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565

660

711

726

770

Dal:

879

890

EAST ANGLES, the sixth kingdom of the

Narses defeats Totila and the Goths near Rome.

552

Death of Belisarius, ageri 84 ; of Justinian (83) Heptarchy, commenced by Uffa, 526; ended with

Victories of Maurice and Narses in the East, Ethelbert in 792; see Britain. The bishop's see

579 et seq. Disaffection of Narses

561 founded by St. Felix, who converted the East Severe contests with the Avars

594-620 Angles in 630, was eventually settled at Norwich Narses burnt at Constantinople

606 (which see) about 1094.

The flight (Hejirn)of Mahomet from Mecca to Medina,

where he establishes himself as a prophet and

prince EASTER, instituted about 68, the festival ob

16 July, 622 Victorious career of Heraclius II.

622 et sell. served by the church in commemoration of Our

He recovers his lost territories

627 Saviour's resurrection, so called in England from The Saracens invaile the empire, 632 ; defcat Herithe Saxon goddess Eostre, whose festival was in clius at Aiznadin, 633 : at Yermuk, 636 ; take April. After much contention between the eastern

Alexandria, 640; and the Greek provinces in

Africa and western churches, it was ordained by the

648 council of Nicc, 325, to be observed on the same

Constans purchases peace with them

They besieze Constantinople seven times 672-677 day throughout the whole Christian world. “Eas.

The Bulgarians establish a kingilom in Mosia (now ter-day is the Sunday following that fourteenth Bulguria), 678 ; they ravage the country up to day of the calendar moon which happens upon or Constantinople next after the 21st March : so that, if the said four

The Saracens vainly invest Constantinople, 716,718;

defeated teenth day be a Sunday, Easter-day is not that

720

Leo III. the Isaurian, forbids the worship of Sunday but the next. Easter-day may be any

images : (this leads to the Iconoclast controday of the five weeks which commence with March

versy, and eventually to the separation of the 22 and end with April 25. The dispute between the old British church and the new Anglo-Saxon A great invading Arul force (530,000) defeated by

Alronius church respecting Easter was settled about 664.

739 Easter Sunday, 1873, 13 April; 1874, 5 April; 1875,

The monasteries dissolved

Destruction of images throughout the empire de28 March.

creed, 754 ; image-worship restore i by the empress

Irene (for which she was canonized) EASTER ISLAND, in the Pacific Ocean, The empire loses the exarchate of Italy, 752 ;

787 was discovered by Davis in 1686; it was visited by matia, 825 : Sicily and Crete

827 Roggewein, April 1722, and from him obtained the Image-worship persecuted, 830; restored, 842; forname it now bears; it was visited by captain Cook,

bidden at Constantinople by one council, 869; March 1774 At the south-east extremity is the

restored by another

South Italy annexed to the empire crater of an extinguished volcano, about two miles

Five emperors reigning at one time.

928 in circuit and 800 feet deep.

Naples added to the empire.
Basil subulues the Bulgarians

987, 1014 EASTERN (or GREEK) CHURCII, see

Bulgaria annexed to the empire Greek Church.

The Turks invade Asia Minor

The Normans conquer South Italy EASTERN EMPIRE. After the death of The first crusade ; Alexis I. recovers Asia

1097 The Venetians victorious over the Greeks

1125 the emperor Jovian, in Feb. 364, the generals at The Hungarians repelled, 1752 ; peace made with Nice elected Valentinian as his successor; who, in the Normans in Sicily

1156 June, made his brother Valens emperor of the West;

Wars with the Turks and the Venetians

• 1172 the final division was in 395, between the sons of Cyprus lost to the empire

1190

The fourth crusade begins Theodosius. The eastern empire ended with the

Revolt of Alexis against his brother Isaac; the capture of Constantinople, and death of Constan

crusaders take Constantinople, and restore Isaac tine XIII., 29 May, 1453; see Turkey.

and his son Alexis IV.

19 July, 1203

Alexis Ducas murders Alexis IV. and usups the Nestorius, the bishop, nominated the first patriarch throne; the crusaders take Constantinople, kill of Constantinople

9 July, 381 Alexis, and establish the Latin empire, under Theolosius the Great succours Valentinian 11, the

Baldwin, count of Flanders.

9 May, 1204 western emperor, and defeats the tyrant Maxi- Empire of Nice founded by Theorlore Lascaris mus, at Aquileia

Kinglom of Epirus and Ætolia established!

1208 Valentinian 11. slain hy Arbogastes the Frank, who

Constantinople recovered, and the empire re-estab. makes Eugenius emperor.

lished by Michael Palæologus

25 July, 1261 Eugenius defeated and slain by Theodosius, who

Establishment of the Turkish empire in Asia, under re-unites the two empires

6 Sept. 394
Othman I.

• 1299 Death of Theodosius; the empire finally divided The Genoese trade in the Black sea.

between his sons-Arcadius receives the east, The Turks ravaye Mysia, de, 1340 and 1345; and Honorius the west 395 settle in the coast of Thrace

1353 Constantinople walled by Theodosius II.

413 The sultan Amurath takes Adrianople, and makes Alaric the Goth begins to ravage the empire

it his capital, 1362; and, by treaty, greatly reViolent religious dissensions ; Theodosius II. estab

duces the emperor's territories

1373 lishes schools, and revives learning

425
All the Greek possessions in Asia lost

1390 The Theodosian code promulgated

438

Sultan Bijazet defeats the Christians under Sigis. The councils of Ephesus, 431, 449 ; of Chalcedon

451
mund of Hungary, at Nicopolis

28 Sept. 1396 Frequent sanguinary conflicts between the Blues The emperor Manuel vainly sulicits help from the

and Greens, circus factions at Constantinople, 498-520 western sovereigns The Justinian coile published

A Turkish pacha establishel at Athens

1401 War with Persia ; beginning of the victorious career The Greek empire made tributary to Timour, 1402 ; of Belisarius, the imperial general

529-531 who subjugates the Turkish sultan, and dismemlle suppresses the "Nika” q* conquer ") insurrec

bers his empire, 1403 ; death of Timour, on his tion of the circus factions ; 30,000 Greens slain,

way to China.

1405 and Constantinople burnt.

532 Dissension amongst the Turks defers the fall of Dedication of St. Sophia ,

537 Constantinople, 1493-12 ; Mahomet I. aided by Victories of Belisarius in Africa, Italy, and the East the emperor Manuel, becomes sultan

1413 533-541

Amurath 11, in vain besieges Constantinople, 1422 ; Pecalled through Justinian's jealousy, 542 ; again,

peace made

• 1425 543 ; again, 549 : disgraced

Jom Palæologus visits Rome and other places, Beginning of the Turkish power in Asia 545 soliciting help in vain

1437-40 'The Slavonians ravage Illyria 551 Accession of Constantine xiii., last emperor.

1448

1018 1068 1080

1202

388

392

1303

· 17 Jan.

1400

529,

562

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Accession of Mahomet II. 1451 ; begins the siege of

predecessor's consort, who has him assassiConstantinople, 6 April ; takes it 29 May, 1453

nated.
(He granted the Christians personal security and 969. John 1. Zimisces, celebrated general; takes
free exercise of their religion.) See Turkey.

Basil II, and Constantine VIII. (or IX.), sons of
EMPERORS OF THE EASTERN EMPIRE,

Romanus II., as colleagues; John dies, supposed

hy poison, and 364. Valens.

976. Basil II. and Constantine VIII. reign alone : the 379. Theodosius I. the Great.

former dies in 1025 : the latter in 1028. 395. Arcadius, the son of Theodosius.

1028. Romanus III. Argyropulus : poisoned by his pro408. Theodosius II, succeeded his father.

fligate consort Zoë, who raises 450. Marcian, a Thracian of obscure family.

1034. Michael IV. the Paphlagonian, to the throne : on 457. Leo I. the Thracian.

his death Zoë places 474. Leo II, the Younger, died the same year.

1041. Michael V. Calaphates, as his successor: Zoe Zeno, called the Isaurian.

dethrones him, has his eyes put out, and 491. Anastasius I. an Illyrian, of mean birth.

marries 518. Justin I. originally a private soldier.

1042. Constantine IX. (or X.) Monomachus, and Zoë 527. Justinian I. founder of the Digest.

reign jointly: Zoë dies, 1050. 565. Justin II. nephew of Justinian.

1054. Theodora, widow of Constantine. 578. Tiberius II, renowned for his virtues.

1056. Michael VI. Stratiotes, or Strato: deposed. 582. Maurice, the Cappalocian : murdered with all his

1057. Isaac I. Comnenus: abdicates. children, by his successor, 602. Phocas, the Usurper, a centurion, whose crimes

1059. Constantine X. (or XI.) Ducas. and cruelties led to his own assassination in

1007. Eudocia, consort of the preceding, and Romanus

IV. Diogenes, whom she narries, reign to the 610.

prejudice of Michael, Constantine's son. 610. Heraclius, by whom Phocas was dethroned.

1071. Michael VII. Parapinaces, recovers his throne, and 641. (Heracleonas) Constantine III. reigned a few months ; poisoned by his step-mother Martina.

reigns jointly with Constantine XI. (or XII.)

1078. Nicephorus III. ; dethroned by Constans II. ; assassinated in a bath, 668. Constantine III. (or IV.) Pogonatus.

1081. Alexis or Alexius I. Comnenus, succerded by

1118. John Comnenus, his son Kalos: died of a wound 685. Justinian II. son of the preceding; abhorred for

from a poisoned arrow. his exactions, debaucheries, and cruelties : de

1143. Manuel I. Comnenus, son of John. throned and inutilated by his successor,

1180. Alexis II, Comnenus, son of the preceding, under 695. Leontius : dethroned and mutilated by Tiberius

the regency of the empress Maria, his mother, Aspimar.

1183. Andronicus I. Comnenus, causes Alexis to be 698. Tiberius III. Aspimar.

strangled, and Leontius and Tiberius

seizes the throne; put to 705. Justinian II. restored.

death by
degraded in the Hippodrome, and put to death.
Justinian slain in 711.

1185. Isaac II. Angelus-Comnenus, who is deposed, im

prisoned, and deprived of his eyes by his 711. Philippicus-Bardanes : assassinated.

brother, 713. Anastasius II. : fed on the election of Theodosius

1195. Alexis III. Angelus, the Tyrant: deposed, and his in 716 ; afterwards delivered up to Leo III, and

eyes put out; died in a monastery. put to death.

1203. Isaac II. again, with his son, Alexis IV. : deposed. 716. Theodosius III. 718. Leo III, the Isaurian.

1204. Alexis V. Ducas, murders Alexis IV.; is killed hy

the crusaders.
[In this reign (726) commences the great Icono-
clastic controversy: the alternate prohibition and

LATIN EMPERORS.
restoration of images involves the peace of 1204. Baldwin I. earl of Flanders, on the capture of
several reigns.)

Constantinople by the Latins, electeil emperor: 741. Constantine IV. (or V.) Copronymus, son of the

made a prisoner by the king of Bulgaria, and preceding ; succeeded by his son.

never heard of afterwards.

1206. Henry I. his brother: dies in 1217. 780. Constantine V. (or VI.) and his mother Irene. 1216. Peter de Courtenay, his brother-in-law. 790. Constantine, alone, by the desire of the people, 1221. Robert de Courtenay, his son. Irene having become unpopular.

1228. Baldwin II, his brother, a minor, and John le 792. Irene again, jointly with her son, and afterwards

Brienne, of Jerusalem, regent and associate alone, 797 : deposed for her cruelties and mur

emperor. ders, and exiled.

1261. [Constantinople recovered, and the empire of the 802. Nicephorus I. Logothetes : slain.

Franks or Latins terminates.) 811. Stauracius : reigns a few days only.

GREEK EMPERORS AT NICE. Michael I. : defeated in battle, abdicates the throne, and retires to a monastery.

1204. Theodore Lascaris I.

1222. John Ducas Vataces. 813. Leo V. the Armenian : killed in the temple at Constantinople on Christmas-day, 820, by conspira

1255. Theodore Lascaris II., his son. tors in the interest of his successor,

1259. John Lascaris, and (1260) Michael VIII. Palie820. Michael II. the Stammerer.

ologus. 829. Theophilus, son of Michael.

GREEK EMPERORS AT CONSTANTINOPLE. 842. Michael III. Porphyrogenitus, and the Sot, son of

1261. Michael VIII, now at Constantinople: puts out the preceding: murdered by his successor,

the eyes of John, and reigns alone. 867. Basil I. the Macedonian.

1282. Andronicus II. Palæologus the Elder, son of pre886. Leo VI. the Philosopher.

ceding: deposed by
911. Alexander and Constantine VI. (or VII.) Porphy- 1328. Andronicus III, the Younger, his grandson.

rogenitus, brother and son of Leo, the latter 1341. John Palæologus I. under the guardianship of
only six years of age; the former dying in 912,

John Cantacuzenus: the latter proclaimed em-
Zoë, mother of Constantine, assumes the re-

peror at Adrianople.
gency.

1347. John Cantacuzenus ab licates. 919. Romanus Lecapenus, usurper, associates with 1355. John Palæologus I. restored, him his sous :

1391. Manuel II. Paleologus, his son: succeeded by bis 920. Christopher, and

son and colleague. 928. Stephen and Constantine VII. (or VIII.)

1425. John Palæologus II. The throne claimed by his [Five emperors now reign : Christopher dies,

three brothers. 931 ; Roinanus exiled by his sons Constantine

1448. Constantine Palæologus XII. (XIII. or XIV. (some and Stephen, who are themselves banished the

of the other emperors being called Constantine next year. )

by some writers) killed, when Constantinople 945. Constantine VII. (or VII.) reigns alone : poisoned

was taken, 29 May, 1453. by his daughter-in-law, Theophania, 959.

EAST INDIES, see India. 959. Romanus II. son of preceding: contrived his

father's death : banished his mother, Helena. EAST LONDON MUSEUM, see Bethnal 963. Nicephorus II. Phocas : married Theophania, his Green.

775. Leo IV.

ECLIPSES OF THE SUN,

424

EAST SAXONS, see Britain, p. III. Austria (40,000); Napoleon and marshal Davoust

EBELIANS, a German revivalist sect, which (hence prince d'Eckmühl) defeated the archduke began at Königsberg in Prussia, about 1836,

its Charles, 22 April, 1809. leaders being archdeacon Ebel and Dr. Diestel, ECLECTICS (from Greek, eklego, I choose), who were tried and condemned for unsound doc- ancient philosophers (called Analogetici, and also trine and impure lives in 1839. The sentence was Philalethes, the lovers of truth), who, without annulled in 1842, it is said by royal influence. The attaching themselves to any sect, chose what sect is popularly termed " • Mucker,” German for they judged good from each: of them was Potamon hypocrites. Their theory and practice of spiritual of Alexandria, about A.D. 1. Also a Christian sect, marriage is described by Mr. Hepworth Dixon in who considered the doctrine of Plato conformable his “Spiritual Wives," 1868.

to the spirit of Christianity. EBIONITES, heretics, in the 1st century, a ECLIPSE (the race-horse), see Races. branch of the Nazarenes, were of two kinds : one believed that our Saviour was born of a virgin,

ECLIPSES. Their revolution was calculated observed all the precepts of the Christian religion, by Calippus, the Athenian, 336 B.C. The Egyptians but added the ceremonies of the Jews; the other said they had accurately observed 373 eclipses of believed that Christ was born after the manner of the sun, and 832 of the moon, in the period from

The all mankind, and denied his divinity. Photinus Vulcan to Alexander, who died 323 B.C. revived the sect in 342.

theory of eclipses is said to have been known to

the Chinese before 120 B.C. The first eclipse reEBONITE (vulcanised india-rubber), see corded happened 19 March, 721 B.C., at 8h. 40m. Caoutchouc.

P.M., according to Ptolemy; it was lunar, and was

A list of EBRO, a river in Spain—the scene of a signal observed with accuracy at Babylon. defeat of the Spaniards by the French, under eclipses to the year 2000 is given in “ L'Art de Lannes, near Tudela, 23 Nov. 1808 ; and also of Vérifier les Dates.several important movements of the allied British and Spanish armies during the Peninsular war

The Nineveh eclipse (recorded, according to sir

Henry Rawlinson, on a Nineveh tablet in the (1809-1813).

British Museum)

15 June, 763 ECCLESIASTICAL COMMISSIONS: That predicted by Thales ; see Halys (Pliny, lib.

ii. 9), believed to have occurred

28 May, 585 appointed by queen Elizabeth, 1584; by James I.

[Sir G. B. Airy thinks the date should be 610: in Scotland, 1617; by the English parliament in

others say 603 or 584 B.C. It is the one recorded 1641; and by James II. to coerce the universities

by Herodotus as interrupting a battle between in 1687. The present Ecclesiastical Commissioners the Medes and Lydians. ) (bishops, deans, and laymen) for the management Eclipse of Xerxes, when setting out on his expediof church property, were appointed in Feb. 1835 ;

tion against Greece

17 Feb. 478

One at Athens (Thucydides, lib. iv.) incorporated in 1836; and their proceedings regu

Eclipse of Agathocles (Airy)

15 Aug. 310 lated in 1840 and 1841. The law relating to them Total one: three days' supplication decreed at was amended in 1868.

Rome (Livy)

188

One general at the death of Jesus Christ (Josephus) ECCLESIASTICAL COURTS. There ex

A. D. 3 April, isted no distinction between lay and ecclesiastical One observed at Constantinople

968 courts in England until 1085, after the Norman con- At the battle of Sticklestadt

20 July, 1030 quest; see Arches and Consistory Courts. Till the In France, when it was dark at noon-day (Du establishment of the Divorce and Probate courts

Fresnoy).

29 June, 1033

In England: a total darkness (iv. Molmsb.), (which see) in 1857, the following were the causes

Again; the stars visible at ten in the morning cognisable in ecclesiastical courts : blasphemy,

(Camden)

23 June, 1191 apostasy from Christianity, heresy, schism, ordina- The true sun, and the appearance of another, so tions, institutions to benefices, matrimony, divorces, that astronomers alone could distinguish the bastards, tithes, incest, fornication, adultery, pro- difference by coloured glasses bate of wills, administrations, &c.

Observed in Scotland; termed the “black hour',

7 June. 1433 ECCLESIASTICAL DILAPIDA- Observed in Scotland; termed “Mirk Monday" TIONS, law respecting amended, by acts passed Total eclipse, visible in England; the darkness so

8 April, 1652 in 1871 and 1872.

great that the stars shone, and the birds went to ECCLESIASTICAL GAZETTE, Church

3 May, 1715

Last total eclipse observed in England; seen near of England semi-official journal; sent gratuitously

Salisbury

22 May, 1724 to all dignitaries and incumbents; established 10 Remarkable one, central and annular in the interior July, 1838.

of Europe

7 Sept. 1802

Total eclipses17 July, 1833 ; ; July1842; 28 ECCLESIASTICAL STATE, or STATES July, 1851. OF THE CHURCH, see Rome, Modern.

An annular eclipse; it was seen and photographed

at Oundle; but not seen well at other places ECCLESIASTICAL TITLES ACT, 14 &

15 March, 1858 15 Vict. c. 60 (1851), repealed 24 July, 1871; see Total eclipse of the sun; well seen by Sir G. B. Papal Aggression.

Airy, astronomer royal, and others in Spain ;

Mr. Warren De la Rue took photographs, 18 July, 1860 ECHO. The time which elapses between the Total eclipse of the sun of the longest possible durautterance of a sound and its return must be more tion; (The Royal Society provided means for its than one-twelfth of a second, to form an echo.

observation in India, by col. Walker, Mr. Herschel, The whispering gallery of St. Paul's is a well- During the solar eclipse, 18 Aug. 1868, as observed

and others)

18 Aug. 1868 known example. The Echo, independent evening

in India, M. Janssen invented a inethod of studypaper, price d., established Dec. 1868.

ing the phenomena of the sun at any time, by

employing several spectroscopes, whereby the ECKMÜHL (Bavaria), the site of a battle

spectrum is lengthened and the dazzling brilbetween the main armies of France (75,000) and liancy diminished. Jr. Joseph Norman Lockyer

Q

33

20 Mar. 1140

roost at noon

413 victory

A.D.

had suggested a similar method of observation came famous for its schools of theology in the 5th in 1866, but did not use it till 20 Oct. 1868, being

century. It was made a principality by the crusathen not aware of M. Janssen's discovery.

ders, and was taken by the Saracens, 1145; by The solar eclipse well observed in North America,

7 Aug. 1869

Nur-ed-deen, in 1144; and the Turks in 1184. Its Two expeditions to observe the solar eclipse of ancient kings or rulers were named Abgarus and

22 Dec. 1870, sent out by the British government, Mannus. were not successful

22 Dec. 1870 The solar eclipse well observed at Ceylon and in EDGECOTE, see Banbury. southern India

12 Dec. 1871 [The same eclipses (about 70) recur in a period of EDGEHILL FIGHT (23 Oct. 1642), War18 years of days.)

wickshire, between the royalists under prince RuExcept the total eclipse, 12 Aug. 1999, there can be pert and the parliament army under the earl of

no total eclipse of the sun visible in England for Essex, was the first important engagement in the 250 years : July, 1871. Hind.

civil war. Charles I. was present, and the earl of OF THE MOON.

Lindsay, who headed the royal foot, was mortally The first, observed by the Chaldeans at Babylon wounded. The king lost 5000 dead. The action (Ptolemy iv.)

B.C. 721 A total one observed at Sardis (Thucydides vii.)

was indecisive, though the parliament claimed the Again, in Asia Minor ( Polybius).

219 One at Rome, predicted by @. Sulpitius Gallus

EDICTS, public ordinances and decrees, (Livy xliv.)

168 oue terrified the Roman troops and quelled their usually set forth by sovereigns; originated with revolt (Tacitus).

the Romans. The PERPETUAL EDICT: Salvius 14

Julianus, of Milan, a civilian at Rome (author of ECNOMUS, see Himera.!

several treatises on public right), was employed by ÉCOLE POLYTECHNIQUE, a military the emperor Adrian to draw up this body of laws academy at Paris, established in 1794, and reor

for the prætors, promulgated 132. ganised and given its present name on i Sept. 1795. The "Journal” (1795-1867) contains pro- France granted toleration to his protestant subjects,

EDICT OF NANTES, by which Henry IV. of found mathematical papers. "The school was reorganised 4 Sept. 1816. The pupils helped to defend 13. April, 1598, was confirmed by Louis XIII. in Paris in 1814 and 1830.

1610, and hy Louis XIV. in 1652. It was revoked

by Louis XIV. 22 Oct. 1685. This act cost France ECONOMIC MUSEUM (or_Museum of 50,000 Protestant families, and gave to England Domestic and Sanitary Economy), at Twickenham, and Germany thousands of industrious artisans. open free, was established chiefly by the agency It also caused a fierce insurrection in Languedoc. of Mr. Thos. Twining, in 1860. It originated from See Camisards. Some of the refugees settled in Spitalthe Paris exhibition of 1855.

fields, where their descendants yet remain; others

settled in Soho and St. Giles's, and pursued the art ECONOMIST, London weekly journal, de

of making crystal glasses, and carried on the silk voted to financial matters, first appeared 2 Sept. manufacture and jewellery; then little understood 1843.

in England. ECORCHEURS (Flayers), bands of armed adventurers who desolated France and Belgium derives its name—in ancient records Dun Edin,

EDINBURGH, the metropolis of Scotland, during the 15th century, beginning about 1435. Amongst their leaders were Chabannes, comte de rebuilt by Edwin, king

of Northumbria, who,

" the hill of Edin"-from its castle, founded or Dammartin, the bastard of Armagnac, and Vil- having greatly extended his dominions, erected it landras; and they at one time numbered 100,000. They are said to have stripped their victims to their from the incursions of the Scots and Picts, 626.

for the protection of his newly acquired territories shirts, and flayed the cattle. They were favoured

But it is said the castle was first built by Camelon, by the English invasion and the civil wars.

king of the Picts, 330 B.C. It makes a conspicuous ECUADOR, see Equator.

appearance, standing at the west end of the town,

on a rock 300 feet high, and, before the use of great EDDAS, or GRANDMOTHERS, two books (prose and verse) containing the Scandinavian guns, was a fortification of considerable strength. mythology (or history of Odin, Thor, Frea, &c.), Christianity introduced (reign of Donald I.) written about the nith or 12th centuries. Transla- Edinburylı taken by the Anglo-Saxons

482 tions have been made into French, English, &c.

Taken by the Picts MSS. of the Eddas exist at Copenhagen and Upsal.

City fortified, and castle rebuilt by Malcolm

Canmore EDDYSTONE (or EDYSTONE) LIGHT- Besieged by Donald Bain HOUSE, off the port of Plymouth, erected by Edinburgh constituted a burgh

Holyrood abbey founded by David i..

about 108 the Trinity-house to enable ships to avoid the Castle surrendered to Henry 11. of England · 1174 Eddystone rock. The first lighthouse was com- A parliament held here under Alexander II. menced under Mr. Winstanley, in 1606; finished City taken by the English in 1609; and destroyed in the dreadful tempest

Grant of the town of Leith to Edinburgh

Surrenders to Edward III. of 27 Nov. 1703, when Mr. Winstanley and others

1356

St. Giles's cathedral built perished. It was rebuilt by act of parliament, and City burnt by Richard II., 1385; and by Ilenry IV. 1401 all ships were ordered to pay one penny per ton James II, first king crowned here

1437, inwards and outwards towards supporting it, Execution of the earl of Athol 1708. This lighthouse was burnt 4 Dec. 1755; Annual fair granted by James II.

1447 and one on a better plan, erected by Mr. Smeaton,

City strengthened by a wall

Charter of James III. finished 9 Oct. 1759. The woodwork of this, burnt

Edinburgh made the metropolis by Jaines III.

1482 in 1770, was replaced by stone.

Royal College of Surgeons incorporatui

1508 EDESSA (now Orfah), a town in Mesopo- Charter of James IV tamia, said by some, to have been built by Nimrod;

[The palace of Holyrood is built in the reigu of

James IV.] by Appian, to have been built by Selencus. It be- High school founded, about

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24 Nov

9

7 Sept.

A British force, landing from a fleet of 200 ships, Secession, and formation of the Free Church, burns both Edinburgh and Leith May, 1544

18 May, 1843 Leith is again burnt, but Edinburgh is spared

1547

New College instituted Tolbooth built 1561 North British railway commenced

1844 Marriage of queen Mary and lord Darnley

1565

The monument to the political martyrs of 1793-4) David Rizzio murdered

1566
laid by Mr. Hume .

21 Aug. Lord Darnley blown up in a private house by gun Walter Scott's monument completed

1845 powder

10 Feb. 1567
N. British railway opened

18 June, 1846 Mary marries James, earl of Bothwell

15 May,
British Association (and time) meets

31 July, 1850 Mary's forced resignation; civil war

1570 The queen again visits Edinburgh

29 Aug. Death of John Knox

1572 Prince Albert lays the foundation-stone of the University chartered ; see Ed. University i4 April , 1562 Scotch national gallery

30 Aug. Bothwell's attempt on Holyrood-house 27 Dec. 1591

Meeting to vindicate Scottish rights 2 Nov. 1853 Riot in the city; the mob attacks the king 1596 Old buildings near Lawn-market burnt 5 Aug. 1857 James VI. leaves Edinburgh as king of England, Act passed for building new Post-office. July, 1858 5 April, 1603; he revisits it 16 May, 1617 National gallery opened

21 March, 1859 George Heriot's hospital founded by his will 1624 Agitation against Ministers' Annuity tax Sept. Charles I. visits Edinburgh

June, 1633 Lord Brougham elected chancellor of the university, Riots in Greyfriars church at the reading the

Edinburgh

i Nov. English Liturgy

23 July, 1637 Ministers' tax abolished, and other arrangements Parliament house finished

1640 made which did not give satisfaction : riots Charles again visits the city 1641 ensued

Nov. 1860 The castle is surrendered to Cromwell

Dec. 1650

20,000 volunteers reviewed by the queen in Queen's “Mercurius Caledonius," first Edinburgh newspaper,

Park

7 Aug. appeared 1661 Industrial Museum Act passed

28 Aug. Coffee-houses first opened

1677 Edinburgh visited by empress Eugénie, 20 Nov. Merchants' Company incorporated

1681 The prince consort lays foundation of new PostCollege of Physicians incorporated

office and industrial museum

23 Oct. 1861 Earl of Argyli beheaded

30 June, 1685 Fall of a house in High-street, 35 persons killed, African and East India Company incorporated 1695 Bank of Scotland founded

Accident on Edinburgh and Glasgow railway-17 Union of the kingdoms

1707
killed ; above 100 wounded .

13 Oct. 1862 Royal bank founded .

1727
Lord Palmerston's visit

31 March-4 April, 1864 Board of trustees of trade and manufactures Theatre royal burnt: George Lorimer, dean of appointed .

guild, and seven other persons, killed by fall of Royal Infirmary incorporated

1736 wall, while endeavouring to extricate others, Affair of Captain Porteous (see Porteous)

13 Jan. 1865 Medical Society instituted

• 1737

Statues of Allan Ramsay and John Wilson inauguThe young Pretender occupies Holyrood 17 Sept. 1745

rated

25 March, Battle of Preston Pans 21 Sept. New Post-office opened

7 May, 1866 Modern improvements, “New town," commenced. 1753 National museum of science and art opened by Magistrates assigned gold chains.

• 1754 prince Alfred (who is created duke of Edinburgh, Royal Exchange completed

· 1761
&c. 24 May).

· 19 May, Foundation of the North Bridge

21 Oct. 1763 Great reform demonstration Theatre Royal erected

1769 Explosion in the Canongate, at Hammond's, a fireGreat fire in the Lawn-market.

1771

work-maker's ; 5 killed, many injured 9 Oct. 1867 Register-office, Princes-street, commenced.

1774

Visit of Mr. Disraeli, chancellor of the exchequer, Calton-hill observatory founded 25 July, 1776 conservative demonstration

29, 30 Oct. Great commotion against popery.

2 Feb. 1779

Meeting to propose restoration of si. Giles's catheSociety of Antiquaries

1780
dral

. 1 Nov. Royal Society of Edinburgh incorporated

1783 Visit of John Bright, made freeman 3 Nov. 1868 South Bridge commenced

1 Aug. 1785 The prince of Wales installed as patron of the Royal College of Surgeons incorporated

1788 Freemasons of Scotland, 12 Oct. ; laid the foundaFirst stone of present university laid

16 Nov. 1789
tion of the new royal infirmary .

13 Oct. 1870 Robertson, the historian, dies here 11 June, 1793 The annuity-tax abolition act passed Bridewell, Calton-hill, erected

17 Nov

.

9 Aug.

1796 Meeting of British Association (3rd) . 2 Aug. 1871 Holyrood, an asylum to Louis xviii. and 'his

Scott centenary celebrated

9 (for 15) Aug. brother, afterwards Charles X.

1795 to 1799 Restoration of St. Giles's catedral begun, 17 June, 1872 New Bank of Scotland commenced 3 June, 1801 Edinburgh Review” first published 10 Oct. 1802 EDINBURGH, BISHOPRIC OF, was created New system of police established

1805 by Charles I. when in Scotland in 1633 ; and WilAlarming riots here

31 Dec. 1811

liam Forbes, minister of Edinburgh, first bishop. Nelson's monument completed

1815 The king allotted the parishes of the shires of Gas company incorporated

1818 Water company incorporated

1819

Edinburgh, Linlithgow, "Haddington, and a part Professor Playfair dies

of Berwick and of Stirlingshire, to compose the see. Society of Arts instituted.

1821 The sixth and last prelate was Alexander Ross, who Union Canal completed

1822 was ejected on the abolition of cpiscopacy, at the George IV.'s visit ; foundation of the national

period of the revolution, in 1689. Edinburgh bemonument.

15-27 Aug. Royal Institution erected.

came a post-revolution bishopric in 1720; see Destructive fires

June and Nov. 1824

Bishops. Scottish Academy founded

1826 Lord Melville's monument erected

EDINBURGH REVIEW (by Francis Jef

1828 Edinburgh and Dalkeith railway opened .

July, 1831

frey, rev. Sydney Smith, Henry Brougham, and Statue of George IV. erected

1832

other whigs) published first on 1o Oct. 1802. Death of sir Walter Scott

21 Sept. Chambers's Edinburgh Journal published .

EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY. A college Association of the Fine Arts

1833

was commenced by the town council of Edinburgh, The British Association meets here 8 Sept. 1834 | in 1581, for which queen Mary had given the site Edinburgh and Granton railway begun

1836 of ancient religious houses, and Robert Reid, bishop Art-union of Scotland

1837 of Orkney, the funds in 1558. In 1582 the uniMonument to sir Walter Scott commenced.

1840 versity was chartered by James Vs. afterwards Society of Arts, founded 1821 ; incorporated

1842 Edinburgh and Glasgow railway opened Feb.

James I. of England. The first principal was apQueen Victoria visits Edinburgh, &c., 31 Aug - pointed in 1585. The foundation-stone of the new

15 Sept. buildings was laid by Francis, lord Napier, grand

20 July,

1823

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