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the first Protestant archbishop. Dublin has two Sir Richard Musgrave and Mr. Todd Jones ; sir cathedrals, Christ Church, and St. Patrick's. The Richard wounded

8 June, 1802 was valued, in the king's books, 30 Capt. Mae Namara killed col. Montgomery, 6 April, 1803

Gen. Hamilton and col. Aaron Burr (in America); Henry VIII., at 5341. 158. 2d. Irish. Kildare, on

1804 its last avoidance, was annexed to Dublin, 1846; Capt. Best killed lord Camelford 6 (died 10) March, see Bishops.

Surgeon Fisher killed lieut. Torrens,

22 March, 1806 DUCAT, a coin so called because struck by Sir Francis Burdett and Mr. Paull; both wounded

Baron Hoinpesch wounded Mr. Richardson, 21 Sept. dukes. Johnson. First coined by Longinus,

5 May, 1807 governor of Italy. Procopius. First struck in the Mr. Alcock killed Mr. Colclough; and lost his reason duchy of Apulia, 1140. Du Cange. Coined by

8 June, Robert, king of Sicily, in 1240.

M. de Granpré and M. Le Pique, in balloons, near
Paris, and the latter killed

3 May, 1808 DUCKING-STOOL ; see Cucking-stool.

Major Campbell and captain Boyd'; latter killed

(former hanged, 2 Oct. 1808) DUELLING took its rise from the judicial Lord Paget and captain Cadoyan ; neither wounded combats of the Celtic nations. The first formal

30 May, 1809

Lord Castlerengh wounded Geo. Canning 21 Sept. duel in England, between William count of Eu and Mr. Clarke killed George Payne.

6 Sept. 1810 Godfrey Baynard, took place 1096. Duelling in Ensign de Balton killed capt. Boardman, 4 March, 181 civil matters was forbidden in France, 1305. Lieut. Stewart killed lieut. Bagnal

7 Oct. 1812 Francis I. challenged the emperor Charles V. 1528 Mr. Edward Maguire killed lieut. Blundell, July, 1813 without effect. The fight with small swords was

Captain Stackpole (of “ Statira " frigate) and lieut.

Cecil; the capitain killed (arose on account of introduced into England, 1587. Proclamation that

worls spoken four years previously) April, 1814 no person should be pardoned who killed another in Mr. D. O'Connell killed Mr. D'Esterre i Feb. 1815 a duel, 1679. * Duelling was checked in the army, Colonel Quentin and colonel Palmer 1792 ; and has been abolished in England, by the Mr. O'Connell and Mr. Peel; an affair, no meeting intluence of public opinion, aided by the prince

31 Aug consort. A society " for the discouraging of duel- Major Greene and Mr. Price, in America ; the latter ling

1816 was established in 1845. See Battel, Wager Lieut. Conroy killed lieut. Ilindes

killed, greatly lamented

8 March, 1817 of, and Combat.

Major Lockyer killed Mr. John Sutton

Mr. O'Callaghan killed lieut. Bayley . 12 Jan. 1818 Between the duke of Hamilton and lord Mohun, Mr. Grattan and the earl of Clare

7 June, 1820 fought

15 Nov. 1712

Mr. Henshaw and Mr. Hartinger; both desperately [This duel was fought with small swords, in Hyde


18 Sept. park. Lord Mohun was killed upon the spot, Mr. Christie killed nr. Scott

16 Feb. 1821 and the duke expired of his wounds as he was M. Manuel and Mr. Beaumont

9 April, being carried to his coach.)

Mr. James Stuart killed sir Alexander Boswell, Capt. Peppard and Mr. Hayes ; latter killed 1728

26 March, 1822 Messrs. Hamilton and Morgan ; former killed

1748 The duke of Buckingham and the duke of Bedford ; S. Martin wounded Mr. Wilkes, M.P.

16 Nov. 1763
no fatality.

2 May, Lord Byron killed Mr. Chaworth

26 Jan. 1765
Gen. Pepe wounded gen. Carascosa

28 Feb. 1823 Lord Townsend wounded lord Bellamont, 1 Feb. 1773 Mr. Westall killed capit. Gourlay.

1824 Comte d'Artois wounded by duc de Bourbou, at Mr. Beaumont and Mr. Lambton : no result 1 July, 1826 Paris 21 March, 1778 Mr. Hayes killed Mr. Brie.

26 Dec. Mr. Donovan and capt. Hanson ; the latter killed, Rev. Mi. Hodson wounded Mr. Graiiy

Aug. 1827 13 Nov.

1779 Duke of Wellington and the earl of Winchelsea ; no Charles James Fox wounded by Mr. Adam, 30 Nov.

21 March, 1829 Col. Fullertou wounded lord Shelburne, 22 March, 1780 Capt. Neisham killed lieut. Crowther 1 April, Rev. Mr. Allen killed Lloyd Dulany . 18 June, 1782 Mr. W. Lambrecht killed Mr. 0. Clayton 8 Jan. 1830 Col. Thomas killed by col. Gordon 4 Sept. 1983 Capt. Smith killed Mr. O'Grady

18 March, Lord Macartney wounded by major-general Stuart, Mr. Storey wounded Mr. Matthias

22 Jan. 1833 8 June, 1786 Sir John W. Jetfcott and Dr. Hennis ; the latter Mr. M'Keon killed George W. Reynolds, 1787 ; exe

wounded, and died on the 18th

10 May, cuted.

16 Feb. 1788

Lord Alvanley and Mr. Morgan O'Connell ; 2 shots Mr. Purefoy killed col. Roper.


4 May, 1835 Duke of York and col. Lennox, aft, duke of Rich- Sir Colquhoun Grant and lord Seymour : : no fatality

mond (for an insignificant cause) 26 May, 1789 Sir George Ramsay and captain Macrea: sir George Mr. Roebuck, M.P., and Mr. Black, editor of the killed.

1790 “Morning Chronicle;" 2 shots each Mr. Curran and major Hobait.

1 April, Capt. Dickson wounded gen. Evans. 8 April, 1836 Mr. Macduff and Mr. Prince ; latter killed 4 June, Emile de Girardin killed Armand Carrel (both jourMr. Harvey Aston and lieut. Fitzgerald ; the former

nalists) severely wounded

25 June, Mr. Ruthven and Mr. Scoit; and Mr. Ruthven and Mr. Anderson killed Mr. Stevens

20 Sept.

Mr. Close (Mr. Scott's second); the latter wounded Mr. Julius killed Mr. Graham

119 July, 1791 Mr. John Kemble and Mr. Aiken; no fatality, The earl of Cardigan and captain Tuckett; 2 shots

1 March, 1792

each; the latter wounded ; the earl was tried in the Earl of Lonsdale and captain Cuthbert; no fatality house of lords and acquitted, 16 Feb. 1841) 12 Sept. 1840

9 June,

Captain Boldero and hon. Craven Berkeley; no M. de Chauvigny wounded Mr. Lameth 8 Nov.


15 July, 1842 Mr. Carpenter killed by Mr. Pride 20 Aug. 1796 Lieut. Munroe killed col. Fawcett i (died 3) July, 1843 Lord Valentia wounded by Mr. Gawler

28 June,
Lieut. Hawkey killed lieut. Seton

20 May, 1845 Wm. Pitt and Geo. Tierney

Duc de Gramnont Caderousse kills Mr. Dillon at Henry Grattan wounded Isaac Corry 15 Jan. 1800 Paris, for a newspaper attack

Oct. 1862 Lieut. Willis killed major Impey

26 Aug. 1801 Paul de Cassagnac and M. Lissagaray, journalists ; George Ogle and Bernard Coyle; no fatality 1802 (latter run through)

4 Sept. 1868

Don Enrique de Bourbon killed by the duc de Mont*" As many as 227 official and memorable duels were pensier, near Madrid, after much provocation, fought during my grand climacteric."--Sir J. Barrington.

12 March, 1870 A single writer enumerates 172 duels, in which 63 indi. viduals were killed and 96 wounded ; in three of these

DUKE, from Latin dux, a leader. In England, cases both the combatants were killed, and 18 of the during Saxon times, the commanders of armies survivors suffered the sentence of the law. Hamilton, were called dukes, duces. Camden. In Genesis


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29 May,

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23 May,

27 May,

xxxvi. some of Esau's descendants are termed DUNGAN-HILL (Ireland). Here the Engdukes. Duke-duke was a title given to the house of lish army, commanded by colonel Jones, signally Sylvia, in Spain, on account of its possessing many defeated the Irish, of whom 6000 are said to have duchies.

been slain, while the loss on the side of the English Edward the Black Prince made duke of Cornwall

was inconsiderable, 8 Aug. 1647.

17 March, 1337 Robert de Vere was created marquis of Dublin and

DUNKELD (Perthshire) was made a bishopric duke of Ireland, 9 Rich. II.

1385 by David I. in 1127; the ancient Culdee church, Robert ill. created David, prince of Scotland, duke founded by king Constantine III., becoming the

of Rothsay, a title which afterwardis belonged to cathedral. The beautiful bridge over the Tay, the king's eldest son, 1398, and is now borne by erected by Thomas Telford, was opened in 1809.

the prince of Wales. Cosmo de' Medici created grand-duke of Tuscany, DUNKIRK (N. France), founded in the 7th the first of the rank, by pope Pius V.

1569 century, was taken by the Spaniards, Sept. 1652, DULWICH COLLEGE (Surrey) called and retaken from them by the English and French God's-gift college, founded by Edward Alleyn, an after Turenne's victory over them under Condé on eminent comedian, was completed and solemnly the dunes (or sands), 14 June, 1658, and put into opened 13 Sept. 1619. Alleyn was its first master, the hands of the English, 25 June following. It and died in 1626. In 1686 Wm. Cartwright, an was sold by Charles II, for 500,0001. to Louis XIV., actor, gave a library and some portraits, and on 17 Oct.; restored 1662, and was one of the best 20 Dec. 1810 sir Francis Bourgeois bequeathed his fortified ports in the kingdom; but the works were collection of pictures, the gallery for which was demolished in conformity with the treaty of Utrecht erected by sir John Soane, and opened in 1812. Sir in 1713. The works were ordered to be demolished Francis died 8 Jan. 1811. In 1857, an act was at the peace of 1763; but in 1783 they were again passed by which the college was reconstituted. Two resumed. The English attempted to besiege Dunschools were established; and the number of the kirk; but the duke of York was defeated by Hoche, almspeople increased. In 1860 the annual income and forced to retire with loss, 7 Sept. 1793. It was was 11,4821. The new school buildings, founded made a free port in 1816. 26 June, 1866, were opened by the prince of Wales,

DUNMOW (Essex), famous for the tenure of 21 June, 1870. The Endowed Schools Commis

the manor (made by Robert Fitz-Walter, 1244), sioners put forth a draft scheme for remodelling the " that whatever married couple will go to the charity about Oct. 1872.

priory and kneeling on two sharp-pointed stones, DUMB, see Deaf and Demb.

will swear that they hare not quarrelled nor repented DUMBLANE or DUNBLANE (Perth), an of their marriage within a year and a day after its ancient city, near which took place a contlict called celebration, shall receive a ilitch of bacon." the battle of Sheriff'muir, between the royalist army The earliest recorded claim for the bacon was in 1445, under the duke of Argyle, and the Scots rebels |

since when to 1855 it had only been demanded five under the earl of Mar, 3 Nov. 1715. Both claimed times. the victory.

The last claimants previous to 1855 were John Shake

shanks and his wife, 20 June, 1751; they made a large DUNBAR (IIaddington). Here the Scottish

sum by selling slices of the flitch to witnesses of the army and king John Baliol were defeated by War ceremony (5000 persons). renne, earl of Surrey, 27 April, 1296, and Scotland Flitches were awarded to Mr. and Mrs. Barlow, of Chipwas subdued. Near here also Cromwell obtained a ping-Ongar, and the Chevalier Chatelaine and his lady, signal victory over the Scots, in arms for Charles II.

19 July, 1855.

The lord of the manor opposed the revival, but Mr. W. 3 Sept. 1650.

Harrison Ainsworth, the novelist, and some friends, DUNCIAD, the celebrated satirical poem by

defrayed the expense, and superintended the cere

monials. Alexander Pope, was published in 1728.

A flitch was awarded in 1860. DUNDALK (Louth, Ireland). On 5 Oct. 1318, at Poushard near this place, was defeated and slain 1639, by treaty between the Scots commission and

DUNSE (S. Scotland). Here on 18 June, Edward Bruce, who had invaded Ireland in 1315.

Charles I., their demands were acceded to, and they The walls and fortifications of Dundalk were destroyed in 1641. It was taken by Cromwell in agreed to disband their army. Disputes arose, and 1649. The first cambric manufacture in Ireland the treaty was not carried into effect. was established in this town by artisans from DUNSINANE (Perthshire). On the hill was France in 1727.

fought the battle between king Macbeth formerly the DUNDEE (E. Scotland), on the Tay. The thane of Glammis, and Siward, earl of Northumsite was given by William the Lion (reigned 1165– berland, 27 July, 1054. Edward the Confessor had 1214), to his brother David, earl of Huntingdon, sent Siward on behalf of Malcolm III., whose father who built or strengthened the castle, and erected a

Duncan, the usurper had murdered. Macbeth was large church, the tower of which, 156 feet high, defeated, and it was said was pursued to Lumphastill remains. The town was taken by the English nan, in Aberdeenshire, and there slain, 1056 or 1057, in 1385; pillaged by Montrose, 1645; stormed by

DUPES (day of), 11 Nov. 1630, when Richelieu Monk in 1651; and visited by queen Victoria in energetically and adroitly frustrated the plan for 1844. It has thriven since 1815, through its his ruin, formed by the queen Marie de Medicis and extensive linen manufactories; at one of these Gaston, duke of Orleans, and others, during the (Edwards’s) a steam explosion took place on 15 April, king's illness. 1859, when twenty persons were killed. Claverhouse, viscount Dundee (killed 1689), had a house

DÜPPEL or DYBÖL. See under Denmark, here.' The Baxter park, the gift of sir David 1864. Baxter, was opened by earl Russell, 9 Sept. 1863. The British association met here, 4 Sept. 1867. and his English allies totally defeated the Scots

DUPPLIN (Perthshire). Here Edward Balliol Population in 1861, 90,425; in 1871, 118,974.

under the earl of Mar, 11 Aug. 1332, and obtained DUNES, see Dunkirk.

the crown for three months.

Nov. 1739

DURBAR, an East Indian term for an audience to ten (the Decemviri) 365 B.C., afterwards to fifteen; chamber or reception. On 18 Oct. 1864, a durbar the added five called quinque viri. was held at Lahore by the viceroy of India, sir John Lawrence, at which 604 of the most illustrious

DWARFS: ANCIENT. Philetas of Cos, disprinces and chieftains of the north-west province tinguished about 330 B.C., as a poet and grammarian, were present, magnificently clotbed. Similar ones

was said to have carried weights in his pockets, to were held in 1806, 1867, aŭd on 27 March, 1869, at prevent his being blown away, He was preceptor Umballah.

to Ptolemy Philadelphus. Alian. Julia, niece of

Augustus, had a dwarf named Coropas, two feet and Sir Seymour Fitzgerald, governor of Bombay, held a hand's breadth high ; and Andromeda a freeda great durbar of the princes of Western India at

maid of Julia's, was of the same height. Pliny. Poona

6 Oct. 1868 The earl of Mayo, the viceroy, held a solemn durbar

Aug. Cæsar exhibited in his plays a man not two at Ajmere in Rajpootana

22 Oct. 1870 feet in stature. Sueton. Alypius of Alexandria, a

logician and philosopher, was but one foot tive DURHAM, an ancient city, the Dunholme of inches and a half high; "he seemed to be consumed the Saxons, and Durême of the Normans. The into a kind of divine nature.Vos. Instit. BISHOPRIC was removed to Durham from Chesterle-street in 995; whither it had been transferred MODERN DWARFS. -John d'Estrix, of Mechlin, was from Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, on the coast

brought to the duke of Parima, in 1592, when he was of Northumberland, in 875, in consequence of the

35 years of age, having a long beari. He was skilled

in languages, and not more than three feet high. invasion of the Danes. The bones of St. Cuth- Geoffrey Hudson, an English dwarf, when a youth of 18 bert, the sixth bishop, were brought from Lin inches ligh, was served up to table in a cold pie, before disfarne, and interred in Durham cathedral. The the king and queen, by the duchess of Buckingham, in palatine privileges, granted to the bishop by the

1626. He challenged Mr. Crofts to fight a duel, but the Danish Northumbrian prince Guthrum, were taken

latter came armed with a squirt. At another meeting

the dwarf shot his antagonist dead, 1653. by the crown in June 1836. Durham was ravaged Count Borow laski, a Polish gentleman, of great accomby Malcolm of Scotland in 1070, and was occupied plishments and elegant manners, well known in Engby the Northern rebels in 1569; and by the Scots land, where he resided for many years, was born in in 1640. In 1650 Cromweli quartered his Scotch

His growth was at one year of age, 14 prisoners in the cathedral. Near Durham on 17 Oct.

inches ; at, six, 17 inches ; at twenty, 33 inches; and at thirty, 39.

He had a sister, named Anastasia, seven 1346, was fought the decisive battle of Neville's

years younger than hijnself, and so much shorter that cross (which see). This see, deemed the richest in

she could stand under his arm. He visited many of England, was valued in the king's books at 28211. the courts of Europe, and died in England in 1837. Present income 8000l.

Charles Stratton (termed general Tom Thumb), an Ameri

can, was exhibited in England, 1846. In Feb. 1863, in College founded in 1290 ; abolished at the Reforma

New York, when 25 years old and 31 inches high, he tion.

married Lavinia Warren, aged 21, 32 inches high. He, Cromwell established a college, 1657; which was

his wife, and child, and commodore Nutt, another suppressed at the Restoration

1660 Present University established in 1831, opened Oct.

dwarf, came to England in Dec. 1864, and remained

there some time. 1833 ; chartered

Jun, 1837 Certain new ordinances, recoinmended by a comuus:

DYEING is attributed to the Tyrians, about sion, 1362, set aside


1500 B.C.

The English sent their goods to be dyed 1791. Hon, Shute Barrington, died in 1826.

in Holland, till the art was brought to them it is 1826. Wm. Van Mildert (the last prince bishop), died 21

said in 1608. “ Two dyers of Exeter were flogged Feb. 1836.

for teaching their art in the north(of England), 1836. Edward Maltby, resigned in 1856; died 3 July, 1628. A statute against abuses in dyeing passed

1859, aged 9o. 1856. Charles Thomas Longley ; became archb. of York, chemical research. A discovery of Dr. Stenhouse

in 1783. The art has been greatly improved by May, 1860. 1860. Hon. H. Montagu Villiers (transd. from Carlisle); in 1848, led to M. Marnas procuring mauve from died 10 Aug. 1861.

lichens; and Dr. Hofmann's production of aniline 1861. Charles Baring (PRESENT bishop).

from coal-tar, has led to the invention of a number

of beautiful dyes (mauve, magenta red, &c.); see DURHAM LETTER, see Papal Aggression, Aniline. 1850.

DYNAMITE, a new explosive compound, conDUST AND DISEASE. A controversy respecting the connection between them originated sisting of 75 parts of silicious earth saturated with with a lecture on the subject by professor Tyndall | 25 parts of nitro-glycerine (which see). It is suitable

for mining purposes, and was tried and approved at the Royal Institution, 21 Jan. 1870, when he demonstrated the presence of organic matters in the

at Merstham 14 July, 1868. It was invented by

A. Nobel to obviate danger. Its manufacture is dust of the atmosphere in conformity with the experiments of Pasteur and other eminent philosophers.

very dangerous. Professor Huxley, at the meeting of the British DZOUNGARIA, a region of Central Asia, N. Association, 14 Sept. 1870, expressed his opinion of China, with about 2,000,000 inhabitants, fierce, that contagious diseases are propagated by germs in warlike Mahometans. After being long tributary the atmosphere, in agreement with some physicians. to China, they rebelled in 1864, massacred the DUTCH REPUBLIC, see Holland.

Chinese residents, and set up their countryman

Abel Oghlan, as sultan. As he was unable to reDUUMVIRI, two Roman patricians appointed strain predatory attacks upon the Russians, the by Tarquin the Proud 520 B.c. to take care of the czar declared war in April 1871. After a brief books of the Sibyls, which were supposed to contain campaign in May and June, and several conflicts in the fate of the Roman empire. The books were which the Russians were victors, the sultan surplaced in the Capitol, and secured in a chest under rendered himself to general Kolpakoviski, 4 July, the ground. The number of keepers was increased and the country was annexed to the Russian empire.

B. C.




105 or 106

115 126



742 801


E. EAGLE, an ancient coin of Ireland, made of a An elaborate Catalogue of earthquakes (from B.C. base metal, and current in the tirst years of Ed- | 1606 to A.D. 1842), with commentaries on the pheward I. about 1272, was so named from the figure nomena, by R. and J. W. Mallet, was published impressed upon it. The American gold coinage of by the British Association' in 1858. In 1860 the eagles, half eagles, and quarter eagles, began 6 Dec. velocity of their propagation was estimated by Mr. 1792; an eagle is of the value of 10 dollars, or about J. Brown at between 470 and 530 feet per second.* 21. 18.--The standard of the eagle was borne by the

One which made Eubea an island Persians, at Cunaxa, 401 B.C. The Romans carried

425 gold and silver eagles as ensigns, and sometimes

Helice and Bura in Peloponnesus swallowed up 373

The chasın in the Roman Forum into which Quintus represented them with a thunderbolt in their talons, Curtius leaped, was probably an earthquake

364 on the point of a spear, 102 B.C. Charlemagne Duras, in Greece, buried with all its inhabitants : added the second head to the eagle for his arms, to and 12 cities in Campania also buried denote that the empires of Rome and Germany Lysimachia and its inhabitants buried about 283 were united in him, A.D. 802. The eagle was

Ephesus and other cities overturned the standard of Napoleon I. and Napoleon III. ;

One accompanied the eruption of Vesuvius when
Pompeii and Herculaneum were buried

79 as well as of Austria, Russia, and Prussia; sce Four cities in Asia, two in Greece, and two in GaKnighthood.

latia overturned

Antioch destroyed EARL (Latin, comes), introduced at the con- Nicomedia, Cæsarea, and Nicea overturned quest, superseded the Saxon ealdorman, and con- In Asia, Pontus, and Macedonia, 150 cities and tinued the highest rank in England, until Ed

towns damaged ward III. created dukes in 1337 and 1351, and

Nicomedia avain demolished, and its inhabitants

buried in its ruins Richard II. created marquises (1385), both above

One felt by nearly the whole world .

543 earls. Alfred used the title of earl as a substitute

At Constantinople; its edifices destroyed, and thoufor king. William Fitz-Osborn was made earl of sands perished

557 Hereford by William the Conqueror, 1066. Gil In Africa ; many cities overturnen

560 christ was created earl of Angnis, in Scotland, by Awful one in Syria, Palestine, and Asia : more than king Malcolm III. in 1037, and sir John de Courcy

500 towns were destroyed, and the loss of life sur

passed all calculation created baron of Kingsale and earl of Ulster in Ire

In France, Germany, and Italy land, by Henry II. 1181

Constantinople overturned ; all Greece shaken 936 EARL MARSHAL of England, the eighth great officer of

One felt throughout England

1089 state. This office, until it was made hereditary, always Catania, in Sicily, overturned, and 15,000 persons

One at Antioch ; many towns destroyed passed by grant from the king. Gilbert de Clare was created lord marshal hy king Stephen, 1135.

buried in the ruins. The last


One severely felt at Lincoln. lord marshal was John Fitz-Alan, lord Maltravers.

1142 Camden Richard II. in 1397 granted letters patent to

In Syria, &c., 20.000 perished


At Calabria ; 'one of its cities and all its inhabitants the earl of Nottingham by the style of earl marshal. In

overwhelmed in the Adriatic sea 072, Charles II. granted to Henry lord Howard the

Sept. 1186 dignity of hereditary earl marshal. The earl marshal's

In Cilicia, 60,000 perished.

1268 court was abolished in 1641. (See Howard.)

One again felt throughout England ; Glastonbury EARL MARISCHAL of Scotland was an officer who com



In England; the greatest known there 14 Nov. 1318 manded the cavalry, whereas the constable commanded the whole army ; but they seem to have had a joint | Constantinople; thonsands perished .

At Naples ; 40,000 persons perished

5 Dec. 1456 command, as all orders were addressed to "our con

14 Sept. 1509 stable and marischal." The office was never out of the

At Lisbon ; 1500 houses and 30.000 persons buried Keith family. It was reserved at the Union, and when

in the ruins ; several neighbouring towns engulfed,

26 Feb. 1531 the heritable jurisdictions were bought, it reverted to the (TOWN, being forfeited by the rebellion of George

One felt in London : part of St. Paul's and the Keith, earl marischal, in 1715.

Temple churches fell

6 April, 1580

In Japan; several cities made ruins, and thousands EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY


2 July, 1596

In Naples ; 30 towns or villages ruined : 20,000 began to publish in 1864.

lives lost

30 July, 1626

27 March, 1638 EARRINGS were worn by Jacob's family, Awful one at Calabria

Ragusa ruined ; 5000 perished

6 April, 1667 1732 B.c. (Gen. xxxv. 4.)

At Schamaki, lasted 3 months ; 80,000 perished EARTH, see Globe.

At Rimini ; above 1500 perished

14 April, 1672 One severely felt at Dublin, &c. .

17 Oct. 1690 EARTHENWARE, see Pottery.

One at Jamaica, which totally destroyed Port Royal,

whose houses were engulfed 40 fathoms deep, and EARTHQUAKES. Anaxagoras supposed 3000 perished

7 June, 1692

one in Sicily, which overturned 54 cities and towns, that earthquakes were produced by subterraneous clouds bursting into lightning, which shook the

and 300 villages : of Catania and its 18,000 inhabi.

tants, not a trace remained ; more than 100,000 vaults that confined them, 435 B.C. Diog. Laert.

lives were lost.

Sept. 1693 Kircher, Des Cartes, and others, supposed that there

Aquila, in Italy, ruined ; 5000 perished

2 Feb. 1703 were many vast cavities under ground which have Jeddo, Japan, ruined ; 200,000 perished a communication with each other, some of which abound with water, others with exhalations, arising

* Mrs. Somerville states that about 255 earthquakes from inflammable substances, as nitre, bitumen,

have occurred in the British Isles ; all slight. To avoid

the effects of a shock predicted by a madman, for the 8th sulphur, &c. Dr. Stukeley and Dr. Priestley at

of April, 1750, thousands of persons, particularly those tributed earthquakes to electricity. They are pro- of rank an I fortune, passed the night on the 7th in their bably due to steam generated by subterraneous heat. carriages and in tents in Hyde-park.

21 Nov. 1751

Sept. 1754

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In the Abruzzi ; 15,000 perished

3 Nov. 1706 At Algiers ; 20,000 perished

May & June, 1716

Great earthquake at Zante, where many persons perished

30 Oct. 1840 Palerino nearly destroyed ; nearly 6000 lives lost At Cape Haytien, st. Domingo, which destroyed

1 Sept. 1726 nearly two-thirds of the town; between 4000 Again in China ; and 100,000 people swallowed up

and 5000 lives were lost

7 May, 1842 at Pekin

30 Nov. 1731 At Point à Pitre, Guadaloupe, which was entirely In Naples, &c. ; 1940 perished 29 Nov. 1732 destroyed.

8 Feb. 1843 Lima and Callao demolished ; 18,000 persons buried At Rhodes and Macri, when a mountain fell in at in the ruins.

28 Oct. 1746 the latter place, crushing a village, and destroying In London, &c., a slight shock

600 persons

28 Feb.—7 March, 1851 Port-au-Prince, St. Domingo, ruined

At Valparaiso, where more than 400 houses were Adrianople nearly overwhelmed. . 29 July, 1752 destroyed.

· 2 April, At Grand Cairo; half of the houses and 40,000 In South Italy; Melfi 'almost laid in ruins ; 14,000 persons swallowed up

lives lost

14 Aug. Quito destroyed

April, 1755 Philippine isles ; Manilla injured 16-30 Sept. 1852 Kaschan, N. Persia, destroyed ; 40,000 perished, In N. W. of England, slight

7 June,

Thebes, in Greece, nearly destroyed . 18 Aug. 1953 Great earthquake at LISBON. In about eight minutes St. Salvador, S. America, destroyed 16 April, 1854

inost of the houses and upwards of 50,000 inhabi- Anasaca, in Japan, and Simoda, in Niphon, de tants were swallowed up, and whole streets

stroyed ; Jeddo much injured . buried. The cities of Coimbra, Oporto, and Broussa, in Turkey, nearly destroyed 28 Feb. 1855 Braga, suffered dreadfully, and St. Ubes was Several villages in Central Europe destroyed, wholly overturned. In Spain, a large part of

25, 26 July, Malaga became ruins. One half of Fez, in Mo- Jedilo, Japan, nearly destroyed rocco, was destroyed, and more than 12,000 At the island of Great Sanger, one of the Moluccas, Arabs perished there. Above half of the island volcanic eruption and earthquake; nearly 3000 of Madeira became waste; and 2000 houses in the

lives lost

2 March, 1856 island of Meteline, in the Archipelago, were over- In the Mediterranean : at Candia, 500 lives lost'; thrown. This awful earthquake extended 5000

Rhodes, 100 ; and other islands, 150 12 Oct. miles ; even to Scotland


In Calabria,* Montemurro and other towns deComorn, Pesth, &c., much damaged 28 June, 1763 stroyed, and about 10,000 lives lost 16 Dec. 1857 In Syria, extended over 10,000 square miles; Baalbec Corinth nearly destroyed

21 Feb. 1858 destroyed ; here 20,000 perished

30 Oct. 1759

At Quito ; about 5000 persons killed, and an imAt Martinico ; 1600 persons perished

Aug. 1767

mense amount of property destroyed, 22 March, 1859 At Guatemala ; Santiago, with its inhabitants, Erzeroum, Asia Minor; thousands perished, swallowed up 7 June, 1773

2 June-- 17 July, A destructive one at Smyrna.

3 July, 1778 At San Salvador; many buildings destroyed, no At Tauris ; 15,000 houses thrown down, and multi

lives lost

8 Dec. tudes buried

1780 In Cornwall, slight 21 Oct. 1859 ; 13 Jan. 1860 Messina and other towns in Italy and Sicily over:

In Perugia, Italy ; several lives lost 8 May, 1861 thrown : thousands perished .

5 Feb. 1783 At Mendoza, South America ; about two-thirds of Ezinghian, near Erzeroum ; destroyed, and

the city and 7000 lives lost

20 March, persons buried in its ruins

23 July, 1784 In Greece; N. Morea, Corinth, and other places St. Lucia, W. Indies ; 900 perished 12 Oct. 1788 injured

26 Dec, At Borgo di San Sepolcro; many houses and 1000 Guatemala : -150 buildings and 14 churches de30 Sept. 1789 stroyed .

19 Dec. 1862 In Naples : Vesuvius' overwhelmed the city of

Rhodes : 13 villages destroyed, about 300 persons Torre del Greco

perished, and much cattle and property lost, The whole country between Santa Fé and Panamá

22 April, 1863 destroyed, including Cuzco and Quito; 40,000 Manilla, Philippine isles ; immense destruction of people buried in one second

4 Feb. 1797

property ; about 10,000 persons perish, 2, 3 July, Cumana, S. America, ruiner

Central, west, and north-West of England, at At Constantinople, which destroyed the royal palace,

3 h. 22 m. A.M. 6 Oct. and many buildings

26 Sept. 1800 At Macchia, Bendinella, &c., Sicily ; 200 houses From Cronstadt to Constantinople

26 Oct. 1802
destroyel, 64 persons killed

18 July, 1865 A violent one felt in Holland

end of Jan. 1804 Slight earthquake near Tours and Blois, in France, At Frosolone, Naples : 6000 lives lost 26 July, 1805

14 Sept. 1866 At the Azores ; a village of St. Michael's sunk,

Argostoli, Cephalonia ; above 50 perished, 4 Feb. 1867 and a lake of boiling water appeared in its place,

At Mitylene; about 1000 killed 8, 9 March,

11 Aug. 1810 | Djocja, Java ; above 400 perished ; town destroyed Awful one at Caracas (which see) 26 March, 1812

10 June, Several throughout India ; district of Kutch sunk;

The cities of Arequipa, Iquique, Tacna, and Chencha, 2000 persons buried

16 June, 1819 and many small towns in Peru and Ecuador Genoa, Palermo, Rome, and many other towns

destroyed; about 25,000 lives lost, and 30,000 greatly damaged ; thousands perish

rendered homeless ; loss of property estimated Aleppo destroyed; above 20,000 perish; shocks on

at 60,000,000l.

13-15 Aug. 1868 10 & 13 Aug., and 5 Sept. 1822 [About 11,000l. collected in London to relieve the Coast of Chili permanently raised

sufferers. ] In Spain; Murcia and numerous villages devastated;

Slight earthquake in W. England and S. Wales :

21 March, 1829 felt at Bath, Swansea, &c. Canton and neighbourhood ; above 6000 perished,

In Santa Maura, an lonian isle, the town Santa

26 & 27 May, 1830 Maura destroyed; about 17 persons perished, In the duchy of Parma ; 40 shocks at Borgotaro ;

28 Dec. 1369 and at Pontremoli many houses thrown down, At Quebec, not much damage

20 Oct. 1870 14 Feb. 1834 In Calabria ; several villages destroyed, early in Concepcion, &c., in Chili; destroyed 20 Feb. 1835

Oct. In Calabria, Cosenza and villages destroyed ; 1000 N. W. England ; houses shaken, crockery broken, persons buried

29 April, 1835

evening, 17 March ; slight shock in Yorkshire, In Calabria ; 100 perish at Castiglione 12 Oct.

22 March, 1871 At Martinique; nearly half of Port Royal destroyed : California ; several small towns destroyed ; about nearly 700 persons killed, and the whole island

26, 27 March, 1872 damaged

11 Jan. 1839 Lehree, Eastern Catchi, Sind frontier, India, de At Ternate; the island made a waste, and thousands

stroyed ; about 500 killed of lives lost

14 Feb. 1840 Awful and destructive earthquake at mount Ararat,

* In the course of 75 years, from 1783 to 1857, the in one of the districts of Armenia ; 3137 houses kingdom of Naples lost, at least, 111,000 inhabitants by were overthrown, and several hundred persons the effects of earthquakes, or more than 1500 per year, perished

27 July,

out of an average population of 6,000,000!

June, 1794

14 Dec,

19 Nov.

30 Oct.

30 killed

14, 15 Dec.

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