visigoths, 452, aud

empire, and were defeated by Theodosius, 379-382. ment telegraphed to detain her. Under the command of capt. Semmes, she did great damage to the eventually incorporated with them. American mercantile shipping, until her destruc ALARCOS (Central Spain). Here the Spaniards tion by the federal iron clad Kearsage, capt Winslow, under Alfonso IX., king of Castile, were totally off Cherbourg, 19 June, 1864. Several of his crew defeated by the Moors, 19 July, 1195. were saved by Mr. John Lancaster, in his yacht. ALASKA, the name given to the Russian posDiscussion between the two governments, respecting sessions in North America, purchased by the United claims for damage by the Alabama

1865 States by treaty, 13 March, 1867, for 7,200,000 A fruitless convention for their settlement, by a dollars, received i Aug. 1868. Sitka is the princommission signed at London

10 Nov. 1868 cipal station. Another convention, signed by the earl of Clarendon and Mr. Reverdy Johnson, signed 14 Jan. ; rejec

ALBA LONGA, an ancient city of Italy, said ted by the United States senate 13 April 1869 to have been founded by Ascanius, son of Eneas, Joint commission (British, earl de Grey, sir Stafford

1152 B. C. Its history is mythical. Northcote and others ; American, secretary Fisk,

Ascanius, son of Eneas, 1152 B. C. ; Sylvius Postgeneral Schenk, and others,) to settle fishery dis

humus, 1143 ; Æneas Sylvius

B.C. U114 putes ; Alabama claims &c. Announced, 9 Feb.,

Reign of Latinus, 1048 ; Alba, 1038 ; Atys, or Capemet at Washington 27 Feb., signed a treaty at Washington

tus, 1002 ; Capys, 976 ; Capetus Commission for Anglo-american claims, met at

8 May 1871 Reign of Tiberinus, "903: being defeated in battle

near the river Albula, he throws himself into the Washington

25 Sept. Formal meeting of the arbitration commission at

stream, is drowned, and hence this river is

called the Tiber Geneva ; (adjourns to 15 June)

18 Dec. The British and American cases, presented 20 Dec.

Agrippa : Romulus silvius, 864; Aventinus, 845; Great excitement in England at the introduction

Procas, 808; Numitor

795

Amulius, the brother of Numitor, seizes the throne, of enormous claims for indirect losses into the

794 ; killed by Romulus, who restores his grandAmerican case, loss by transfer of trade from

father Numitor American to British ships; increased rates of

Romulus builds and fortifies Rome (see Rome) marine insurance; and losses incident to the pro

753 longation of the war.

Jan. 1872

Alba conquered by Tullus Hostilius, and incorCorrespondence between the governments ; British porated with Rome (see Horatii)

665 despatch, 3 Feb.; reply, 1 March; continued ; ALBANIA, a province in European Turkey,

counter cases presented at Geneva 15 April 1872 formerly part of the ancient Epirus. The Albanians Continued correspondence, draft for a supplemen

became independent during the decline of the Greek tary treaty; by which both nations agree in future to abstain from claims for indirect losses pre

empire. They were successfully attacked by the sented to American senate : approved 25 May Turks in 1388. About 1443, under George Castriot The British government object to certain modifica (Scanderbeg), they baffled the efforts of Mahomet

tions ; further correspondence ; great excitement II. to subdue them till the siege of Scutari in 1478, in parliament; proposed adjournment of the

when they submitted. Ali Pacha, of Janina, in meeting of the arbitration commission; differences

1812, defeated the Turkish pachas, and governed about the mode of procedure ; congress adjourns, leaving the affair unsettled

Io June

Albania ably, but cruelly and despotically, till Feb. The Arbitration tribunal, consisting of count Fred

1822, when he and his two sons were slain, after eric Sclopis for Italy, president, baron Staempil surrendering under a solemn promise of safety. A for Switzerland ; vicomte d'Itajuba for Brazil ; Mr. revolt in Albania was suppressed in 1843. G. F. Adams for United States, and sir Alexander E. Cockburn for Great Britain, meet at Geneva ;

ALBANS, ST. (Hertfordshire), near the Roman The British government presents a note of the ex Verulam, derived its name from Alban the British

isting differences; the conference adjourns, 15 June protomartyr, said to have been beheaded during the Further adjournment, 17 June; the arbitrators

persecution by Diocletian, 23 June, 286. A stately voluntarily declare that the indirect claims are

monastery to his memory was erected about 795, invalid, and contrary to international law, 19 June; president Grant consents to their with

by Ofľa, king of Mercia, who granted it many drawal

25 June

privileges. Its superior sat as premier abbot in The British government withdraw their application parliament till the dissolution in 1539. A meeting for adjourninent of the conference

27 June

was held 22 June, 1871, to raise a fund for the The Arbitration commission records its decision

restoration of the abbey, the earl of Verulam, chairagainst the indirect claims, and the proposed long

man. The results were favourable, and the work adjournment, and adjourns to 15 July 28 June

was confided to Mr. G. Gilbert Scott, who issued a Final meeting; all the arbitrators agree to award

damages for the injuries done by the Alabamu ; report in June, 1872. Verulam was built on the site

916

895

754

of the capital of Cassivelaunus, taken by Julius “Early years of the Prince Consort;" edited by the Hon. Cæsar, 54 B. c. It was retaken after much slaughter Chas. Grey; published 6 July, 1867. by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen of the Iceni, A. D.

Another statue by Theed at Balmoral, inaugurated 15

Oct. 1867. 61.

Many other memorials of the prince have been set up First Battle of St. Albans, when the Lancastrians were throughout the empire.

defeated, their leader, Edmund duke of Somerset ROYAL ALBERT HALL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES ; The slain, and king Henry VI. taken prisoner, by the erection of a great building for congresses, concerts,

duke of York and his partisans, 22 or 23 May, 1455; &c., was proposed by the prince-consort at the close Second battle, queen Margaret totally defeated the Yorkists of the exhibition of 1851, and an estate at Kensington

under the earl of Warwick, and rescued the king, was purchased ; a committee, with the prince of Wales Shrove Tuesday, 17 Feb. 1461.

at the head, to erect the building, was appointed 6 St. Albans incorporated by Edward VI. 1553.

July, 1865; circulars soliciting subscriptions were Disfranchised for bribery, 17 June, 1852.

issued April, 1866 ; and the first stone was laid by the St. Alban's Raid, see United States, Oct. 1864.

queen, 20 May, 1867.

The building was erected by col. Scott, chiefly after deALBANY OR ALBAINX, the ancient name of

signs by capt. Fowke, and cost about 200,000l. The the Scottish Highlands. The brother of Robert organ, by Willis, is said to be the largest in the world. III. of Scotland was made duke of Albany in 1398. An experimental concert was given to the workmen Frederick, son of George III., was duke of York

25 Feb., and the hall was opened by the queen 29 and Albany. He died 5 Jan. 1827.

March, 1871, when a grand concert was given.

ALBERT BRIDGE, Chelsea, opened 31 Dec. 1872. ALBERT MEMORIALS. (See under Eng- ALBERT MEDAL, to be awarded to persons who endanger

ALBERT EMBANKMENT, see Thumes, 1869. land.) The Prince Consort died on 14 Dec. 1861. their lives by saving others from shipwreck, appointed deeply lamented by the whole civilised world. His

by royal warrant, 3 March, 1866. The first was given remains were transferred to the mausoleum of to Samuel Popplestone on 14 May, 1866, for saving life Frogmore, 18 Dec. 1862. The sarcophagus is com- on 23 March previous. posed of the largest known block of granite without | ALBERT MEDAL (Gold), awarded by the Society of Arts to Haw. A meeting to organise a method of receiving

sir Rowland Hill, 1864 ; Napoleon III. 1865; Michael

Faraday, 1866; Charles Wheatstone and William contributions for a great national memorial was

Fothergill Cooke, 1867 ; Joseph Whitworth, 1863 ; held at the Mansion-house, 14. Jan. 1862 ; and a Justus Liebig, 1869; Ferdinand de Lesseps, 1870 ; large sum was quickly subscribed. 36,000l. had Henry Cole, C.B., 1871; Heury Bessemer, 1872. been received on 1 March ; 50,2201. on 11 June, 1862; and parliament voted 50,000l., in addition ALBIGENSES, a name given to various perto the 60,0001. received by voluntary contributions, sons who opposed the doctrines and corruptions of 23 April, 1863.

the church of Rome, living at Albi, in Languedoc, The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen

and at Toulouse in the 12th century. They were herself. In a letter to the lord mayor, dated 19 Feb. persecuted as Manichæans, 1163, and a crusade 1862, sir Charles Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, “ It (proclaimed by pope Innocent IÏÍ.) against them would be more in accordance with her own feelings, commenced in 1207. Simon de Montfort commanded and she believes with those of the country in general, 500,000 men and at Bezières, 1209, he and the pope's objeet. After giving the subject

her maturest considera legate put friends and foes to the sword, saying, tion, her majesty has come to the conclusion, that

“God will find his own!' At Minerba he burnt nothing would be more appropriate, provided it is on a 150 of the Albigenses alive; and at La Vaur he scale of sufficient grandeur, than an obelisk to be erected hanged the governor, and beheaded the chief people, in Hyde-park on the site of the Great Exhibition of drowning the governor's wife, and murdering other 1851, or on some spot immediately contiguous to it.

women. He next defeated the count of Toulouse, Nor would any proposal that could be made be more

but was himself killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and gratifying to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget that the prince himself had highly ap- IX., kings of France, patronised the crusade ; proved of the idea of a memorial of this character being count Raymond was subdued, and abdicated in 1229; raised on the same spot in remembrance of the Great and the heretics were given up to the Inquisition. Exhibition." In a second letter the queen expressed See Waldenses. her intention of personally contributing towards erecting the memorial, that " it might be recorded in future

ALBION. Britain is so called by Aristotle ages as raised by the queen and people of a grateful (died 322 B. C.). Julius Cæsar and others, are said country to the memory of its benefactor.” Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's

to have given it the name (from albus, white) on desire. As a suitable block of granite could not be account of its chalky ciiffs.

obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up. The queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott ALBUERA OR ALBUHERA, Estremadura,

for an Eleanor Cross, with a spire 150 feet high, ac- Spain. Here a battle was fought between the companied by statues, &c., 22 April, 1863 ; work begun, French, commanded by marshal Soult, and the 13 May, 1864

British' and Anglo-Spanish army, under marshal, The seulptors employed were M‘Dowell, Foley, Theed, John Bell, and Armistead : material, Sicilian marble.

afterwards lord Beresford, 16 May, 1811. The (Jan. 1865.)

allies obtained a brilliant victory. The French loss The memorial, complete, except the statue, hy Foley exceeded 8000 men previously to their retreat; but

(lelayed through illness), was given up to her majesty the allies lost a large number. The chief brunt privately, 1 July, 1872.

of the action fell on the British; colonel Inglis, Inscription on the " Memorial Cairn" on a high mountain

22 officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who overlooking Balmoral Palace :-“To the beloved memory of ALBERT the great and good Prince Consort,

bad mounted a hill, fell,-out of the 57th regiment erected by his broken-hearted widow, VICTORIA R., 21

alone; the other regiments were scarcely better off, Aug. 1862.” Upon another dressed slab, a few inches not one-third being left standing ; ” 1500 unhelow the above, is this quotation :-“He being made wounded men, the remnant of 6000 unconquerable perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time : for his

British soldiers, stood triumphant on this fatal soul pleased the Lord, therefore hasted he to take him

hill.” Napier. away from among the wicked.”—M'isdom of Solomon,

chap. iv. 13, 14. A statue of the prince-consort (by Theed) inaugurated at

ALBUFERA (Spain, East Central), a lagoon, Rosenau, his birth-place, in the presence of the queen

near which the French marshal Suchet (afterwards and the royal family, 19 Aug. 1863.

duke of Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under

Blake, 4 Jan. 1812 : this led to his capture of Novaliches, and the insurgents under marshal Ser-Valencia on 9 Jan.

rano, 27 Sept. 1868. The former was defeated, and, ALCALA, Spain, near the Roman Complutum. 600 were killed on both sides.

being severely wounded, surrendered 28 Sept. About At the university here was printed the Complu. tensian Polyglott bible, at the expense of cardinal AL-CORAN OR AL-KORAN, see Koran, MaXimenes, 1502-15.

hometanism, &c. ALCANTARA, a town on the Tagus, W. Spain. ALDERMAN. The Saxon earldorman was A fine bridge was built here by Trajan about 104. next to the king and frequently a viceroy; but The duke of Alva acquired Portugal for Spain by after the settlement of the Danes the title was defeating the Portuguese army here, 24 June, 1580. gradually displaced by that of earl. Aldernen in The Spanish military order of knighthood of Alean- corporations are next in dignity to the mayor. tara was established in 1156. The sovereign of They were appointed in London (where there are Spain has been grand master since 1495.

twenty-six) in 1242; and in Dublin (where there

are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen chosen for life, ALCAZAR-QUIVER, near Fez, N. W. instead of annually, 17 Rich. II. 1394. Present Africa, where the Moors totally defeated the Portu- mode of election established, 11 Geo. 1. 1725. Alderguese, whose gallant king Sebastian was slain, 4 men made justices of the peace, 15 Geo. II. 1741. Aug. 1578. The Portuguese disbelieved his death and long expected his return ; this led to the ap ALDERNEY (English Channel), with Jersey, pearance of five impostors.

&c., was acquired by William the Conqueror, 1066.

The “Race' is celebrated for two fatal occurALCHEMY, the forerunner of chemistry; its chief objects being the discovery of the philosopher's England, and many young nobles (140 youths of

rences; William of Normandy, son of Henry I. of stone (which was to effect the transmutation of the principal families of France and Britain), were metals into gold), an alkahest or universal men

overtaken by a storm, and all lost, 25 Nov, 1120. struum, and the elixir of life.* The alchemists The British man-of-war Victory, of 100 guns and assert that their founder was Hermes Trismegistus 1160 men, was wrecked here, 5. Oct. 1744; the (thrice greatest), an ancient Egyptian king: --- Pliny admiral, sir John Balchen, and all his crew perished. says, the emperor Caligula was the first who pre- Through this strait the French escaped after their pared natural arsenic, in order to make gold of it; defeat at La Hogue by admirals Russell and Rooke, but left it off, because the charge exceeded the 19 May, 1692. The construction of a breakwater, profit.

in order to make Alderney a naval station, was Zosimus wrote on the subject about 410.

begun in 1852, and after having cost 1,337,100l., The Arabians cultivated alchemy and were followed (in was suspended by parliament in 1871.

the 13th century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus, Aquinas, Raymond Lullius, Basil Valentine (born 1394), ALDERSHOT CAMP, on a moor near FarnParacelsus (died 1541), and others.

ham, about 35 miles from London. In April, 1854, In 1404 the craft of multiplying gold and silver was made

the War office, having obtained a grant of 100,0001., felony by 5 llen. IV. c. 4, which act was repealed in 1689. A licence for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals purchased 4000 acres of land for a permanent camp and minerals was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476.

for 20,000 men. lymer's Fæd.

Additional land purchased in 1856. Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 published an account of

Barracks since erected for 4000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, his experiments and brought specimens of gold to

and several batteries of artillery. Great improvements the king, affirming that they were made by means of a

in military cookery introduced (see Cookery) under the red and white powder. Being a fellow of the Royal

superintendence of captain John Grant, 1857. Society, he was required, under pain of expulsion, to

Visited by the queen, 18, 19 April, 1856. repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and

The troops returned from the Crimea, reviewed by her, Wolfe (some say Higgins): but after much equivoca

7, 16 July, 1856. tion and delay he took poison and died, Aug. 1783.

About 15,000 men were stationed here, 1859.

Cost of the camp, said to be 1,291,53il, up to Feb. 1860. ALCOHOL. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated

An industrial and fine-art exhibition, furnished by officers alcohol is said to have been obtained by the dis

and men and their wives, opened, 29 June; closed 14 tillation of fermented liquors by Abucasis in the July, 1864. 12th century; and the dehydratior of this liquor Camp set up for 40,000 men to execute military manauto have been partially effected by Raymond Lul

vres, Aug. Sept. 1871. Many horses broke away lius in the 13th century by carbonate of potassium. Review of 14,000, &c. by the queen, 5 July, 1872.

through a fright, 30 Aug. 1871. Alcohol has never been reduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low temperatures. In ALDINE PRESS, that of Aldo Manuzio 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained traces of alco- | (Aldus Manutius), at Venice, where were printed hol by passing olefiant gas (bi-carburetted hydro- many of the first editions of the Greek, Latin, and gen) ihrough sulphuric acid; and in 1862 this Italian classics, commencing in 1494 with Museus. process was examined and confirmed by Berthelot ; see Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. About ALE, BEER, and Wine are said to have been 250 medical men, including the president of the invented by Bacchus. Ale was known as a bereRoyal College of Physicians, and many hospital rage at least in 404 B.C. Herodotus ascribes the officials, issued a cautionary declaration concerning first discovery of the art of brewing barley-wine to the use of alcohol in medicine, Dec. 1871.

Isis, the wife of Osiris, and a beverage of this kind

is mentioned by Xenophon, 401 B.C. The Romans ALCOLEA (Andalusia, S. Spain); Near the and Germans very early learned from the Egyptians bridge a sharp engagement took place between the the process of preparing a liquor from corn by means royalists under general Pavia y Lacy, marquis de of fermentation. Tacitus. Ale-houses are men

tioned in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex. Booths * M. Martin Ziegler patented a method of producing a

were set up in England, 728, when laws were passed “ vital thuid” by combining nitrogen and carbon in a porous cell containing ammonia, immersed in a vessel for their regulation. None but freemen were allowed filled with cla ses. The current was to flow through

to keep ale-houses in London, 13 Edw. I. 1285. silk threads atta led to the vessel; about 1868.

They were further subjected to regulation by 5 & 6

1415

Edw. VI. c. 25 (1551). By i James I. c. 9 (1603), tracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that one full quart of the best, and two quarts of small time by subtracting 5492. ale were to be sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was imposed by the parliarpent in 1643, and

"ALEXANDRA CASE," see Trials,

1862-64. continued by Charles II. (1660); repealed, 1 Will.IV. c. 51,(1830) ; see Porter, Wine, Tictuallers.

ALEXANDRA PARK, Muswell Hill, LonALEMANNI, or ALL MEN (..e. men of all the princess of Wales, was opened with a flower

don, N. purchased by a company, and named after nations), hence Allemand, German. Suevi, who took this name, were defeated by Cara- building of 1862 was to be erected here. The work

A body of show, 23 July, 1863. A portion of the Exhibition empire under Aurelian, who subdued them in three proceeded rapidly in 1864, was suspended in 1865, butiles, 270. They were again vanquished by Julian,

recommenced in 1866, and completed in 1873. 356, 357; by Jovinus, 368. They were defeated and

Horse-races first held here

30 June, 1 July 1863 subjugated by Clovis at Tolbiac (or Zulpich), 496. The prospectus of a scheme to organise an instituThe Suabians are their descendants.

tion resembling the South Kensington Museum

and the Crystal Palace, by means of a toutine (to ALENÇON (N. France) gave title to a count cease 30 June, 1886), was issued

22 July 1871 and duke.

The affairs were to be managed by “The Alexandra

Palace and Muswell hill Estate Management Coin1253-82. Peter, made Count by his father king Louis IX.

pany (limited)." Public lectures on the subject 1293. Charles I. of Valois, made Count by his brother

were given

Aug. 1871 king Philip the Fair.

The scheme proved unsuccessful; the company's 1325. Charles II. his son, killed at Crecy.

affairs were wound up: 178. Óıl. in the pounil hav1346. Charles III, (his son), became a priest.

ing been paid

Feb. 1872 1361. Peter, his brother.

The purchase of the land and buildings for the 1404. John (his son), iade Duke in 1414, killed at

public was proposed by the lord mayor and others Agincourt, 1415.

July 1872 John II. (his son), prisoner in England, 1424-9; The palace was opened with a grand concert, &c. intrigued against the French king; died in

24 May ; destroyed by fire

9 June, 1873 prison, 1470 1476. Charles IV. 'Heil after the battle of Pavia in 1525, ALEXANDRIA (Egypt), the walls whereof

and died shortly after of chagrin. The duchy were six miles in circuit, was founded by Alexander was annexed by the crown.

the Great, 332 B.C. who was buried here, 322. It ALEPPO, North Syria, a large town named became the residence of the Greek sovereigns of Bercea by Seleucus Niciator, abouť 299 B.C. The Egypt, the Ptolemies, 323; seventeen councils were pachalic of Aleppo is one of the five governments of held here, A.D. 231-633. Syria. It was taken by the Saracens, A.D. 638, who Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Serapeum, restored its ancient name Haleb or Chaleb; by Sala- the Pharos, and otller editices, and begins the din, 1193; and sacked by Timour, Nov. 1400. Its de- library about

B.C. 298 population by the plague has been frequent; 60,000 These works completed by his son P. Philadelphus

and his grandson P. Euergetes

283-222 persons were computed to have perished by it in

Alexandria taken by Julius Citsar; when a library 1797; many in 1827. The cholera raged here in

is burnt. 1832. Aleppo suffered severely from the terrible Which Antony replaces by one brought from Perearthquakes in 1822 and 1830; and has often been the scene of fanatical massacres. On 16 Oct. 1850, The city restored by Adrian the Mahometans attacked the Christians, burning Massacre of the youth by Caracalla, in revenge for

an insult. everything. Three churches were destroyed, five

Alexandria supporting the usurper Achilleus is others plundered, and thousands of persons slain.

taken by Diocletian after a long siege The total loss of property amounted to about a mil- Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the lion sterling; no interference was attempted by the Athanasians and Arians pacha.

Georye of Cappadocia was killed, 362, and Athan

asius finally restored ALESSANDRIA, a city of Piedmont, built in

50,000 persons perish by an earthquake

365 1168 under the name of Cæsar by the Milanese and Paganisin suppressed by Theodosius, when a second Cremonese, to defend the Tanaro against the em- library is burnt

390 peror, and afterwards named after pope Alexander

Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia III. It has been frequently besieged and taken. And by Amrou, the general of the caliph Omar.* who The French took it in 1796, but were driven out by

ordered the library to be burnt, whereby the baths

were supplied with fuel for six months 22 Dec. 640 Suwarrow, 21 July, 1799. They recovered it after Recovered by the Greeks; retaken by Amrou. 644 the battle of Marengo, 14 June, 1800, and held it Cairo founded by the Saracens; which tends to the till 1814, when the strong fortifications erected by decay of Alexandria

962 Napoleon were destroyed. They have been restored Alexandria plundered by the Crusaders since June, 1856.

The French capture Alexandria

July, 1793

Battle of Alexandria or Canopus: the British under ALEUTIAN ISLES, in the North Pacific gen. Ralph Abercromby defeat the French under Ocean, discovered by Behring, 1741, visited by Abercromby dies of his wounds, 28 March : Menou

Menou

21 March 1801 Cook, 1778, and settled by Russians, 1785.

and 10,000 French surrender it to Hutchinson

2 Sept. 1801 ALEXANDER, ERA OF, dated from the

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, death of Alexander the Great, 12 Nov. 323 B.C.

In
20 March; evacuated by them

23 Sept. 1807 the computation of this era, the period of the Crea- | By the convention of Alexandria, Egypt was guarantion was considered to be 5502 years before the teed to Mehemet Ali and his successors

1841 birth of Christ, and, in consequence, the year I A.D.

Railway to Cairo forined

1851 was equal to 5503. This computation continued to

New port, first stone laid by the khedive 15 May 1371 the year A.D. 284, which was called 5786. In the next year (A.D. 285), which should have been 5787, the book or God, they were useless ; if they disagreed,

* The saying of Omar_“That if the books agreed with ten years were discarded, and the date became 5777 | they were pernicions"—is denied by Mahometans. It is This is still used in the Abyssinian era (which see). also attributed to Theophilus, archbishop of Alexandria The date is reduced to the Christian era by sub- |(390), and to cardinal Ximenes (1500).

B.C.

gamus

36

I22

215

297

320

363

616

1365

about 935

1541

1683-4

30 May,

Dec. 1839

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX, a MS. of the subdued by the Arabs about 690. Population of Septuagint translation of the Bible in Greek, said Algeria in 1866, 2,921,146. to have been transcribed by a lady named Thecla, in the 6th century, and to have belonged to the The town Algiers founded by the Arabs near the patriarch of Alexandria in 1098. It was presented site of Jerosium. to Charles I. of England in 1628 by Cyrillus Lascaris, Becoming the seat of the Barbary pirates captured patriarch of Constantinople, and was placed in the

by Ferdinand of Spain, 1509 ; retaken by Horuc British Museum in 1753. It was printed in fac

and Haydreddin Barbarossa, and made the capi

tal of a state; governed by a dey, nominally subsimile, 1786-1821.

ject to Turkey

1516-20 ALEXANDRIAN ERA, see Mundane.

The emperor Charles V. Ioses a fine fleet and army

in an expedition against Algiers ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILO

Algiers territied into pacific measures by Blake,

1655; by Du Quesne SOPHY The first school arose soon after the For continued jiracy, the city successfully bomfoundation of Alexandria, 332 B.C. It flourished

barded by the British tleet, under lord Exmouth under the patronage of the Ptolemies till about 100

27 Aug. 1816 B.c. It included Euclid (300), Archimedes (287- A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery was

abolished 212), Apollonius (250), Hipparchus (150), and Hero

Algiers surrendered to a French armament under (150). "The second school arose about A.D. 140, and

Bourmont and Duperré, after severe conflicts; lasted till about 400. Its most eminent members the dey deposed, and the barbarian government were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic system wholly overthrown

5 July, 1830 (150), Diophantus the arithmetician (200), and The Arab chief Abd-el-Kader preaches a holy war, Pappus the geometer (350).

becomes powerful, and attacks the French, at first successfully

1833 ALEXANDRINES, verses of twelve sylla

He is recognised as emir of Mascara, by treaty with bles, first written by Alexander of Paris, about 1164, The French ministry announce their intention to

1834 and since called after him. The last line of the

retain Algiers permanently

20 May, 1834 Spenserian stanza is an Alexandrine. In Pope's War renewed

1835-6 Essay on Criticism, this verse is thus happily ex The French take Mascara

5 Dec. 1835 emplified :

Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two battles, “A needless Alexandrine ends the song,

and enters Mascara

8 Dec. 1836 That, like a wounded snake, drays its slow length Gen. Danremont killed in taking Constantina

13 Oct. 1837 along.'

Abd-el-Kader, thoroughly defeated, recognises the The longest English poem wholly in Alexandrine French supremacy verse is Drayton's Polyolbion, published 1612-22. War renewed ; French defeated

Algeria annexed to France, and the emir declared a ALFORD (N. Scotland), BATTLE OF. General

rebel.

Feb. 1842 Baillie, with a large body of covenanters, was de

He is defeated by Bugeand at Isly. 14 Aug. 1844 feated by the marquis of Montrose, 2 July, 1645.

500 Arabs in a cave at Khartani refuse to surren

der; suffocated by smoke ; said to have been ALGEBRA: Diophantus, said to be the in

ordered by general Pelissier

18 June, 1845 ventor, wrote upon it probably between the 3rd and

After a long struggle Abd-el-Kader surrenders to
Lamoriciere

23 Dec. 1847* 5th centuries. It was cultivated in the 9th century Fresh revolts, 1849 ; subdued

1850 by the Arabs, who brought it into Spain; and in An insurrection of the Kabyles subilied by the Italy by Leonardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. In French, after several sharp engagements

1851 1494, Luca Paciolo published the first printed book Another insurrection suppressed

1857 on Algebra in Europe. Serret. Some of the alge- The government entrusted (for a short time) to braic signs were introduced either by Christophe The Arab trives attack the French ; defeated,

1853 Rudolphi (1522-26) or Michael Stifelins of Nurem

31 Oct. and 6 Nov. 1859 berg, 1544, and others by Francis Vieta, in 1590, Algiers visited by Napoleon III.

Sept. 1860 when algebra camcinto general use. Moreri. Jerome Marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhoff

, appointed Cardan published his “Ars Magna," containing his governor-general of Algeria

Nov. rule, 1545. Thos. Harriot's important discoveries

The emperor promises a constitution securing the appeared in his “ Artis Analyticw Praxis," 1631.

the rights of the Arabs, saying: “I am as much emperor of the Arabs as of the French.”

Feb. 1863 Descartes applied algebra to geometry about 1637. Insurrection of the Arabs, May ; submission, June, 1864 The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of the Death of marshal Pelissier, 22 May; M.Mahon, duke doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. of Magenta, succeeds him Dean Peacock's “Algebra” is a first-class work.

Fresh revolts'; insurgents defeated by Jolivet,

2 Oct. ALGERIA, see Algiers.

The emperor well received during his visit,

3 May-June, 1866 ALGESIRAS, or OLD GIBRALTAR (S. Spain). More rights and privileges promised to the natives, Here the Moors entered Spain in 711, and held it

July, till taken by Alfonso XI. March, 1344:—Two engagements took place here between the English fleet under sir James Saumarez and the United French

* He, with his suite, embarked at Oran, and landed at and Spanish tleets, 6 and 12 July, 1801. In the first

Toulon on 28 Dec, following. He was removed to the the enemy was victorious; but the British honour from his continennent by Louis Napoleon, 16 Oct. 1852,

castle of Amboise, near Tours, 2 Nov. 1848, and released was redeemed in the latter conflict, the San Antonio, after swearing on the Koran never to disturb Africa 74 guns, being captured. Two Spanish ships fired again ; he was to reside henceforward at Broussa, in Asia on each other by mistake, and took fire; of 2000

Minor; but in consequence of the earthquake at that men on board, 250 were saved by the English.

place, 28 Feb. 1855, he removed to Constantinople. Alison.

July, 1860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel of Damascus,

and there protected many of the Christians whom he ALGIERS, now ALGERIA, N. W. Africa; part had rescued from the massacres then in perpetration by of the ancient Mauretania, which was conquered by

He received honours from the English,

French, and Sardinian sovereigns. He visited Paris and the Romans, 46 B.C.; by the Vandals, a.s. 439;

London in Aug. 1865. He offered to serve in the French recovered for the empire by Belisarius, 534; and army in July, 1870.

8 Sept. »

In

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