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: 14 Nov.

1844 master of the masons of Scotland, 16 Nov. 1789. Ragged School Union established

Educational Times, monthly, established

Oct. 1847 In 1845, the library contained upwards of 80,000

A great educational conference took place at volumes, besides numerous curious and rare MSS.

Willis's Rooms, the prince consort in the chair, and documents. Dr. Lyon Playfair elected the

22-24 June, 1857 first M.P. for Edinburgh and St. Andrews' univer The Industrial Schools act passed in sity in conformity with the act of 1868, 4 Dec. Middle Class Examinations from the university of 1868.

Oxford began, June, 1858. The examiners granted

the degree of A. A. to many persons at Liverpool, EDMUNDS' CASE, see under Patents

Leeds, &c. ; similar examinations from Cam

bridge took place in the autunun, and are to be EDOM, see Idumea.



Report of commissioners on popular education (apEDUCATION, the art of developing the pointed 1858), published 18 March, 1861, led to physical, intellectual, and moral faculties of man, the Minute of the Committee of the Privy Council has occupied the greatest minds in all ages, Socrates, on Education, establishing a Revised Code of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, Bacon, Milton,

Regulations, adopteri 21 July, 1861, to come into

operation, after 31 March, 1862. It decreed reguLocke, Rousseau, &c.' In England the earliest

lar examinations of the pupils, jayment by results, schools for the lower classes were those attached to

evening schools for adults, and other changes, the monasteries; for the higher classes halls and which raised a storin of opposition from the colleges were gradually founded ; see Arts, Oxford, clergy and schoolmasters. The subject was much Cambridge, 8c.

agitated in parliament (25, 28 March, 1862); but

eventually a compromise was elected, 5 May, 1862 William of Wykeham planted the school at Win

Oncial instructions for the administration of the chester, whence arose his colleges at that place

Revised Code issued

Sept. and Oxford

1373 Conscience-clause," founded the Endowed Eton college founded by Henry VI.

• 1440 Schools act, March, 1860, introduced by the ComAfter the reformation, education was greatly pro

mittee of Council on Education for parishes where moted, and many grammar schools were erected

only one school is required. It provided for the and endowed by Edward VI, and Elizabeth 1535-65 admission of children of dissenters, and exempted Christ's hospital, the bluecoat school, established, 1553

them from religious teaching, and attendance at Westminster school founded by Elizabeth

public worship

Nov. 1863 Foundation of Rugby school by Lawrence Sheriff,

(Report, 10 June, 1865). 1567 ; of Harrow school by John Lyon

1571 It has been much opposed by the clergy ever since, The Charterhouse founded by Thomas Sutton 1611 and created much controversy in

1866-7 Queen Anne, a zealous friend of education, founded College and Public School Commission Report, the Greycoat school, Westminster, and cordially


16 Feb. 1864 supported parochial charity schools (one esta Royal Commission appointed, to inquire into the

blished at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 1688) 1698 state of education in Scotland. First meeting at Nearly 2000 of these schools established in Great

Elinburgh Britain and Ireland, principally by the instru Miss Burdett Coutts proposes the establishment of mentality of the Society for the Promotion of

small village-schools, to be taught by “ambulaChristian Knowledge 1698-1741 tory" teachers

Jan. 1865 Robert Raikes set up sunilay Schools about.

1781 Parliamentary Committee appointed to inquire into In 1833 there were 16,828 of these schools, with

the best mode of benetiting schools unassisted by 1,548,890 scholars.

the state

28 Feb. Sunday School Union formed

Training ship established for homeless boys of Joseph Lancaster, a young Quaker, began to instruct

London ; 50 boys placed there by Buys' Refuge the children of the poor 1796 comunittee

18 Dec. 1866 He had go pupils before he was 18 years old, and Foundation of the London College of the Inter1000 pupils in

1798 national Education Society laid by the prince of To provide teachers, he invented the monitoriai


10 July, 1867 system. In consequence of his exertions the Four establishments in England, France, Germany, present British and Foreign School Society was

and Italy proposed ; the idea is attributed to Mr. founded with the name of the "Royal Lancas

Cobden and Mr. Michel Chevalier

1862 terian Institution," &c.


Committee appointed at a meeting for establishment This, being unexclusive, was followed by the insti.

of higher schools for midille classes in London, by tution of the Church of England "National

means of funds of lapsed charities, &c., 7 Nov. ; Society for Educating the Poor,” on Dr. Bell's

nearly 28,oool. subscribed by end of Dec. 1865; system

51,3491. received

Oct. 1866 Infant Schools began

about 1815

The subscribers incorporated by charter ; their first The Charity Commission, appointed at the instance

school opened by lord mayor and others in Bathof Mr. (afterwards lord) Brougham, published

street, St. Luke's

I Oct. their reports on Education, in 37 volumes folio, 1819-40 Great prosperity reported at the annual ineeting, Irish National School System (to accommodate both

18 March, 1867 Roman Catholics and Protestants) organised Resolutions moved in the lords by earl Russell (as. mainly by archbishop Whately and the Roman

serting that every child has a right to education, Catholic archbishop Murray .

1831 and recommending appointment of a cabinet In 1834, the government began ANNUAL GRANTS (the

minister of education), withdrawn

2 Dec. tirst 20,000l.), which continued till 1839. when

Important report of schools inquiry commissioners the Committee of the Privy Council on Education


2 Dec. was constituted for the distribution of the juoney. Conference at Manchester recommend compulsory The grant for Public Education in Great Britain,

education, to be paid for by rates 15 Jan. 1863 in 1852, was 150,000l. ; 1856-7, 451,2131. ; 1860, Public Schools bill brought into the commons, 798,9511. ; 1861, 803,7941. ; 1864, 705,4041. ; 1867, 705,8632. For Ireland, 1860, 270,722l. ; 1861, Public Elementary Education bill brought into the 285.377'. ; 1863, 316,7701. From 1839 to 1860,



7 Feb.

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lords by duke of Marlborough, 24 March; with3,655.0671, were granted for education. The grant


18 May, for education, science, and art, in 1861, was Technical Education. - Minute of Committee of 1,358,9961. ; for 1867-8, 1,487.554/. : 1872, 1,551,5601.

Education, recommending the foundation of In 1836, the Home and Colonial School Society was scholarships for giving scientific instruction to instituted, and about 1843 were formed the Volun

artisans tary School Society and the Congregational Board Mr. (now sir Joseph) Whitworth's offer to found 30 of Education. In 1851, out of a population of

scholarships of annual value of 1001, each, for in17,927,603, there were 2,466,481 day scholars.

struction of young men in mechanics, &c., 18 Primary schools in Great Britain, 1854, 3825; March, accepted by the lords of the council, 1863, 7739

21 Dec.

27 March,

3 Nov.

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9 Aug.

20 Oct.

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29 Nov.
21 Dec

Foundation of the first new bnilding for a middle “great kings,” commenced with Mizraim, the son

class school in London laid by the lord mayor, of Ham, second son of Noah, 2188 B.C. to the conLawrence (very successful, 1873)

15 Dee: 1868 quest by Cambyses,, 525 B.C. 2nd epoch, to the Public Schools Act (modifying the government of Eton, Winehester, Westminster, Charterhouse,

death of Alexander the Great, and establishment of Harrow, Rugby, and Shrewsbury schools) passed the Ptolemies, 323 B.C., 3rd epoch, to the death of

31 July, 1868; amendment acts 9 Aug. 1869-70 Cleopatra and the subjugation by the Romans, New statutes for them issued

Oct. - Nov. 1869 | 30 B.C., see Alexandria and Cairo. Population of National Education Lengue (advocating compulsory the present viceroyalty about 8,000,000 (1871).

secular education by the state), first inet at Birmningham

12, 13 Oct. National Education Union for supplementing the

Dynasty of Menes (conjectural). B.C. 2717 or 2462
Mizraim builds Memphis (Blair).

2188 present denominational system, tirst met at Egypt mule four kingdoms, viz., Upper Egipt,

Conference of masters of city companies at the

Lower Egypt, This, and Memphis (abbé Lenglet,

2126 Mansion-house, to promote technical education,

Athotes invents hieroglyphics

Busiris builds Thebes (Usher)
Conference at the Society of Arts to reconcile the
League and the Union

7 Feb. 1870

Osymandyas, the first warlike king, passes into Scientitie instruction and advancement commission

Asia, conquers Bactria, and causes his exploits

to be represented in sculpture and painting

19 May, First drill-review" of London charity schools, and

(Usher, Lenglet)

The Phoenicians invade Lower Egypt, and hold it others, at the Crystal Palace

21 Jme, Elementary Education Bill introduced by Mr. W. E.

260 years (C'sher); the dynasty of Shepherd kings begins

2080 Forster, 17 Feb. ; after much discussion, and op

The Lake of Moris constricted position from the disseuters, it passed, and re


The patriarch Abraham visits Egypt crived the royal assent


Syphoas introduces the use of an alphabet (Usher) 1891 (Amended in 1872.) 10.000l. voted by the Christian Knowledge Society

Memnon invents Egyptian characters? (Blair, Lenglet).

1822 in aid of Church of England schools

Amenophis I. acknowledged king of all Egypt Order for first election of Metropolitan school


1821 board on 29 Nov. Vational university for industrial and technical

Josepoh is sold into Egypt as a slave

1728 training proposed

He interprets the king's dreams


His father and brethren settle here | Meeting held to promote it, 5 July, 1871.)

1706 Metropolitan school-bound elected

Rameses III., or Sesostris, reigns : he extends his Rulations for school-boaris issued

dominion by conquest over Arabia, Persia, India, and Asia Minor (Lenglet) uncertain

1618 Primary schools in Great Britain : in 1855, 4800 ; in

Settlement of the Ethiopians (Blair) 1860, 7272 ; in 1870, 10,949,


Rameses, who imposed on his subjects the building Anual grant for primary sehools in Great Britain :

of walls and pyramids, and other labours, dies in 1861, 813,4421. ; in 1865, 636,8001. ; in 1870,

(Lenglet). 912.4511.


The persecution of the Jews; the exodus of the New Reviserl Code discussed

March, 1871 Israelites London School-board Education Scheme proposerl,

1491 Amenophis II. is overwhelmed in the Red Sea, withi

23 June, At the London school-hoard, after sharp discussion,

all his ariny (Lenglet, Blair).

Reign of vyptus, from whom the country, hitherthe religious difficulty respecting payment for

to called Mizraim, is now called Egypt (Blair) por children at denominational schools settled


Reign of Thuoris (the Proteus of the Greeks); his for a year

2 Noy. Arrangements for erecting or adapting buildings for

faculty of assuming whatever form he pleased, new shools made by Loudon school-board, Dec.

probably denoted his policy .


Pseusennes (Shishak) enters. Palestine, ravages Conference of masters of grammar schools at High

Judea, and carries off the sacred vessels ite 28 Dec.

971 Dr. Dixon's and the nonconformists: censure on

The dynasty of kings called Tanites begins with

Petubastes (Blair) the Elementary Education Act; negatived in the


The dynasty of Saites (Blair) Commons, 355-94 5 March, 1872

781 Sientific instruction : royal commission appointed,

Sebacon (the Ethiopian) invades Egypt, subilues the

king, Bocchoris, whom he orders to be roasted May, 1870 ; reported

April, 1871, April,

alive (Usher) Ediucation (Scotland) Act passed 10 Aug.

737 The London schooi-board eterinine to open separate

The Dodekarchy (12 rulers) expelled by Psammeti

chus the Powerful schools for dirty unruly children


He invests Azoth, which holds out for 19 years, the * Society for Organization of Academical Study"

longest siege of antiquity (Usher). proposed by sir B. C. Brodie, Dr. Carpenter, Nechó beyins the canal between the Arabian gulf Prof. Rolleston and others at a meeting, 16 Nov.

and the Mediterranean sea (Blair)

610 Irish University Bill introduced by Mr. Gladstone, This canal abandoned after costing the lives of

13 Feb. 1873

120,000 men (Herodotus). ÉGALITÉ (Equality), see Orleans.

Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon deposes Apries


Apries taken prisoner and strangled in his palace EGGS. The duty on imported eggs was re

(Diod. Siculus)

571 pealed in 1860, whereby the revenue lost about

The philosopher Pythagoras comes from Samos into 20,000l. a year. Number imported into Great

Egypt, and is instructed in the mysteries of Britain: in 1861, 203, 313, 360; in 1865, 364,013,040;

Egyptian theology (Usher)


The line of the Pharaohs ends in the murder of in 1869, 442,172,640; in 1870, 430,842,240.

Psainmenitus by Cambyses (Blair) EGLINTOUN TOURNAMENT, see Tour

Drearlful excesses of Cambyses; he puts the children

of the grandees, male and female, to death, and nament.

makes the country a waste (Herodotus) EGYPT.* The early seat of political civiliza

He sends an army of 50,000 men across the desert to tion. Ist cpoch; the dynasty of its Pharaohs, or

destroy the temple of Jupiter Ammon, but they

all perish in the burning sands (Justin). * Three magnificent works on Egypt have been pub- Egypt revolts from the Persians ; again subdued by lished: in France (cominenced by Napoleon, and the Xerxes (Blair) xavans who accompaniel him to Egypt), Description de A revolt under inarus (Blair) .

463 1' Errupte, 1809-22 ; in Italy, Rosellini's Monumenti dell Successful revolt under Amyrtæus, who is proErstto, 1832-44 ; and in Prussia, Lepsius' Denkmailer aus claimed king (Lenglet)

414 Egypten, 1848-56. All these are in the Library of the Egypt again reduced by Oehus, king of Persia, and Royal Institution of Great Britain, London.

its teinpiles pillayed (Usher).

20 Nov.









Nov. 222



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17 Nov



Alexander the Great conquers Eygpt and founds Peace restored by treaty; Mehemet made hereditary Alexandria

332 viceroy of Egypt, but deprived of Syria 15 July, 1841 Ptolemy I. (Lagis), 'Soter, re-establishes the Ibrahin Pacha dies (see Suez)

10 Nov. 1848 monarchy

The Suez canal begun

1858 Ptolemy II. Philadelphus (with his father) 285; Malta and Alexandria telegraph opened

i Nov. 1861 alone (the museum of Alexandria founded : the The viceroy Said visits Italy, France, and England, Septuagint version of the Hebrew Scriptures

May to Sept. ; returns to Alexandria 1 Oct, 1862 made ; the Pharos completed]

Sultan of Turkey visits Egypt

7 April, 1863 Ambassadors first sent to Rome

209 Increased cultivation of cotton in Egypt 1863-67 Ptolemy III. Euergetes, reigns

247 At the demand of the sultan, the viceroy sends Overruns Syria, and returns laden with rich spoils troops to repress the insurgents in Arabia, May, 1864

and 2500 statues and vessels of gold and silver, Opening of part of the Suez canal (which see), which Cambyses had taken from the Egyptian

15 Aug. 1865 temples (Blair)

246 Direct succession to the viceroyalty granted by the Ptolemy IÙ. Philopator


May, 1866 Battle of Raphia ; Ptolemy defeats Antiochus, king Designated “soverein" by the sultan

9 June, 1867 of Syria


Egyptian legislative chamber opened with a speech Ptolemy V. Epiphanes

from the viceroy

27 Nov. 1866 Embassy to Roine

Viceroy invested with order of the Batli (as G.C.B.) Ptolemy VI. Philometor

181 by lord Clarence Paget

30 Jan. 1867 At the death of Philometor, his brother Physcon The viceroy visits Paris .

16 June-5 July; (Ptolemy VII. Euergetes) marries his queen, and He arrives in London 6 July; received by the queen on the day of his nuptials murders the infant son

at Windsor, 8; by lord Derby, 10; by the lori of Philometor in its mother's arms

Nov. 146
mayor, 11; departs

18 July, His subjects, wearied by his crucities and crimes, The viceroy (now termed the Khedive) visited compel him to fly


22 June, 1869 He defeats the Egyptians and recovers his throne, Present at the inauguration of the Suez canal,

128 : dies Ptolemy VIII. Soter II. and Cleopatra his mother, The differences between the sultan and himself Alexander I. and Cleopatra

107 respecting prerogatives arranged, the viceroy Ptolemy VIII. restored

89 giving up the power of imposing taxes and of Revolt in Upper Egypt ; Thebes destroyed after å contracting loans

Dec. siege of three years (Diod. Siculus)

82 The first stone of the new port laid by the khedive, Alexander II, and Cleopatra I. .


15 May, 1871 Ptolemny IX. Auletes

Military expedition up the Nile, under sir Samuel Berenice and Tryphæna


Baker, to abolish slave traile; started 7 Jan. 1870; Auletes restored, 55: leaves his kingdom to Ptolemy he met with determined resistance from the and Cleopatra

51 governors implicated in the trade; took possession During a civil war between Ptolemy and Cleopa of Gondokoro (an old slave depot) in the name of tra II., Alexandria is besieged hy Casar, and the

the viceroy; made war with opposing tribe, the library nearly destroyed by fire (Blair).


Baris, and subdued them; founded a town, Cæsar defeats the king, who, in crossing the Nile, Ismailia ; reported in a letter to the prince of is drowned ; and the younger Ptolemy and Cleu

Wales that the slave trade on the White Nile had patra reign.


21 Aug. Cleopatra poisons her brother, and reigns alone Reported in another letter, disaffection among his She appears before Marc Antony, to answer for this troops, and shortness of provisions

crime; fascinated by her beauty, he follows hier The khedive's son, prince Hassan, made D.C.L. at into Egypt.


13 June, 1872 Cleopatra in Syria


The khedive visits the sultan; Constantinople Antony defeated by Octavius Cæsar at the battle of rejoices. Actium (Blair).

2 Sept. Sir Samuel Baker's expedition defeated; assistance Octavius enters Egypt; Antony and Cleopatra kili to be sent by the viceroy.

Feb. 1873 themselves; and the kingdom becomes a Roman



(nearly independent). Egypt visited by Adrian, 122 ; by Severus .

1806. Mehemet Ali Pacha; abdicated Sept. 1848; dies Monachism begun in Egypt by Antony Destruction of the temple and worship of Serapis, 38,

2 Aug. 1849.

1848. Thrahim (adopted son), Sept. ; dies oor 10 Nov. 1848 Egypt conquered by Chosroes II. of Persia.


Albas (his son), 1o Nov. ; dies 14 July, 1854. Invasion of the Saracens under Amrou June, 638

1854. Said (brother), 14 July; dies 18 Jan. 1863. Conquest of Alexandria

22 Dec. 640 Cairo founded by the Saracens


1863. Ismail (nephew), 18 Jan. (born 1830). Conquest by the Turks


ileir, his son, Mechmet, aged 19. Government of the Mamelukes established

• 1250

EGYPTIAN ERA, &c. The old Egyptian Selim I., emperor of the Turks, conquers Egypt 1517 year was identical with the era of Nabonassar, beIt is governed by beys till a great part of the

ginning 26 Feb. 747 B.C., and consisted of 365 days country is conquered by the French, under Bonaparte (see Alexandria) The invaders dispossessed by the British, and the

only. It was reformed 30 B.C., at which period

1798-99 the commencement of the year had arrived, by Turkish government restored

1801 continually receding to the 29 Aug., which was Mehemet Ali massacres the Mamelukes, and obtains determined to be in future the first day of the year. the supremne power

1 March, 1811 To reduce to the Christian era, subtract 746 years Arrival of Belzoni, 1815; he removes statue of Mem

125 days. The canicular or heliacal period of the non, 1816; explores temples, &c.

1817 Formation of the Mahmoud canal, connecting Alex Egyptians and Ethiopians (1460 years) began when andria with the Nile.

1820 Sirius or the dog star emerged from the rays of the Mehemet Pachi revolts and invades Syria 1331 sun, on 20 July, 2785 F.C., and extended to 1325 His son Ibrahim takes Acre, 27 May; overruns B.C. This year comprised 12 months of 30 days,

Syria ; defeats the Turks at Konieh 21 Dec. 1832 with 5 supplementary days. He advances on Constantinople, which is entered by Russian auxiliaries, 3 April; war ends with EHRENBREITSTEIN (IIonour's broadconvention of Kutayah

4 May, 1833 stone), a strong Prussian fortress on the Rhine, Mehemet again revolts, claiming hereditary power; formerly belonged to the electors of Treres. It Ibrahim defeats the Turks at Nezib 24 June, 1839

was often besieged. It surrendered to the French England, Austria, Russia, and Prussia undertake to expel Ibrahim from Syria ; Napier bombards

general Jourdain, 24 Jan. 1799. The fortifications Beyrout, 10 Sept. ; Acre taken by the British were destroyed on its evacuation, 9 Feb. 1801, at and Austrian fleets, under sir R. Stopford, 3 Nov.; the peace of Luneville. The works have been the Egyptians quit Syria 21 Nov., et seq. 1840 | restored since 1814.

46 43

19 Oct.

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25 June,


30 200


EIDER, a river, separating Schleswig from pointed, and three to be selected from all the judges Holstein, was passed by the Austrians and Prussians, to try election cases; justices Willes and Blackburn, + Feb. 1864.

and baron Martin were the first appointed, Nov.

1868. EIDOGRAPH, see Pantagraph.

ELECTOR PALATINE, see Palatinate. EIKON BASILIKE (“the Portraiture of His Sacred Majesty in his Solitudes and Suffer

ELECTORS for members of parliament for ings"), a book of devotion formerly attributed to

counties were obliged to have forty shillings a-year king Charles I., but now generally believed to

in land, 8 Hen. VI. 1429. Among the acts relating have been written partially, if not wholly, by to electors are the following : Act depriving excise bishop Gauden, and possibly approved by the king and custom-house officers and contractors with it was published in 1648, and sold with great government{of their votes, 1782; see Customs. Act to rapidity.

regulate polling, 1828. Great changes were made

by the Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1868. EISENACH DECLARATION, see Ger- County elections act, 1836; see Bribery. The many, 1859.

forty shilling freeholders in Ireland lost their EISTEDDFODD, see Bards.

privilege in 1829. By Dodson's act, passed in

1861, university electors are permitted to vote by EL ARISCH, Egypt, captured by the French sending balloting papers. under Reynier, 18 Feb. 1799. A convention was signed here between the grand vizier and Kleber

ELECTORS OF GERMANY. In the reign of for the evacuation of Egypt by the French, 28 Jan. Conrad I. king of Germany (912-918), the dukes 1800. He beat the Turks at Heliopolis on 20 March; gradually independent of the sovereign, and sub

and counts, from being merely officers, became and was assassinated on 14 June following.

sequently elected him. In 919 they confirmed the ELBA, ISLE OF (on the coast of Tuscany), nomination of Henry I. duke of Saxony by Conrad taken by admiral Nelson in 1796; but abandoned as his successor. In the 13th century seven princes 1797. Elba was conferred upon Napoleon (with (the archbishops of Mentz, Treves, and Cologne, the title of emperor) on his relinquishing the

the king of Bohemia, the electors of Brandenburg throne of France, 5 April, 1814. He secretly em

and Saxony, and the elector Palatine), assumed barked hence with about 1200 men in hired feluccas, the exclusive privilege of nominating the emon the night of 25 Feb. 1813, landed in Provence, peror. Robertson. An eighth elector (Bavaria) was i March, and soon after recovered the crown; see made in 1648; and a ninth (Hanover) in 1692. France, 1815. Elba was resumed by the grand The number was reduced to eight at 1777 (by the duke of Tuscany, July, 1815.

elector palatine acquiring Bavaria) and increased

to ten at the peace of Luneville, in 1801. On the ELCHINGEN, Bavaria. Here Ney beat the dissolution of the German empire, the crown of Austrians, 14 Oct. 1805, and was made duke of Austria was made hereditary, 1804-1806; see GerElchingen.

many. ELDERS (in Greek, presbuteroi), in the early ELECTRIC CLOCK; see p. 234. church equivalent with episcopoi, or bishops (see i Tim. ii. and Titus i.), who afterwards became a

ELECTRICITY, from the Greek elektron, distinct and superior order. Elders in the presby- rubbed amber are said to have been known to

electrum, amber. The electrical properties of terian churches are laymen.

Thales, 600 B.C.; see Magnetism. EL DORADO (the “Gilded Man''). When the Spaniards had conquered Mexico and Peru, Gilbert records that other boilies besides amber they began to look for new sources of wealth, and generate electricity when rubbed, and that all having heard of a golden city ruled by a king or substances may be attracted

1600 priest, smeared in oil and rolled in gold dust (which Otto von Guericke constructed the first electric report was founded on a merely annual custom of

machine (a love of sulphur), about

1647 the Indians), they organised various expeditions Stephen Gray, aided by Wheeler, discovered that

Boyle published his electrical experiments into the interior of South America, which were the human body conducts elertricity, that elers accompanied with disasters and crimes; about 1560. tricity acts at a distance (motion in light bodies Raleigh's expeditions in search of gold in 1590 and being produced by frictional electricity at a dis161; led to his fall.

tance of 666 feet), the fact of electric induction, and other phenomena

1720-36 ELEASA, Palestine. Here Judas Maccabeus Dufay orignated his dual theory of two electric was defeated and slain by Bacchides and Alcimus,

fluids: one ritreous, from rubbed glass, &c., the

other resinous, from rubbed amber, resin, &c. ; and the Syrians, about 161 B.C. (1 Macc. ix.)

and showed that two bodies similarly electritie ELEATIC SECT, founded at Elea in Sicily,

repel each other, and attract bodies oppositely

electrified, about hy Xenophanes, of Colophon, about 535 B.C., The Leyden jar (vial or bottle) discovered by Kleist, whither he had been banished on account of his 1745, and by Cunaeus and Muschenbroek, of Leywild theory of God and nature. He supposed that

den: Winckler constructed the Leyden ba! ery . 1746 the stars were extinguished every morning and Desaguliers classified bodies as electries and nonrekindled at night; that eclipses were occasioned by a partial extinction of the sun; that there were

Important researches of Watson, Canton, Beccaria and Vollet

1740-7 several suns and moons for the convenience of the Franklin announced his theory of a single fluid, different climates of the earth, &c. Strabo.' Zeno terining the vitreous electricity prosilire, and the (about 364) was an Eleatic.

resinous negalim, 1747; and demonstrated the

identity of the electric spark and lightning, ELECTIONS PETITIONS. The laws drawing down electricity from a cloud by means

of a kite respecting them were consolidated in 1828, 1839, At a pic-nic, he killed a turkey by the electric and 1844. An act passed in 1818 was amended in

spark, and roasted it by an electric jack before 1865. By the act of 1868, 3 new judges were ap a fire kindled by the electric bottle







June, 1752



Professor Richman killed at St. Petersburg, Behrens formed a dry pile of 80 pairs of zine, while repeating Franklin's experiments Aug. 1753

copper, and gilt paper

1805 Beccaria published his researches on atmospheric By means of the large voltaic battery of the Royal

electricity, 1758; and Æpinus his mathematical Institution, London, Davy decomposeri ihe theory

1759 alkali potash, and evolved the metal potassium, Electricity developed by fishes investigated by

6 Oct. 1807 Ingenhousz, Cavendisli, and others, about 1773 Zamboni constructed a dry pile of paper discs, Lichtenberg produced his electrical figures


coated with tin on one side and peroxide of Electro-statics: Coulomb applied the torsion balance manganese on the other

1809 to the measurement of electric force

1785 Children's battery fused platinum, &c. Electro-chemistry – water decomposed by Caven- Davy exhibited the voltaic arc.

1813 dish, Fourcroy, and others

1787-90 Wollaston's thimble battery ignited platinum wire, 1815 Discoveries of Galvani and Volta (see Voltaic Elec

Multipliers or rheometers, popularly termed " gal. tricity, below)

1791-3 valoineters," invented by Ampère and by @rsted, of Copenliagen, discovered electro-mag

Schweigger, 1820 ; by Cumming, 1821 ; De la netic action (see Electro-Magnetism, next column) 1819 Rive, 1824 ; Ritchie (torsion), 1830 ; Joule (magThermo - Electricity (currents produced by heat),

netic), 1843 discovered by Seebeck: it was produced by Faraday described his discovery of electro-magnetic heating pieces of copper and bismuth soldered


Jan. 1822 together, 1821; the Thermo-electrometer invented Ohm enunciated his formulæ relating to the galvanic by Snow Harris, 1827; the Therino-multiplier


1827 constructed by Melloni and Nobili, 1831. (Marcus Improvement in constructing the voltaic batiery constructed a powerful thermo-electric battery in

wade by Wollaston, 1815; Becquerel, 1829; 1865.)

Sturgeon, 1830 ; J. F. Daniell, 1836; Grove Faraday produced a spark by the sudden separation

(nitric acid, &c.), 1839; Jacobi, 1840 ; Smee, 1840; of a coiled keeper from a permanent magnet (see

Bunsen (carbon, &c.), 1842; Grove (gas battery), Magneto-Electricity, next columu).

.842. Wheatstone calculated the velocity of electricity, Faraday read the first series of his “ Experimental on the double fluid theory, to be 288,000 miles

Researches on Electricity" at the Royal Society, a second; on the single fluid theory, 576,000 miles

21 Nov. 1831 & second


Faraday demonstrated the nature of electro-chemiArmstrong discovered, and Faraday explained, the cal decomposition, and the principle that the electricity of high pressure steam, which produces

quantity and intensity of electric action of a galthe hydro-electric machine

1840 vanic battery depends on the size and number of ELECTRO MACHINES. Otto von Guericke obtained

plates employed

1834 sparks by rubbing a globe of sulphur, about 1647; Wheatstone invented his electro-magnetic chronoNewton, Boyle, and others used glass, about 1675;


1840 Hawksbee improved the machine, about 1709;

ELECTRO-MAGNETIsy began with Ersted's discovery Bose introduced a metallic conductor, 1733 ;

of the action of the electric current on the marWinckler contrived the cushion for the rubber,

netic needle, 1819; proved by Ampère, who 1741 ; Gordon employed a glass cylinder, 1742;

exhibited the action of the voltaic pile upon the for which a plate was substituted about 1770 ; magnetic needle, and of terrestrial magnetism Canton introduced amalgam for the rubber, 1751;

upon the voltaic current ; he also arranged the Van Marum constructed an electric machine at

conducting wire in the form of a helix or spiral, Haarlem, said to have been the most powerful invented a galvanometer, and imitated the magever made, 1785 ; Dr. H. M. Noad set up at the

net by a spiral galvanic wire

1820 Panopticon, Leicester-square, London,' a very Arago magnetised a needle by the electric current, powerful electric machine and Leyden battery (in and attracted iron filings by the connecting wire possession of Mr. Edwin Clark, 1862] .

1855 of a galvanic battery The Hydro-Electric inachine, by Armstrong, was The first electro-magnet constructed

1840 Induction of electric currents discovered by FaraThe ELECTROPHORUS, a useful apparatus for ob

day and announced

1831 taining frictional electricity, was invented by Becquerel invented an electro-magnetic balance Volta in 1775, and improved by him in

1782 Faraday discovered the electro-magnetic rotative C. F. Varley's " reciprocal electrophorus" invented 1862 force developeil in a magnet by voltaic electricity, Sir William Thomson's "electric replenisher" de

1831 ; experiments on the induction of a voltaic scribed. Jan. 1868 current, &c.

1834-5 Mr. Apps' great inductorium, or induction coil

, Sturgeon made a bar of soft iron magnetic by surgiving the largest sparks ever seen, exhibited at

rounding it with coils of wire, and sending an the Royal Polytechnic Institution 29 March, 1869 electric current through the wire. ELECTROSCOPE and ELECTROMETER, as the terms Joseph Henry announced his discovery of secondary signify, are apparatus for ascertaining the presence


2 Nov. 1838 and quantity of electrical excitation. Pith-halls Magneto-electricity applied to electro-plating by were employed in various ways as electroscopes


1842 by Gilbert, Canton, and others. Dr. Milner in

Breguet used electro-magnetic force to manufacture vented an electrometer similar to Peltier's, 1783.

mathematical instruments, about

1854 The gold leaf electrometer was invented by rev. MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY (the converse of Ersted's A. Bennet, 1789, and improved by Singer, about discovery of electro-magnetisın), discovered by 1810; Lane's discharging electrometer is dated Faraday, who produced an electrie spark by sud1767; Henley's, 1772 ; Bohnenberger's electro

denly separating a coiled keeper from a permascope, 1820 ; Peltier's induction electrometer,

nent magnet; and found that an electric current

about 1848 existed in a cop per disc rotated between the poles GALVANISM, OR VOLTAIC-ELECTRICITY, AXD

of a magnet


The Magneto-Electric machine arose out of Faraday's Sulzer noticed a peculiar sensation in the tongue

discovery, and was first made at Paris by Pixii, when silver and leail were brought into contact

1832 ; and in London by Saxton

1833 with it and each other

1762 Rulmu kort's magueto-electric induction coil conMadame Galvani observed the convulsion in the

structed, about

1850 muscles of frogs when brought into contact with H. Wilde's description of his machine (à powerful two metals, in 1789; and M. Galvani, after study

generator of dynamic electricity, by means of ing the phenomena, laid the foundation of the permanent magnets) and the inagneto-electric galvanic battery

1791 machine (constructed in 1865) sent to the Volta announced his discovery of the .. Voltaic

Royal Society by professor Faraday and reported, pile," composed of discs of zinc and silver, and

26 April, 1866 moistened card

1800 The light (resembling bright moon-light) exhibited By the voltaic pile, Nicholson and Carlisle decom.

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on the top of Burlington house

2 March, 1867 posed water, and Dr. Henry decomposed nitric Dynamo-magneto-electric machines, by Wheatstone acid, ammonia. &c.


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