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1868.

The emperor publishes his letter on the policy of The crystalline body anthracene was discovered in France in Algeria (20 July)

Nov. 1865

coal oils by Dumas and Laurent in 1832. See Insurrection ; 4000 Arabs defeated by col. Sounis,

Madder.

2 Feb. 1869 Algeria proclaimed in a state of siege 15 Aug. 1870 ALJUBARROTA, Portugal. Here John I. of The insurrection ended; state of siege raised, 24 June 1871

Portugal defeated John I. of Castile, and secured ALHAMBRA, a Moorish palace and fortress his country's independence, 14 Aug. 1385 ; see near Granada, S. Spain, founded by Mohammed I.

Batalha. of Granada about 1253. It was surrendered to the ALKALIES (from kali, the Arabic name for Christians about Nov. 1491. The remains have been the plant from which an alkaline substance was described in a magnificent work by Owen Jones and first procured) are ammonia, potash, soda, and Jules Goury, published 1842-5. À fac-simile of a lithia. Black discovered the nature of the differpart of this palace in the Crystal Palace at Syden- ence between caustic and mild alkalies in 1736. ham, was destroyed by the fire, 30 Dec, 1866.- The Panopticon (which sce) was opened as a circus, &c., The fixed alkalies, potash and soda, decomposed, and the

metals potassium and sodium formed, by Humphry under the name of Alhambra, in March, 1858. The

Davy at the Royal Institution, London, 1807. Alhambra Palace Company, incorporated in July Dr. Ure invented an alkalimeter, 1816. 1863, applied for dissolution in Jan. 1865.

The manufacture of alkalies, very extensive in Lanca

shire and Cheshire, are based on the decomposition of ALI, SECT OF (Shiites, or Fatimites). Ali common salt (chloride of sodium), by a process inmarried Mahomet's daughter Fatima, about 632, vented by a Frenchman named Le Blanc, about 1792. and became vizier, 613; and caliph, 655. Ali was

Mr. Losh obtained crystals of soda from brine about 1814.

Various moditications of these processes are now in called by the prophet, “the lion of God, always victorious ; ” and the Persians follow the interpre

"Alkali works," are defined as works for the manufacture tation of the Koran according to Ali, while other of alkali, sulphates of soda, sulphate of potash, and in Mahometans adhere to that of Abubeker and Omar. which muriatic gas is evolved. Ali was assassinated 23 Jan. 661.*

Mr. Wm. Gossage's process for condensing muriatic acid

gas patented in 1836. ALIENS or FOREIGNERS, were banished in In consequence of the injury to vegetation produced by 1155, being thought too numerous. In 1343 they

the alkali works in Lancashire and Cheshire, the

Alkali Works act“ for the more effectual condensation were excluded from enjoying ecclesiastical benefices.

(of 95 per cent.) of muriatic acid gas" (or hydrochloric By 2 Rich. II. st. 1, 1378, they were much relieved.

acid) was passed, 28 July, 1863. It came into operaWhen they were to be tried criminally, the juries tion 1 Jan. 1864, proved successful, and was re-enacted were to be half foreigners, if they so desired, 1430. They were restrained from exercising any trade or handicraft by retail, 1483, a prohibition which was

ALKMAER, see Bergen. relaxed in 1663.

ALLAHABAD (N. W. Hindostan), the “holy Alien priories (cells and estates belonging to foreign per-city” of the Indian Mahometans, situated at the sons) suppressed in England, 1414.

junction of the rivers Jumna and Ganges. The The Alien Act passed, Jan. 1793.

province of Allahabad was successively subject to Act to register aliens, 1795.

the sovereigns of Delhi and Oude, but in 1801 was Baron Geramb, a fashionable foreigner, known at court, partially and in 1803 wholly incorporated with the

ordered out of England, 6 April, 1812. Bill to abolish naturalisation by the holding of stock in

British possessions. By treaty here, Bengal, &c., the banks of Scotland, June, 1820.

was ceded to the English in 1765.—During the New registration act, 7 George IV. 1826. This last act Indian mutiny several sepoy regiments rose and

was repealed and another statute passed, 6 Will. IV. massacred their officers, 4 June, 1857 ; colonel Neil 1836.

marched promptly from Benares and suppressed the The rigour of the alien laws was mitigated by acts passed

insurrection. In Nov. 1861, lord Canning made in 1844 and 1847. Foreigners have reclaimed our marshes, drained our

this city the capital of the N. W. provinces. fens, fished our seas, and built our bridges and har

ALLEGIANCE, see Oaths. bours." Smiles, 1861. Their status defined by the Naturalisation Act, passed

ALLEGORY abounds in the Bible and in 12 May, 1870.

Homer: see Jacob's blessing upon his sons, Genesis ALIWAL, a village N. W. India, the site of a

xlix. (1689 B.C.), Psalm lxxx., and all the prophets. battle, 28 Jan. 1846, between the Sikh army under

Spenser's Faerie Queene (1590) and Bunyan's Pilsirdar Runjoor Singh Majeethea, 19,000 strong,

grim's Progress (1678) are allegories throughout. supported by 68 pieces of cannon, and the British The Spectator (1711), by Addison, Steele, and others, under sir Harry Smith, 12,000 men with 32 guns. abounds in allegories. The allegorical interpretation The contest was obstinate, but ended in the defeat of the scriptures is said to have begun with Origen of the Sikhs, who lost nearly 6000 killed or

in the 3rd century; but see Gal. iv. 24. drowned.

ALLIA (Italy), a small river flowing into the ALIZARINE, a crystalline body, the colour- Tiber, where Brennus and the Gauls defeated the ing principle of madder, discovered in it by Robi- Romans, 16 July, 390 B.C. The Gauls sacked Rome quet and Colin in 1831.' Schunck showed that all and committed so much injury that the day was the finest madder colours contained only alazarine thereafter held to be unlucky (nefas), and no public combined with alkalies and fatty acids. Graebe business was permitted to be done thereon. and Liebermann obtained anthracene from alizarine

ALLIANCE, TREATIES OF, between the high in 1868, and alizarine from anthracene in 1869. European powers. The following are the principal ;

see Coalitions, Conventions, Treaties, United KingThe first four successors of Mahomet-Abubeker, dom, fc. Omar, Othman, and Ali, his chief agents in establishing his religion and extirpating unbelievers, and whom on that account he styled the cutting swords of God"-all Of Leipsic

9 April, 1631 died violent deaths ; and his family was wholly extir- Of Vienna

27 May, 1657 pated within thirty years after his own decease.

The Triple

28 Jan. 1668 in modern warfare.

ALLIANCE.

24 March,

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19 Dec.

1380 1460

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ALLIANCE.

ALMACK'S ASSEMBLY-ROOMS, KingOf Warsaw

31 March, 1683 street, St. James's, London, at first very exclusive, The Grand

12 May, 1689 The Hague

were erected by a Scotchman named Almack, and

4 Jan. Tlie Quadrille

2. Aug. 1313 opened 12 Feb. 1765. They are now termed Of Vienna

16 March, 1731

Willis's rooms from the name of the present proOf Versailles

1 May, 1756 prietors. Germanic

23 July, 1785 Of Paris

16 May, 1795

ALMANACS (from the Arabic al manah, to of St. Petersburg

8 April, 1805 count). The Esyptians computed time by instruAustrian.

14 March, 1812

ments; the Alexandrians had almanacs, and log Of Sweden

calendars are ancient. In the British Museum and Of Toplitz

2 Sept. 1813 universities are specimens of early almanacs. MiHoly Alliance Of England, France, and Turkey (at Constantinople) chael Nostradamus the astrologer, wrote an almanac

12 Mar. 1854 in the style of Merlin, 1556. Dufresnoy. ProfesOf England and France ratified

3 April, sor Augustus De Morgan's valuable " Book of Of Sardinia with the Western Powers (at Turin) Almanacs, with an index of reference, by which the

26 Jan. 1855 almanac may be found for every year,” was pubOf Sweden with the Western Powers Of Prussia and Italy

June, 1866

lished in March, 1851. Among the earlier and more

remarkable almanacs were ALLOTMENTS, see Land, note.

John Somer's Calendar, written in Oxford

One in Lambeth Palace, written in ALL SAINTS' DAY (Nov. 1), or All-Hal- First printed one, published at Buda lows, a festival said to have been begun by pope

'Shepheard's Kalendar,” (tirst printed in England)

by Richard Pynson Boniface IV. about 607, celebrated in the Pan

Tybalt's Prognostications. theon at Rome, and established by pope Gregory IV. Almanac Liégeois .

1636 (about 830) for the commemoration of all those Lilly's Ephemeris

1644 saints and martyrs in whose honour no particular Poor Robin's Almanac

1652 day is assigned. The reformers of the English

British Merlin

1633 church, 1549, struck out of their calendar a great

Edinburgh Almanac

1683 Connaissance des Temps (by Picard)

1699 number of anniversaries, leaving only those which Moore's Almanac.

1698 or 1713 at their time were connected with popular feeling or Lady's Diary

1705 tradition.

Season on the Seasons

1735 Gentleman's Diary

1741 ALL SOULS' DAY (2 Nov.), a festival of Nautical Almanac, begun by Dr. Neville Maskelyne the Roman Catholic church to commemorate the

(materially improved, 1834)

1767 souls of the faithful, instituted, it is said, at Cluny Hone's Every-Day Book

British Imperial Kalendar

1809 about 993 or 1000.

British Almanac and Companion

1828 Anniversary Calendar, published by w. Kiad

1832 ALL SOULS' COLLEGE, Oxford; sce Chambers' Book of Days .

1862-63 Oxford.

The Stationers' company claimed the exclusive right

of publishing almanacs in virtue of letters patent from “ALL THE TALENTSADMINIS- James I., granting the privilege to them and the two TRATION, see Grenville Administrations. Universities; but the monopoly was broken up by a

decision of the Court of Common Pleas in 1775. A bill ALLOBROGES, Gauls, defeated by Q. Fabius

to renew the privilege was lost in 1779. Maximus, near the confluence of the Rhone and

The Stamp Duty on English almanacs first imposed in

1710, was abolished in August, 1834 ; since when almaSaone, 121 B.C.

nacs have become innumerable, being issued by trades

men with their goods. Of Moore's (under the management ALMA, a river in the Crimea, near which was of Henry Andrews, the able computer of the Nautic! fought a great battle on 20 Sept. 1854: (See Ephemeris) at one tine upwards of 430,000 copies were Russo-Turkish War and Crimea.) The English, the principal are the “ Almanach de France," tirst pub

He died in 1820. Of Foreign Almannes, French, and Turkish army (about 57,000 men) lished in 1699, and the "Almanach de Gotha," 1764. moved out of their first encampment in the Crimea on 19 Sept., and bivouacked for the night on the ALMANZA (S. E. Spain). Here on 25 April left bank of the Bulganac. The Russians (com- (0. s. 14), 1707, the English, Dutch, and Portuguese manded by prince Menschikoff), mustering 40,000 forces under the earl of Galway, were totally deinfantry, had 180 field-pieces on the heights, and on feated by the French and Spanish commanded by the morning of 20 Sept. were joined by 6000 cavalry James Fitzjames, duke of Berwiek (illegitimate son from Theodosia (or Kaffa). The English forces of James II.). Most of the English were killed under lord Raglan, consisted of 26,000 men; the or made prisoners, having been abandoned by the French of 24,000, under marshal St. Arnaud. At Portuguese at the first charge. 12 o'clock the signal to alvance was made; the river Alma was crossed, while prince Napoleon took

ALMEIDA (Portugal), a frontier town, cappossession of the village under the fire of the

tured by Massena, 27 Aug. 1810. The French Russian batteries; and at 4, after a sanguinary fight, blockaded by the English, 6 April, 1811. Almeida

entered Spain, leaving a garrison at Almeida, the allies were completely victorious. The enemy, utterly routed, threw away their arms and knap

was retaken by Wellington (11 May), and Massena karks in their flight, having lost about 5000 men, of retired from Portugal. whom 900 were made prisoners, mostly wounded. ALMENARA, a village N. E. Spain, where on The loss of the British was 26 officers and 327 men 28 July, 1710, an English and German army dekilled, and 73 officers and 1539 men wounded feated the Spanish army supporting Philip V., the (chiefly from the 23rd, 7th, and 33rd regiments); grandson of Louis XIV. of France. Stanhope, the that of the French, 3 officers and 233 men killed, English general, killed the Spanish general, Ameand 54 officers and 1033 men wounded. Total loss zaga, in single conflict; an act almost unexampled of the allies about 3400.

24

28

25 20 27 26

1577

32 28

44

35
22

ters

ALMOHADES, Mahometan partisans, fol. (covering II acres), was erected at Saltaire, near lowers of Mohammed ben Abdalla, surnamed El- Shipley, Yorkshire, by Mr. (now sir) Titus Salt in Mehedi, in Africa, about 1120. They subdued 1852. Morocco, 1145; entered Spain and took Seville, Cordova, and Granada, 1146-56; and founded a

ALPHABET. Athotes, son of Menes, is said dynasty and ruled Spain till 1232, and Africa till

to have been the author of hieroglyphies, and to 12,8.

have written thus the history of the Egyptians,

2122 B.C. Blair. But Josephus affirms that he had ALMONER, an office anciently allotted to a seen incriptions by Seth, the son of Adam : this is dignitied clergyman who gave the first dish from the deemed fabulous. royal table to the poor, or an alms in money. By an ancient canon all bishops were required' to keep The first letter of the Phanician and Hebrew alphabet

The Egyptian alphabet is ascribed to Memnon 1822 B.C. almoners. The grand almoner of France was the

was aleph, called by the Greeks alpha, and abbreviated highest ecclesiastical dignity in that kingdom before by the moderns to 1. The Hebrew is supposed to be the revolution, 1789. Queen Victoria's almoner derived from the Phoenician. (Rev. Dr. Wellesley, dean of Windsor, appointed Cadmus the founder of Cadmea, 1493 B.C., is said to have 28 May, 1870) or sub-almoner distributes the

brought the Phoenician letters (tifteen in number) into queen's gifts on Jaundy Thursday (which see).

Greece, viz. -A, B, C, A, I, K, A, M, N, 0, II, P, 2,
T, T. These letters were originally either Hebrew,

Phoenician, or Assyrian characters, and changed ALMORAVIDES, Mahometan partisans in

gradually in form till they became the ground of the Africa, rose about 1050; entered Spain by invita- Roman letters, now used all over Europe. Palamedes tion, 1086; were overcome by the Almohades in of Argos invented the double characters, O, X, , 5, 1147.

about 1224 B. C. ; and Simonides added, Z, Y, H, 9, about 489 B.C.

Arunildlian Marbles. - When the E was ALMSHOUSES for aged and infirm persons introduced is not precisely known. The Greek alphabet have been erected by many public companies and

consisted of 16 letters till 399 (or 403) B.C., when the benevolent individuais, particularly since the

Ionic of 24 characters was 'introduced, The small

letters are of later invention. abolition of religious houses at the Reformation in

The alphabets of the

different nations contain the following number of the 16th century. A list of them, with useful infor

letters: mation, will be found in “Low's Charities of Lon- English.

26 | Greek don," ed. 1862.

French

Hebrew
Italian.

Arabic
Cornelius Van Dun founded the Red Lion alms- Spanish

Persian houses, Westminster

German.

Turkish Emmanuel College, Westminster, founded by Lady

Slavonic

42 Sanserit Dacre

1594 Russian

Chinese radical characWhittington's almshouses founded in 16:1, were

Latin,

214 rebuilt near Highgate-hill by the Mercers' company

1826 ALPHONSINE TABLES, astronomical The f'ishmongers' company founded alnishouses

tables, composed by Spanish and Arab astronomers, in 1618, and rebuilt thein on Wandsworth com

and collected in 1253 under the direction of Alphon

1830 Halzerdashers' almshouses, Hoxton, founded by so X. of Castile, surnamed the Wise, who is said Robert Aske

1692

to have expended upwards of 400,000 crowns in Dame Owen's almshouses, Islington, built in 1613, completing the work; he himself wrote the preface.

(in gratitude for her escape from an arrow-shot), The Spanish government ordered the work of Al

were rebuilt by the Brewers' company. Bancroft's alınshouses, Mile End, were erected

1839 ! phonso to be reprinted from the best MSS. ; tbe The London almshouses, in commemoration of the

1735 ; publication begun in 1863. passing of the Reforin Bill, built at Brixton

1833 Numerous almshouses since erected for printers,

ALPS, European mountains. Those between boukbinders, &c.

France and Italy were passed by Hannibal, 218

B.C., by the Romans, 154 B.C., and by Napoleon I. ALNEY, an island in the Severn, near Glouces- May, 1800. Roads over Mont Cenis and the ter. Here a combat is asserted to have taken place Simplon, connecting France and Italy, were conbetween Edmund Ironside and Cavute the Great, structed by order of Napoleon, between 1801-6; see in sight of their armies, 1016. The latter was Simplon. The “Alpine Club," which consists wounded, and proposed a division of the kingdom, of British travellers in the Alps, was founded the south part falling to Edmund. Edmund was in 1858, and published their first work, “ Peaks, murdered at Oxford shortly after, it is said by Passes, and Glaciers,” 1859; see Matterhorn. Edric Streon; and Canute obtained possession of the whole kingdom.

Mont Cenis or Col de Fréjus Tunnel.-- A tunnel, 7 miles

long, through mount Cenis, connecting Savoy and ALNWICK (Saxon Ealnuic), on the river

Piedmont, was proposed by M. Medail, and, after long Alne in Northumberland, was given at the eonquest

lying dormant, was discussed and plans drawn up in

1848. The execution was prevented by the war of to Ivo de Vesci. It has long belonged to the Percies. Malcolm, king of Scotland, besieged Alnwick, and the work of excavation was begun by king Victor he and his sons were killed 13 Nov. 1093. It was Emmanuel, 31 Aug. 1857. taken by David I. in 1136, and attempted in July, The boring was at tirst effected by orlinary piercing 1174 by William the Lion, who was defeated and

machinery; steam power was employed in 1860; and taken prisoner. It was burnt by king John in 1215, Engineers - Grattoni, Grandis, and Sommeiller; the

latterly compressed air. and by the Scots in 1448. Since 1854 the castle has boring was completed, 25 Dec. 1870. been repaired and enlarged with great taste and at The total cost was about 2,600.ocol. As the Italians had unsparing expense.

executed the work within the given time, the Frenco.

government bore the chief expense. ALPACA (or Paco), a species of the S. Ameri- The first experimental trip was made in 40 minutes, 13 can quadruped, the Llaina, the soft hairy wool of Sept., and the tunnel was solemnly inaugurated by the which is now largely employed in the fabrication of

passage of 22 carriages in 20 ininutes, 17 Sept. 1871; cloths. It was introduced into this country about

regular trains pass through, 16 Oct. 1871.

About ten miles of railway are yet to make on the French 1836, by the earl of Derby. An alpaca factory, dic. | side of the mountain (1872).

mon

1849.

A railway for locomotives over mount Cenis was con- loner, who established large alum works near Whitby

structed upon Mr. Fell's plan in 1867 (seo Railways), in 1608; it was discovered in Ireland in 1757; and and opened for traffic, 15 June, 1868. The overland mail first travels through the tunnel to dyeing; to harden tallow, to whiten bread, and in

in Anglesey in 1790. Alum is used as a mordant in Brindisi, saving 24 hours, 5 Jan. 1872.

the paper manufacture. ALSACE, ELSASS (N. E. France), formerly part of the kingdom of Austrasia, now the depart: near Lucknow, Oude, India, taken during the mu

ALUMBAGH, a palace with other buildings ments of the Upper and Lower Rhine. It was incorporated with the German empire in the roth tiny from the rebels, 23 Sept. 1857, and heroically century. A portion was restored to France, 1648, defended by the British under sir James Outram. and the whole, including Strasburg, in 1697. 'Alsace He defeated an attack of 30,000 sepoys on 12 Jan. was re-conquered by the Germans, Aug-Sept. 1870; 1858, and of 20,000 on 21 Feb., and was relieved by and annexed to their empire, Vay, 1871; by law, sir Colin Campbell in March. 9. June, 1871. The Alsatians were permitted to ALUMINIUM, a metal, the base of the earth choose their nationality, before 30 Sept. 1872. Many alumina, which is combined with silica in clay, and emigrated into France, with much regret. ---ALSACE- which was shown to be a distinct earth by MargLORRAINE was constituted a province of the Ger- graft' in 1754, having been previously confounded man empire, having been ceded by France by the with lime. Oerstedt in 1826 obtained the chloride treaty of peace concluded 10 May, 1871. It will be of aluminium ; and in 1827 the metal itself was got governed by imperial officers. The present dicta- from it by F. Wöhler, but was long a scientific torial rule will cease 1 Jan. 1874.

curiosity, the process being expensive. The mode ALSATIA, a name given to the precinct of of production was afterwards simplified by Bunsen Whitefriars, London, is described in Scott's * For- and others, more especially by H. Ste. - Claire tunes of Nigel.” Its privilege of sanctuary was

Deville, who in 1856 succeeded in procuring conabolished in 1697.

siderable quantities of this metal. It is very light

(sp. g. 2:25), malleable, and sonorous; when pure ALSEN (Denmark), besieged by the Prussians, does not rust, and is not acted on by sulphur or and heroically defended, 26 June; taken, 29 June, any acid except hydrochloric. In March, 1856, it 1864.

was 31. the ounce; in June, 1857, 118, or 128., and ALTAR. One was built by Noah, 2348 B.C.

it is now much cheaper (1873). The eagles of the (Gen. viii. 20); others by Abraham, 1921 (Gen. xii

. French colours have been made of it, and many other 8). Directions for making an altar are given, Exod.

ornamental and useful articles. Deville's work, xx. 24, 1491 B.C. Altars were raised to Jupiter, in aluminium manufactory was established at New

“De l'Aluminium,” was published in 1859. An Greece, by Cecrops, 1556 B.C. He introduced among castle in 1860, by Messrs. Bell. They obtain the the Greeks the worship of the deities of Egypt. metal from a French mineral, bauxite. Their aluHerodotus. The term "altar” was applied to the minium bronze, an alloy of copper and aluminium, Lord's table for the first three centuries after Christ invented by Dr. John Percy, F.R.S., was made into (Heb. xiii. 10). Christian altars in churches were instituted by pope Sixtus I. A.D. 135; and were

watch cases, &c., by Messrs. Reid of Newcastle, in

1862. first consecrated by pope Sylvester. The Church of England terms the table on which the elements are AMADIS OF GAUL, a Spanish or Portuguese placed an altar. Since the time of Elizabeth there romance, stated to have been written about 1342 by has been much controversy on the subject, and the Vasco de Lobeira. It was enlarged by De MontPuritans in the civil war destroyed many of the alvo, about 1485; and first printed (in Spanish) ancient stone altars, substituting wooden tables. In 1519; in French, 1540-56. Jan. 1845 it was decided in the Arches Court that stone altars were not to be erected in English

AMALEKITES (descendants of Amalek, churches.

grandson of Esau, brother of Jacob) attacked the

Israelites, 1491 B.C., when perpetual war was deALTENKIRCHEN (Prussia). The French, nounced against them. They were subdued by Saul who had defeated the Austrians here, 4 June, 1796, about 1079, by David, 1058 and 1056; and by the were themselves defeated, and their general, Nar- Simeonites about 715 B.C. ceau killer, 19 Sept. following.

AMALFI, a city on the gulf of Salerno, Naples, ALTER EGO (another or second I), a term in the 8th century become the seat of a republic, applied to Spanish viceroys when exercising regal and flourished by its commerce till 1075, when it power; used at Naples when the crown prince was was taken by Roger Guiscord, and eventually incorappointed vicar-general during an insurrection in porated with Naples. The Pisans, in their sack of July, 1820.

the town in 1135, are said to have found a copy of ALTONA (Holstein, N. Germany), acquired by the Pandects of Justinian, and thus to have induced the Danes, 1660, and made a city, 1664. It was

the revival of the study of Roman law in Western occupied first by the German federal' troops, 24 Dec. Europe; the story is now doubted. Flavio Gioia, 1863, and then by the Prussians (the federal diet

a native of Amalfi, is the reputed discoverer of the protesting) 12 Feb. 1864.

mariner's compass, about 1302. ALT-RANSTADT (Prussia), where the treaty

AMAZON, West India mail steam ship, left of peace dictated by Charles XII. of Sweden, to Frede. Southampton on her first voyage, Friday, 2 Jan. rick Augustus of Poland, was signed 24 Sept. 1706, 1852, and on Sunday morning, Jan. 4, was destroyed 0.8. Frederick, deposed in 1704, regained the throne by fire at sea, about 110 miles W.S.W. of Scilly of Poland after the defeat of Charles XII., in 1709. (ascribed to the spontaneous ignition of combustible

matter placed near the engine-room). Out of 161 ALUM, a salt is said to have been first dis- persons on board, 102 persons must have perished covered at Roccha, in Syria, about 1300; it was by fire or drowning. 21 persons were saved by the found in Tuscany about 1470; its manufacture was life-boat of the ship; 25 more were carried into brought to perfection in England by sir T. Chal- Brest harbour by a Dutch vessel passing by; and

was

13 others were picked up in the bay of Biscay, also Medicis, and the Guises, was suppressed at this by a Dutch galliot. Eliot Warburton, a distin- place in Jan. 1560. On 19 March 1563, the Paciguished writer in general literature, was among fication of Amboise was published, granting tolethose lost.

ration to the Huguenots. The civil war AMAZON, a river (S. America), was discovered however soon renewed. by Pinzon, in 1500, and explored by Francisco Orel- AMBOYNA, chief of the Molucca isles, dislana, in 1540. Coining from Peru, he sailed down the covered about 1512 by the Portuguese, but not Amazon to the Atlantic, and observing companies wholly occupied by them till 1580. It was taken of women in arms on its bank, he called the country by thở Dutch in 1605; The English factors at this Amazonia, and gave the name of Amazon to the settlement were cruelly tortured and put to death, river, previously called Marañon.

17 Feb. 1623-4, by the Dutcb, on an accusation of a AMAZONS. Three nations of Amazons have conspiracy to expel them from the island, where the been mentioned-the Asiatic, Scythian, and African.

two nations jointly shared in the pepper trade of They are said to have been the descendants of Java. Cromwell compelled the Dutch to give a sum Scythians inhabiting Cappadocia, where their hus

of money to the descendants of the sufferers. Ambands, having made incursions, were all slain, being boyna was seized by the English, 16 Feb. 1796, but surprised in ambuscades by their enemies. Their

was restored by the treaty of Amiens, in 1802. It widows formed a female state, and decreed that

was again seized by the British, 17-19 Feb. 1810; matrimony was a shameful servitude. Quintus Cur

and again restored at the peace of May, 1814. tius. They were said to have been conquered by Theseus, about 1231 B.C. The Amazons were con

AMBROSIAN CHANT, see Chant, Liturgy,

&c. stantly employed in wars; and that they might throw the javelin with more force, their right bre-ists AMEN, an ancient Hebrew word meaning true, were burned off, whence their name from the Greek, faithful, certain, is used in the Jewish and Chrisa, no, mazos, breast. Others derive the name from 'tian assemblies, at the conclusion of prayer: see maza, the moon, which they are supposed to have I Cor. xiv., 16 (A.D. 59). It is translated " verily" worshipped. About 330 B.C. their queen, Thalestris, in the Gospels. visited Alexander the Great, whilst he was pursuing his conquests in Asia, with three hundred females AMENDE HONORABLE, in France, in the in her train. Herodotus.

9th century, was a punishment inflicted on traitors

and sacrilegious persons: the offender was delivered AMBASSADORS. Accredited agents, and

to the hangman: his shirt was stripped off, a rope representatives from one court to another, are re

put round his neck, and a taper in his hand; he ferred to early ages. In most countries they have

was then led into court, and was obliged to beg great privileges; and in England, they and their pardon of God and the country. Death or banishservants are sccured against England usually ment sometimes followed. has twenty-five ambassadors or envoys extraordinary, and about thirty-six chief consuls, resi- AMERCEMENT, in Law, a fine assessed for dent at foreign courts, exclusive of inferior agents; an offence done, or pecuniary punishment at the the ambassadors and other chief agents from abroad mercy of the court : thus ditfering from a fine diat the court of London in 1865, were 47; in 1868, rected and fixed by a statute. By Magna Charta, 43; in 1872, 42.

1215, a freeman cannot be amerced for a small fault, The Russian ambassador's being imprisoned for debt by the mode was determined by 9 Hen. III., 1225.

but in proportion to the offence he has committed; a lare-merchant, 27 July, 1708, led to the passing the statute of 7 Anne, for the protection of ambassadors, 1908.

AMERICA," the great Western Continent, is Two men, convicted of arresting the servant of an am- about 9000 miles long, with an area of about

bassador, were sentenced to be conducted to the house 13,668,000 square miles. It is now believed to have of the ambassador, with a label on their breasts, to ask his pardon, and then one of them to be imprisoned and uth centuries; but the modern discovery is due

been visited by the Norsemen or Vikings in the 10th three months, analfthe other fined, 12 May, 1780. The first ambassador from the United States of America

to the sagacity and courage of the Genoese navigator, to England, John Adams, presented to the king, 1 June, Christopher Columbus.fi 1785; the first from Great Britain to America was Mír. Hammond, in 1791.

* The name is derived from Amerigo Vespucci, a Floren

tine merchant, who died in 1512. He accompanied Ojeda AMBER, a carbonaceous mineral,* principally in his voyage on the eastern coast in 1498 ; and described found in the northern parts of Europe, of great

the country in letters sent to his friends in Italy. He is repute in the world from the earliest time; esteemed charged with presumptuously inserting “Tierra de Ameas a medicine before the Christian era : Theophrastus Appendix to the Life of Columbus, but comes to no con

rigo” in his maps. Irving discusses the question in the wrote upon it; 300 B.C. Upwards of 150 tons of clusion. Humboldt asserts that the name was given to amber have been found in one year on the sands of the continent in the popular works of Waldseemuller, a the shore near Pillau. Phillips.

German geographer, without the knowledge of Vespucci.

To America we are indebted, among other things, for AMBLEF, near Cologne, Germany. Here maize, the turkey, the potato, Peruvian bark, and Charles Martel defeated Chilperic II., and Ragen- tobacco. froi, mayor of the Neustrians, 716.

† Christophoro Columbo was born about 1445 ; first

went to sea about 1400 ; settled at Lisbon in 1470, where AMBOISE (Central France). A conspiracy he married Felipa, the danghter of Perestrello, an Italian of the Huguenots against Francis' II., Catherine de navigator ; whereby he obtained much geographical know

ledge. He is said to have laid the plans of his voyage of Much diversity of opinion still prevails among discovery before the republic of Genoa, in 1485, and naturalists and chemists respecting the origin of amber. other powers, and finally before the court of Spain, where It is considered by Berzelius to have been a resin dis- at length the queen Isabella became his patron. After solved in volatile oil. It often contains delicately-formed undergoing much ingratitude and cruel persecution from insects. Sir D. Brewster concludes it to be indurated his own followers and the Spanish court, he died on vegetable juice. When rubbed it becomes electrical, and 20 May, 1506 ; and was buried with much pomp at Vallafrom its Greek name, elektron, the term Electricity is dolid. His remains were transferred, in 1513, to Seville ; derired.

in 1536 to San Domingo; and in Jan. 1796 to the Havanna,

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