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Caesar, 54 B. C. It was retaken after much slaughter Another statue by Theed at Balmoral, inaugurated 15 of the capital of Cassivelaunus, taken by Julius by Boadicea or Bunduica, queen of the Iceni, A. D.

"Early years of the Prince Consort:" edited by the Hon. Chas.


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ALBANY OR ALBAINN, the ancient name of the Scottish Highlands. The brother of Robert III. of Scotland was made duke of Albany in 1398. Frederick, son of George III., was duke of York and Albany. He died 5 Jan. 1827.

ALBERT MEMORIALS. (See under England.) The Prince Consort died on 14 Dec. 1861. deeply lamented by the whole civilised world. His remains were transferred to the mausoleum of Frogmore, 18 Dec. 1862. The sarcophagus is composed of the largest known block of granite without flaw. A meeting to organise a method of receiving contributions for a great national memorial was held at the Mansion-house, 14 Jan. 1862; and a large sum was quickly subscribed. 36,000l. had been received on 1 March; 50,2207. on 11 June, 1862; and parliament voted 50,000l., in addition to the 60,000l. received by voluntary contributions, 23 April, 1863.

The nature of the memorial was referred to the queen herself. In a letter to the lord mayor, dated 19 Feb. 1862, sir Charles Grey says, on behalf of her majesty, "It would be more in accordance with her own feelings, and she believes with those of the country in general, that the monument should be directly personal to its

object. After giving the subject her maturest consideration, her majesty has come to the conclusion, that nothing would be more appropriate, provided it is on a scale of sufficient grandeur, than an obelisk to be erected in Hyde-park on the site of the Great Exhibition of 1851, or on some spot immediately contiguous to it. Nor would any proposal that could be made be more gratifying to the queen herself personally, for she can never forget that the prince himself had highly approved of the idea of a memorial of this character being raised on the same spot in remembrance of the Great Exhibition." In a second letter the queen expressed her intention of personally contributing towards erecting the memorial, that "it might be recorded in future ages as raised by the queen and people of a grateful country to the memory of its benefactor." Shortly after a committee was appointed to fulfil her majesty's desire. As a suitable block of granite could not be obtained, the proposal for an obelisk was given up. The queen approved of the design of Mr. Gilbert G. Scott for an Eleanor Cross, with a spire 150 feet high, accompanied by statues, &c., 22 April, 1863; work begun, 13 May, 1864.

The sculptors employed were M'Dowell, Foley, Theed, John Bell, and Armistead: material, Sicilian marble. (Jan. 1865.) The memorial, complete, except the statue, by Foley (delayed through illness), was given up to her majesty privately, 1 July, 1872. Inscription on the "Memorial Cairn" on a high mountain overlooking Balmoral Palace :-"To the beloved memory of ALBERT the great and good Prince Consort, erected by his broken-hearted widow, VICTORIA R., 21 Aug. 1862." Upon another dressed slab, a few inches below the above, is this quotation :-"He being made perfect in a short time, fulfilled a long time for his soul pleased the Lord, therefore hasted he to take him away from among the wicked."-Wisdom of Solomon, chap. iv. 13, 14.

A statue of the prince-consort (by Theed) inaugurated at Rosenau, his birth-place, in the presence of the queen and the royal family, 19 Aug. 1865.

Oct. 1867.

Many other memorials of the prince have been set up throughout the empire.

ROYAL ALBERT HALL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES; The erection of a great building for congresses, concerts, &c., was proposed by the prince-consort at the close of the exhibition of 1851, and an estate at Kensington was purchased; a committee, with the prince of Wales at the head, to erect the building, was appointed 6 July, 1865; circulars soliciting subscriptions were issued April, 1866; and the first stone was laid by the queen, 20 May, 1867.

The building was erected by col. Scott, chiefly after designs by capt. Fowke, and cost about 200,000l. The organ, by Willis, is said to be the largest in the world. An experimental concert was given to the workmen 25 Feb., and the hall was opened by the queen 29 March, 1871, when a grand concert was given. ALBERT BRIDGE, Chelsea, opened 31 Dec. 1872. ALBERT MEDAL, to be awarded to persons who endanger ALBERT EMBANKMENT, see Thames, 1869. their lives by saving others from shipwreck, appointed by royal warrant, 3 March, 1866. The first was given to Samuel Popplestone on 14 May, 1866, for saving life on 23 March previous. ALBERT MEDAL (Gold), awarded by the Society of Arts to sir Rowland Hill, 1864; Napoleon III. 1865; Michael Faraday, 1866; Charles Wheatstone and William Fothergill Cooke, 1867; Joseph Whitworth, 1868; Justus Liebig, 1869; Ferdinand de Lesseps, 1870; Henry Cole, C.B., 1871; Henry Bessemer, 1872.

sons who opposed the doctrines and corruptions of ALBIGENSES, a name given to various perthe church of Rome, living at Albi, in Languedoc, and at Toulouse in the 12th century. They were persecuted as Manichæans, 1163, and a crusade (proclaimed by pope Innocent III.) against them commenced in 1207. Simon de Montfort commanded 500,000 men and at Bezières, 1209, he and the pope's legate put friends and foes to the sword, saying, "God will find his own!" At Minerba he burnt 150 of the Albigenses alive; and at La Vaur he hanged the governor, and beheaded the chief people, drowning the governor's wife, and murdering other women. He next defeated the count of Toulouse, but was himself killed in 1218. Louis VIII. and IX., kings of France, patronised the crusade; count Raymond was subdued, and abdicated in 1229; and the heretics were given up to the Inquisition. See Waldenses.

(died 322 B. C.). Julius Cæsar and others, are said ALBION. Britain is so called by Aristotle to have given it the name (from albus, white) on account of its chalky cliffs.

ALBUERA OR ALBUHERA, Estremadura, Spain. Here a battle was fought between the French, commanded by marshal Soult, and the afterwards lord Beresford, 16 May, 1811. The British and Anglo-Spanish army, under marshal, allies obtained a brilliant victory. 'The French loss exceeded 8000 men previously to their retreat; but the allies lost a large number. The chief brunt of the action fell on the British; colonel Inglis, 22 officers, and more than 400 men, out of 570 who had mounted a hill, fell,-out of the 57th regiment alone; the other regiments were scarcely better off, not one-third being left standing; "1500 unwounded men, the remnant of 6000 unconquerable British soldiers, stood triumphant on this fatal hill." Napier.

ALBUFERA (Spain, East Central), a lagoon, near which the French marshal Suchet (afterwards duke of Albufera) defeated the Spaniards under

Blake, 4 Jan. 1812: this led to his capture of Novaliches, and the insurgents under marshal Ser-Valencia on 9 Jan. rano, 27 Sept. 1868. The former was defeated, and, 600 were killed on both sides. being severely wounded, surrendered 28 Sept. About

AL-CORAN OR AL-KORAN, see Koran, Mahometanism, &c.

ALCALA, Spain, near the Roman Complutum. At the university here was printed the Complutensian Polyglott bible, at the expense of cardinal Ximenes, 1502-15.

ALCANTARA, a town on the Tagus, W. Spain. A fine bridge was built here by Trajan about 104. The duke of Alva acquired Portugal for Spain by defeating the Portuguese army here, 24 June, 1580. The Spanish military order of knighthood of Alcantara was established in 1156. The sovereign of Spain has been grand master since 1495.

ALCAZAR-QUIVER, near Fez, N. W. Africa, where the Moors totally defeated the Portuguese, whose gallant king Sebastian was slain, 4 Aug. 1578. The Portuguese disbelieved his death and long expected his return; this led to the appearance of five impostors.

ALCHEMY, the forerunner of chemistry; its chief objects being the discovery of the philosopher's stone (which was to effect the transmutation of metals into gold), an alkahest or universal menstruum, and the elixir of life. The alchemists assert that their founder was Hermes Trismegistus (thrice greatest), an ancient Egyptian king.-Pliny says, the emperor Caligula was the first who prepared natural arsenic, in order to make gold of it, but left it off, because the charge exceeded the profit.

Zosimus wrote on the subject about 410.
The Arabians cultivated alchemy and were followed (in
the 13th century) by Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus,
Aquinas, Raymond Lullius, Basil Valentine (born 1394),
Paracelsus (died 1541), and others.

In 1404 the craft of multiplying gold and silver was made felony by 5 Hen. IV. c. 4, which act was repealed in 1689. A licence for practising alchemy with all kinds of metals and minerals was granted to one Richard Carter, 1476. Rymer's Fod.

Dr. Price, of Guildford, in 1782 published an account of his experiments and brought specimens of gold to the king, affirming that they were made by means of a red and white powder. Being a fellow of the Royal Society, he was required, under pain of expulsion, to repeat his experiments before Messrs. Kirwan and Wolfe (some say Higgins); but after much equivocation and delay he took poison and died, Aug. 1783.

ALCOHOL. Pure spirit of wine or hydrated alcohol is said to have been obtained by the distillation of fermented liquors by Abucasis in the 12th century; and the dehydration of this liquor to have been partially effected by Raymond Lullius in the 13th century by carbonate of potassium. Alcohol has never been reduced to the solid state, but becomes viscid at very low temperatures. In 1820, Faraday and Hennell obtained traces of alcohol by passing olefiant gas (bi-carburetted hydrogen) through sulphuric acid; and in 1862 this process was examined and confirmed by Berthelot; see Distillation, Spirits, Brandy, Gin, Rum. About 250 medical men, including the president of the Royal College of Physicians, and many hospital officials, issued a cautionary declaration concerning the use of alcohol in medicine, Dec. 1871.

ALCOLEA (Andalusia, S. Spain). Near the bridge a sharp engagement took place between the royalists under general Pavia y Lacy, marquis de

* M. Martin Ziegler patented a method of producing a "vital fluid" by combining nitrogen and carbon in a porous cell containing ammonia, immersed in a vessel illed with mola ses. The current was to flow through silk threads attached to the vessel; about 1868.

ALDERMAN. The Saxon earldorman was next to the king and frequently a viceroy; but after the settlement of the Danes the title was gradually displaced by that of earl. Aldermen in corporations are next in dignity to the mayor. They were appointed in London (where there are twenty-six) in 1242; and in Dublin (where there are twenty-four) in 1323. Aldermen chosen for life, instead of annually, 17 Rich. II. 1394. Present mode of election established, 11 Geo. I. 1725. Aldermen made justices of the peace, 15 Geo. II. 1741.

ALDERNEY (English Channel), with Jersey, &c., was acquired by William the Conqueror, 1066. The "Race" is celebrated for two fatal occurEngland, and many young nobles (140 youths of rences; William of Normandy, son of Henry I. of the principal families of France and Britain), were The British man-of-war Victory, of 100 guns and overtaken by a storm, and all lost, 25 Nov. 1120. 1160 men, was wrecked here, 5 Oct. 1744; the admiral, sir John Balchen, and all his crew perished. Through this strait the French escaped after their defeat at La Hogue by admirals Russell and Rooke, 19 May, 1692. The construction of a breakwater, in order to make Alderney a naval station, was begun in 1852, and after having cost 1,337,100l., was suspended by parliament in 1871.

ALDERSHOT CAMP, on a moor near Farnham, about 35 miles from London. In April, 1854, the War office, having obtained a grant of 100,000l., purchased 4000 acres of land for a permanent camp for 20,000 men.

Additional land purchased in 1856. Barracks since erected for 4000 infantry, 1500 cavalry, and several batteries of artillery. Great improvements in military cookery introduced (see Cookery) under the superintendence of captain John Grant, 1857. Visited by the queen, 18, 19 April, 1856.

The troops returned from the Crimea, reviewed by her, 7, 16 July, 1856.

About 15,000 men were stationed here, 1859.
Cost of the camp, said to be 1,291,5317. up to Feb. 1860.
An industrial and fine-art exhibition, furnished by officers
and men and their wives, opened, 29 June; closed 14
July, 1864.

Camp set up for 40,000 men to execute military mancu-
Vres, Aug. Sept. 1871. Many horses broke away
through a fright, 30 Aug. 1871.
Review of 14,000, &c. by the queen, 5 July, 1872.

ALDINE PRESS, that of Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Manutius), at Venice, where were printed many of the first editions of the Greek, Latin, and Italian classics, commencing in 1494 with Musæus.

ALE, BEER, and Wine are said to have been invented by Bacchus. Ale was known as a beverage at least in 404 B.C. Herodotus ascribes the first discovery of the art of brewing barley-wine to Isis, the wife of Osiris, and a beverage of this kind is mentioned by Xenophon, 401 B.C. The Romans and Germans very early learned from the Egyptians the process of preparing a liquor from corn by means of fermentation. Tacitus. Ale-houses are mentioned in the laws of Ina, king of Wessex. Booths were set up in England, 728, when laws were passed for their regulation. None but freemen were allowed to keep ale-houses in London, 13 Edw. I. 1285. They were further subjected to regulation by 5 & 6

Edw. VI. c. 25 (1551). By 1 James I. c. 9 (1603), one full quart of the best, and two quarts of small ale were to be sold for one penny. Excise duty on ale and beer was imposed by the parliament in 1643, and continued by Charles II. (1660); repealed, I Will.IV. c. 51,(1830); see Porter, Wine, Victuallers.

ALEMANNI, or ALL MEN (i.e. men of all nations), hence Allemand, German. A body of Suevi, who took this name, were defeated by Caracalla, 214. After several repulses, they invaded the empire under Aurelian, who subdued them in three battles, 270. They were again vanquished by Julian, 356, 357; by Jovinus, 368. They were defeated and subjugated by Clovis at Tolbiac (or Zulpich), 496.

The Suabians are their descendants.

ALENÇON (N. France) gave title to a count

and duke.

1268-82. Peter, made Count by his father king Louis IX. 1293. Charles I. of Valois, made Count by his brother king Philip the Fair.

1325. Charles II. his son, killed at Crecy. 1346. Charles III. (his son), became a priest. 1361. Peter, his brother.

1404. John (his son), made DUKE in 1414, killed at Agincourt, 1415.

1415. John II. (his son), prisoner in England, 1424-9; intrigued against the French king; died in prison, 1470. 1476. Charles IV. fled after the battle of Pavia in 1525, and died shortly after of chagrin. The duchy was annexed by the crown.

ALEPPO, North Syria, a large town named Berea by Seleucus Niciator, about 299 B.C. The pachalic of Aleppo is one of the five governments of Syria. It was taken by the Saracens, A.D. 638, who restored its ancient name Haleb or Chaleb; by Saladin, 1193; and sacked by Timour, Nov. 1400. Its depopulation by the plague has been frequent; 60,000 persons were computed to have perished by it in 1797; many in 1827. The cholera raged here in 1832. Aleppo suffered severely from the terrible earthquakes in 1822 and 1830; and has often been the scene of fanatical massacres. On 16 Oct. 1850, the Mahometans attacked the Christians, burning everything. Three churches were destroyed, five others plundered, and thousands of persons slain. The total loss of property amounted to about a million sterling; no interference was attempted by the pacha.

ALESSANDRIA, a city of Piedmont, built in 1168 under the name of Cæsar by the Milanese and Cremonese, to defend the Tanaro against the emperor, and afterwards named after pope Alexander III. It has been frequently besieged and taken. The French took it in 1796, but were driven out by Suwarrow, 21 July, 1799. They recovered it after the battle of Marengo, 14 June, 1800, and held it till 1814, when the strong fortifications erected by Napoleon were destroyed. They have been restored since June, 1856.

ALEUTIAN ISLES, in the North Pacific Ocean, discovered by Behring, 1741, visited by Cook, 1778, and settled by Russians, 1785.

tracting 5502 until the year 5786, and after that time by subtracting 5492.

"ALEXANDRA CASE," see Trials,


ALEXANDRA PARK, Muswell Hill, Lonthe princess of Wales, was opened with a flower don, N. purchased by a company, and named after building of 1862 was to be erected here. The work show, 23 July, 1863. A portion of the Exhibition proceeded rapidly in 1864, was suspended in 1865, recommenced in 1866, and completed in 1873. 30 June, 1 July 1863 The prospectus of a scheme to organise an institution resembling the South Kensington Museum and the Crystal Palace, by means of a tontine (to cease 30 June, 1886), was issued 22 July 1871 The affairs were to be managed by "The Alexandra Palace and Muswell hill Estate Management Company (limited)." Public lectures on the subject were given

Horse-races first held here

Aug. 1871

The scheme proved unsuccessful; the company's affairs were wound up: 178. 6d. in the pound having been paid Feb. 1872 The purchase of the land and buildings for the public was proposed by the lord mayor and others

July 1872

The palace was opened with a grand concert, &c. 24 May; destroyed by fire 9 June, 1873

ALEXANDER, ERA OF, dated from the death of Alexander the Great, 12 Nov. 323 B.C. In the computation of this era, the period of the Creation was considered to be 5502 years before the birth of Christ, and, in consequence, the year I A.D. was equal to 5503. This computation continued to the year A.D. 284, which was called 5786. In the next year (A.D. 285), which should have been 5787, ten years were discarded, and the date became 5777. This is still used in the Abyssinian era (which see). The date is reduced to the Christian era by sub

ALEXANDRIA (Egypt), the walls whereof were six miles in circuit, was founded by Alexander the Great, 332 B.C. who was buried here, 322. It became the residence of the Greek sovereigns of Egypt, the Ptolemies, 323; seventeen councils were held here, A.D. 231-633.

Ptolemy Soter erects the Museum, the Serapeum, the Pharos, and other edifices, and begins the library about B.C. 298 These works completed by his son P. Philadelphus and his grandson P. Euergetes Alexandria taken by Julius Cæsar; when a library is burnt. Which Antony replaces by one brought from Per


B. C.


The city restored by Adrian
Massacre of the youth by Caracalla, in revenge for

an insult.


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Alexandria supporting the usurper Achilleus is
taken by Diocletian after a long siege
Alexandria disturbed by the feuds between the
Athanasians and Arians

George of Cappadocia was killed, 362, and Athan-
asius finally restored
50,000 persons perish by an earthquake
Paganism suppressed by Theodosius, when a second
library is burnt.
Alexandria captured by Chosroes II. of Persia
And by Amrou, the general of the caliph Omar,* who
ordered the library to be burnt, whereby the baths
were supplied with fuel for six months 22 Dec. 640
Recovered by the Greeks; retaken by Amrou. 644
Cairo founded by the Saracens; which tends to the
decay of Alexandria

962 Alexandria plundered by the Crusaders 1365 The French capture Alexandria July, 1798 Battle of Alexandria or Canopus: the British under gen. Ralph Abercromby defeat the French under Menou Abercromby dies of his wounds, 28 March: Menou 21 March 1801

and 10,000 French surrender it to Hutchinson 2 Sept. 1801

Alexandria taken by the British under Fraser, 20 March; evacuated by them 23 Sept. 1807 By the convention of Alexandria, Egypt was guaran


teed to Mehemet Ali and his successors Railway to Cairo formed New port, first stone laid by the khedive 15 May 1871




363 365

390 616

*The saying of Omar-"That if the books agreed with the book of God, they were useless; if they disagreed, they were pernicious"-is denied by Mahometans. It is also attributed to Theophilus, archbishop of Alexandria (390), and to cardinal Ximenes (1500).

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX, a MS. of the Septuagint translation of the Bible in Greek, said to have been transcribed by a lady named Thecla, in the 6th century, and to have belonged to the patriarch of Alexandria in 1098. It was presented to Charles I. of England in 1628 by Cyrillus Lascaris, patriarch of Constantinople, and was placed in the British Museum in 1753. It was printed in facsimile, 1786-1821.


ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOLS OF PHILOSOPHY. The first school arose soon after the foundation of Alexandria, 332 B.C. It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemies till about 100 B.C. It included Euclid (300), Archimedes (287212), Apollonius (250), Hipparchus (150), and Hero (150). The second school arose about A.D. 140, and lasted till about 400. Its most eminent members were Ptolemy, the author of the Ptolemaic system (150), Diophantus the arithmetician (200), and Pappus the geometer (350).

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ALGEBRA: Diophantus, said to be the inventor, wrote upon it probably between the 3rd and 5th centuries. It was cultivated in the 9th century by the Arabs, who brought it into Spain; and in Italy by Leonardo Bonaccio of Pisa, in 1220. 1494 Luca Paciolo published the first printed book on Algebra in Europe. Serret. Some of the algebraic signs were introduced either by Christophe Rudolph (1522-26) or Michael Stifelins of Nuremberg, 1544, and others by Francis Vieta, in 1590, when algebra came into general use. Moreri. Jerome Cardan published his "Ars Magna," containing his rule, 1545. Thos. Harriot's important discoveries appeared in his "Artis Analytica Praxis," 1631. Descartes applied algebra to geometry about 1637. The binomial theorem of Newton, the basis of the doctrine of fluxions, and the new analysis, 1668. Dean Peacock's "Algebra" is a first-class work.

subdued by the Arabs about 690. Population of Algeria in 1866, 2,921,146.

ALGIERS, now ALGERIA, N.W. Africa; part of the ancient Mauretania, which was conquered by the Romans, 46 B.C.; by the Vandals, A.D. 439; recovered for the empire by Belisarius, 534; and

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The emperor Charles V. loses a fine fleet and army
in an expedition against Algiers
Algiers terrified into pacific measures by Blake,
1655; by Du Quesne

For continued piracy, the city successfully bom-
barded by the British fleet, under lord Exmouth

1541 1683-4

27 Aug. 1816


A new treaty followed, and Christian slavery was
Algiers surrendered to a French armament under
Bourmont and Duperré, after severe conflicts;
the dey deposed, and the barbarian government
wholly overthrown
5 July, 1830
The Arab chief Abd-el-Kader preaches a holy war,
becomes powerful, and attacks the French, at first

the French

He is recognised as emir of Mascara, by treaty with
The French ministry announce their intention to
retain Algiers permanently
War renewed

The French take Mascara
Marshal Clausel defeats the Arabs in two battles,
and enters Mascara

Gen. Damremont killed in taking Constantina



20 May, 1834

1835-6 5 Dec. 1835

8 Dec. 1836

13 Oct. 1837
Abd-el-Kader, thoroughly defeated, recognises the
French supremacy
30 May,

War renewed; French defeated
Dec. 1839
Algeria annexed to France, and the emir declared a

Feb. 1842
He is defeated by Bugeand at Isly.
14 Aug. 1844
500 Arabs in a cave at Khartani refuse to surren-
der; suffocated by smoke; said to have been
ordered by general Pelissier
18 June, 1845
After a long struggle Abd-el-Kader surrenders to
23 Dec. 1847*

Fresh revolts, 1849; subdued

An insurrection of the Kabyles subdued by the
French, after several sharp engagements
Another insurrection suppressed

prince Napoleon


The government entrusted (for a short time) to
The Arab tribes attack the French; defeated,
31 Oct. and 6 Nov. 1859
Algiers visited by Napoleon III.
Sept. 1860
Marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhoff, appointed
governor-general of Algeria

The emperor promises a constitution securing the

the rights of the Arabs, saying: "I am as much
emperor of the Arabs as of the French.
Feb. 1863

Insurrection of the Arabs, May; submission, June, 1864

Death of marshal Pelissier, 22 May; M'Mahon, duke
of Magenta, succeeds him
. 8 Sept.
Fresh revolts; insurgents defeated by Jolivet,




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2 Oct. 97 The emperor well received during his visit, 3 May-June, 1865 More rights and privileges promised to the natives,


ALGERIA, see Algiers.

ALGESIRAS, or OLD GIBRALTAR (S. Spain). Here the Moors entered Spain in 711, and held it till taken by Alfonso XI. March, 1344.-Two engagements took place here between the English fleet under sir James Saumarez and the United French and Spanish fleets, 6 and 12 July, 1801. In the first the enemy was victorious; but the British honour was redeemed in the latter conflict, the San Antonio, 74 guns, being captured. Two Spanish ships fired on each other by mistake, and took fire; of 2000 men on board, 250 were saved by the, 28 Feb. 1855, he removed to Constantinople. In July, 1860, Abd-el-Kader held the citadel of Damascus, and there protected many of the Christians whom he had rescued from the massacres then in perpetration by French, and Sardinian sovereigns. He visited Paris and the Turks. He received honours from the English, London in Aug. 1865. He offered to serve in the French army in July, 1870.

* He, with his suite, embarked at Oran, and landed at Toulon on 28 Dec. following. He was removed to the castle of Amboise, near Tours, 2 Nov. 1848, and released from his continement by Louis Napoleon, 16 Oct. 1852, after swearing on the Koran never to disturb Africa again; he was to reside henceforward at Broussa, in Asia Minor; but in consequence of the earthquake at that


The emperor publishes his letter on the policy of
France in Algeria (20 July)
Insurrection; 4000 Arabs defeated by col.

Nov. 1865

2 Feb. 1869 Algeria proclaimed in a state of siege 15 Aug. 1870 The insurrection ended; state of siege raised, 24 June 1871 ALHAMBRA, a Moorish palace and fortress near Granada, S. Spain, founded by Mohammed I. of Granada about 1253. It was surrendered to the Christians about Nov. 1491. The remains have been described in a magnificent work by Owen Jones and Jules Goury, published 1842-5. A fac-simile of a part of this palace in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, was destroyed by the fire, 30 Dec, 1866.-The Panopticon (which see) was opened as a circus, &c., under the name of Alhambra, in March, 1858. The Alhambra Palace Company, incorporated in July 1863, applied for dissolution in Jan. 1865.


ALI, SECT OF (Shiites, or Fatimites). married Mahomet's daughter Fatima, about 632, and became vizier, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was called by the prophet, "the lion of God, always victorious; and the Persians follow the interpretation of the Koran according to Ali, while other Mahometans adhere to that of Abubeker and Omar. Ali was assassinated 23 Jan. 661.*

ALIENS or FOREIGNERS, were banished in 1155, being thought too numerous. In 1343 they were excluded from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices. By 2 Rich. II. st. 1, 1378, they were much relieved. When they were to be tried criminally, the juries were to be half foreigners, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483, a prohibition which was relaxed in 1663.

Alien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign per

sons) suppressed in England, 1414. The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.

The rigour of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed in 1844 and 1847.

"Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our fens, fished our seas, and built our bridges and harbours." Smiles, 1861.

Their status defined by the Naturalisation Act, passed 12 May, 1870.

ALIWAL, a village N. W. India, the site of a battle, 28 Jan. 1846, between the Sikh army under sirdar Runjoor Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong, supported by 68 pieces of cannon, and the British under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 men with 32 guns. The contest was obstinate, but ended in the defeat of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or drowned.

ALIZARINE, a crystalline body, the colouring principle of madder, discovered in it by Robiquet and Colin in 1831. Sehunck showed that all the finest madder colours contained only alazarine combined with alkalies and fatty acids. Graebe

ALKMAER, see Bergen.

ALLAHABAD (N. W. Hindostan), the "holy city" of the Indian Mahometans, situated at the junction of the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The province of Allahabad was successively subject to the sovereigns of Delhi and Oude, but in 1801 was Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, partially and in 1803 wholly incorporated with the

Act to register aliens, 1795.

ordered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalisation by the holding of stock in the banks of Scotland, June, 1820. New registration act, 7 George IV. 1826. This last act was repealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. 1836.

British possessions. By treaty here, Bengal, &c., was ceded to the English in 1765.-During the Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments rose and massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857; colonel Neil insurrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the this city the capital of the N. W. provinces.

ALLEGIANCE, see Oaths.

and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine

in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869.

The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in coal oils by Dumas and Laurent in 1832. See


*The first four successors of Mahomet-Abubeker, Omar, Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in establishing his religion and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he styled the "cutting swords of God "—all died violent deaths; and his family was wholly extirpated within thirty years after his own decease.

ALJUBARROTA, Portugal. Here John I. of Portugal defeated John I. of Castile, and secured his country's independence, 14 Aug. 1385; see


ALKALIES (from kali, the Arabic name for the plant from which an alkaline substance was first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and lithia. Black discovered the nature of the difference between caustic and mild alkalies in 1736.

The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the
metals potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry
Davy at the Royal Institution, London, 1807.
Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816.

The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lanca-
shire and Cheshire, are based on the decomposition of
common salt (chloride of sodium), by a process in-
vented by a Frenchman named Le Blanc, about 1792.
Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814.
Various modifications of these processes are now in


“Alkali works," are defined as works for the manufacture of alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in which muriatic gas is evolved.

Mr. Wm. Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid gas patented in 1836.

In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by the alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the Alkali Works act "for the more effectual condensation [of 95 per cent.] of muriatic acid gas" (or hydrochloric acid) was passed, 28 July, 1863. It came into operation 1 Jan. 1864, proved successful, and was re-enacted 1868.

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