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· 1860


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and Siemens, described at the Royal Society, House's printing telegraph, 1846 ; Bain's electroFeb, ; by Ladd

14 March, 1867 chemical telegraph, 1846 ; Hughes's system, 1855; " Faraday as a Discoverer,” by professor Tyndall, the American combination system (of the prepublished

March, 1868 ceding), which can convey 2000 words an hour, Trial of Siemens' dynamo-electric light in the adopted by the American telegraph company, torpedo service at Sheerness reported successful,

Jan. 1859 18 Dec. 1871

Wheatstone's automatic printing telegraph paELECTRIC TELEGRAPH.

tented The transmission of electricity by an insulated wire It was stated that there

in work 15,000 miles of was shown by Watson and others.


electric telegraph wire in Great Britain ; 80,000 on Telegraphic arrangements were devised by Lesarge, the continent of Europe; and 48,000 in America ;

1744 ; Betancourt, 1787 ; Cavallo, 1795 ; Salva, and altogether about 150,000 miles laid down in 1796 : Sæmmering, exhibited 29 Aug 1809;

the world

July, 1862 Ronalds

1816 Bonelli s typo-electrie telegraph, madle known anci Ampére invents his telegraphic arrangement, em- company established, 1860; and triert between ploying the magnetic needle and coil, and the

Liverpool and Manchester, 1863; proinised revival, galvanie battery 1820

June, 1864 F. Ronalds publishes an account of his electric An "electric telegraph” conference, at which 16 telegraph

1823 states (not Great Britain) were represented, met Professor Wheatstone constructs an electro-mag. at Paris

March, 1865 netic apparatus, by which 30 signals are conveyed The Telegraph Act (see Telegraph) passed 31 July, 1868

through nearly four miles of wire. June, 1836 Society of Telegraph Engineers established, 28 Feb. 1872 Telegraphs invented by Schilling, Gauss, and Weber ATLANTIC TELEGRAPH. A plan to unite Europe

(magneto-electric), 1833 ; by Steinheil and by and America by telegraph was entered at the Masson, 1837 ; by Morse (died 1872).


government registration office in June, 1845, by The magnetie needle telegraph patented by (aft. Mr. J. Watkins Brett, who made proposals to the

sir Wm. F.) Cooke and (aft, sir) Charles Wheat- government, which were not accepted. This plan stone. (The Society of Arts Albert gold medal

was attempted to be carried out by a company in was awaried to them in June, 1867) 12 June,

1857 and 1858, with the concurrence of the British Mr. Cooke set up the telegraph line on the Great

and American governments. Western Railway, from Paddington to West 2500 miles of wire were manufactured, and tested in Drayton, 1838-9; on the Blackwall line, 1840 ;

March, 1857 and in Glasgow

1841 The laying it down commenced at Valentia, in Wheatstone's alphabetical printing 'telegraph Ireland on patented

The vessels employed were the Niagara and SusqueThe first telegraph line in America set up froin hanno (American vessels), and the Leopard and Washington to Baltimore


Agamemnon (British Vessels). After sailing a few The murderer Tawell apprehended by means of the miles the cable snapped. This was soon repaired; telegraph

1845 but on 11 Aug. after 300 miles of wire had been The electric telegraph company established (having paid orit, it snapped again and the vessels purchased Cooke and Wheatstone's telegraphic returned to Plymouth)

11 Aug inventions)

1846 A second attempt to lay the cable failed through a Gutta percha suggested as an insulator by Faraday 1847 violent storm,

20-21 June, 1858 Professor Charles Wheatstone drew plans of a pro- The third voyage was successful.' The junction jected submarine telegruph between Dover and

between the two continents was completed by the Calais

1840 laying down of 2050 miles of wire from Valentia, Mr. John Watkins Brett submitted a similar plan in Ireland, to Newfoundland. The first two to Louis Philippe without success

1847 messages, on 5 Aug., were from the queen of He obtained permission from Louis Napoleon to England to the president of the United States, make a trial, 1847 ; took place . 28 Aug. 1850

and his reply

5 Aug The connecting wires (27 miles long) were placed This event caused great rejoicing in both countries ; on the government pier in Dover harbour, and in

but, unfortunately, the insulation of the wire the Goliath steamer were coiled about 30 miles in

gradually became more faulty, and the power length of telegraphic wire, enclosed in a covering of transmitting intelligence utterly ceased on of rutta-percha, half an inch in diameter. The Goliath started from Dover, unrolling the tele- A new company was formed

1860 graphic wire as it proceeded, and allowing it to The Great Eastern steamer, engaged to lay down drop to the bed of the sea. In the evening the

2300 miles of wire, with 25,000 tons burden, sailed steamer arrived on the French coast, and the wire

for Valentia, Ireland, from the Thames, comwas run up the cliff at cape Grisnez to its termi.

manded by capt. Anderson, accompanied by pronal station, and messages were sent to and fro

fessor Wî, Thomson and Mr. Cromwell F. between England and the French coast. But the Varley, to superintend the paying out the cable, wire, in settling into the sea-bottom, crossed a

15 July, 1865 rocky ridge, and snapped in two, and thus the After connecting the wire with the land, the Great enterprise for that time failed,

Eastern sailed from Valentia New arrangements were soon made, and on a scale Telegraphic communication with the vessel(inter:

of greater magnitude; and the telegraph was rupted by two faults, due to defective insulation, opened ; the opening and closing prices of the caused by pieces of metal pressed into the guttafunds in Paris were known on the London stock

percha coating, which were immediately repaired) exchange within business hours, and guns were

finally ceased on 2 Aug The apparatus for tired at Dover by communication from Calais,

raising the wire proving insufficient, the vessel 13 Nov. 1851 returned, and arrived at the Medway

19 Ang Communications complete between Dover and Os- Atlantic telegraph company reconstituted as the tend and between Portpatrick and Donaghadee, Anglo-American telegraph company limited, May, 1853

March, 1866 Holyhex and Howth

June, 1854 The Great Eastern, with a new cable, sailed from Paris and Bastia


the Medway, 30 June; the shore-end at Valentia London and Constantinople

May, 1858 was spliced with the main cable, and the Great Cromer and Emden

Eastern sailed, 13 July ; 1200 miles of cable had Aden and Suez

May, 1859

been laid, 22 July; the cable was completely laid Malta and Alexandria

28 Sept. 1861 at Heart's Content, Newfoundland, and a inessage England and Bombay, opened .

1 March, 1865 sent to lord Stanley, 27 July ; message from the Marsala, Sicily, and La Calle, Algeria. 21 June,

queen to president of the United States sent, 28 July,

“ From the queen, Osborne, to the presi. Over-house electric telegraphs (first erected at Paris) dent of the United States, Washington. The set up between their premises in the City and

queen congratulates the president on the successWest-end by Messrs. Waterlow, in 1857, extended

ful completion of an undertaking which she hopes throughout London.


may serve as an additional bond of union between

4 Sept.

23 July,

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5 Feb.

the United States and England." To which he

tured upon at the Royal Institution by professor replied

30 July, 1866
Faraulay, on

8 June, 1860 The lost cable of 1865 recovered, 2 Sept. ; and its ELECTRO-PUSIOLOGY. Aristotle and Pliny refer to

laying completed at Newfoundland 8 Sept. The Great Eastern arrived at Liverpool.

the powers of the torpedo, whilst Walsh and 19 Sept.

Ingenhouss, the discoveries of Galvani in 1790, Messrs. Samuel Caming, Daniel Gooch, and capt.

and the researches of Matteucci about 1830, have Anderson knighted [It was stated (in sept. 1866) that the engineer of

greatly advanced the science.

Fowler experimented on animals with galvanism, the cable passed signals through 3700 miles of 1793 ; and Aldini, 1796, who produced muscular wire by means of a battery formed in a lady's contractions in a criminal recently executed, 1803; thimble.)

Ure did the same

1818 The U. S. congress voted a gold medal to Cyrus Du Bois Reymond lectured on animal electricity at Field, for his cxertions conected with Atlantic

the Royal Institution, and showed the existence telegraphs

:7 March, 1867 At a dinner given to Cyrus Field at Willis's Rooms,

of an electric current, developed by action of the
human muscles, in

May, 1855 London, telegraphie messages were exchanged ELECTROPHONE, invented by Dr. Surethill Wriglit, between the corupany and lord Monck, viceroy

for producing soud by electric currents of high of Canada and president Johnson

1 July, 1868

tension: one laid before the Royal Scottish French Atlantic Telegruph company formed ; French

Society of Arts

• 25 April, 1864 government grant concession for 20 years, from


Mr. ' Palmer, 'of Newgate-street, 1 Sept. 1869, to Julius Reuter and baron Emile

London, patented inventions by which engravings d'Erlangen

8 July, An act to enable IL . M.'s postmaster.generalto acquire,

may not only be copied from other engraved work, and maintain electric telegraphs, passed,

plates, but the engraving itself actually produced,

by electrical agency, and one process he termed
31 July,

1841-2 Anglo-Danish telegraph (Newbiggin to Copenhagen) ELECTRO-TYPE or Deposit. Mr. Spencer, in Engcompleted

31 aug. European end of the French Atlantic cable laid at

land, and professor Jacobi, in Russia, made the

first successful experiments in this art in 1837 Brest, 17 June; the American end at Duxbury, Massachusetts

and 1838. Since then, Mr. A. Smee and others 23 July, 1869

have perfected the processes. In 1840, Mr. Rob. Reported union between the Anglo-American and French Atlantic telegraph companies

Murray applied black-lead to non-metallic bodies

Jan. 1870 The British government began to work postal tele

as a conducting surface. In 1840, Mr. Ruolz and

Mr. Elkington applied it to gilding and silver graph Telegraph between Bombay and Suez completel

plating. Since 1850, printing types and wood

outs, and casts from them, have been electrotyped Result of the “ Derby" race sent to Calcutta in five

with copper, and the process is now largely minutes

24 May, 1871 Statue of Morse at New York uncovered, 10 June

adopted in the arts.

Messis. C. Wheatstone and F. A. Abel experiment on Fourth telegraph conference opened at Rome, under

the application of electricity to military purposes. 1861 the auspices of the Italian yovernment (next to be at St. Petersburg in 1875)

The Electro-block company established, 1860 ; by

18 Dec. Telegraph between Adelaide and Port Darwin,

their processes the enlargement and reduction of Australia, completed

engravings, obtained by india-rubber, can be 22 Aug. 1872

of Adelaide received by Message from the mayor

immediately transferred to a lithographic stone,

and multiplied at pleasure. Leecli's engravings, the lord mayor of London, and replied to,

so enlarged, were coloured by himself, and ex21 Oct. hibited in

1862 ELECTRIC CLOCK, &C. Professor Wheatstone in

Ozone, generated hy a current produced by vented an electro-magnetic telegraph clock in

Will's magneto-electric machine, employed to 1840. Clocks worked by electricity, invented by Mr. Alexander Bain, Mr. Shepherd, and others,

bleach sugar, at Whitechapel (Edwd. Beane's patent)

Aug. 1868 appeared in the exhibition of 1851. An electric cluck, with four dials, illuminate at night, was ELEGY. Elegiac verse (consisting of a hexaset up for some time in front of the office of the electric telegraph company, in the Strand, Lon

meter and pentameter alternately) was the first don, July, 1852. A time-ball was set up by Mr.

variation from the hexameter or epic measure, used French, in Cornhill, in 1856. In 1860, Mr. C. V.

by Tyrtæus and other early poets. The elegies of Walker so connected the clock of the Greenwich

Ovid and Catullus are celebrated. Gray's “Elegy, observatory with that of the South-eastern station. written in a country churchyard,” was published London, that they could be controlled by electricity. ELECTRIC Ligut. Apparatus for regulating the

ELEMENTARY EDUCATION ACT, electric light were devised in 1846, and shown by 33 & 34 Vict. c. 75, passed 9 lug. 1870 ; amended Staite and Petrie in 1848 ; by Foucault soon in 1872.

after. Jules Duboscq's Electric Lamp (the most perfect of

ELEMENTS were formerly reckoned as four : the kind) appeared at the Paris exhibition in carth, air, fire and water. Lavoisier enunciated 1855; and was tirst employed by professor Tyn the principle that all bodies which cannot be dall, at the Royal Institution, London, for illus

proved to be compounded are elements and to be trating lectures on light and colours, in The works of new Westminster bridge were illumi

1856 | treated as such. See Table, and separate articles. nated by Watson's electric light, in .

The chemical elements now are about 63.

1858 M. Serrin, of Paris, exhibited his improved electric

LIST OF ELEMENTS, 1872 (Odling). lamp, in .


Gold The Nögneto-Electric light (the most brilliant artifi

Silver . cial light yet produced), by means of apparatus

Mercury levised by Professor Holmes, was successfully

Copper tried at the South Foreland lighthouse, Dover,

Iron in 1858 and 1859

Tin The French government orilered eight lighthouses

Lead on their coast to be illuminated by electric light,

B. Valentine.
1490. Antimouy
April, 1861
1530. Bismuth

MM. Dumas and Benoit constructed an electric


Paracelsus. sofety lamp in.


Carbon ELECTRIC Loom. M. Bonelli, of Turin, in 1854, des

Sulphur vised a plan of employing inagnets and electro 1669. Phosphorus

Brandt. magnets in weaving, therehy superseding the 1702.

Borax, boron

tedious and costly Jacquard system of cards.
His loom was set up in London in 1859, and lec-

G. Brandt

in 1749.

1733. J Arsenie )

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to 1758



1741. Platinum


they were purchased by the British government for 1751. Nickel


35,000l. and placed in the British Museum, in 1816. Soda -ium


The ship conveying them was wrecked near Cerigo, Potash 1736 Lime


and Mr. W. R. Hamilton, who was on board, reSilex


mained several months at Cerigo, and recovered Alumina


them from the sea. Magnesia

Scheele. 1766. Hydrogen


ELIS, a Greek state termed the “Holy Land," 1771. Fluor -ine


in the Peloponnesus, founded by the Heraclida, 1772. Nitrogen


1103 B.C. Here Iphitus revived the Olympic games, 1774. Chlorine

Scheele. Oxygen .


884, which were regularly celebrated after Corcebus Manganese


gained the prize in 776. Elis surrendered many Baryta -ium


towns to the Spartans in war, 400. After various 1778.) Molybdenum

changes, Elis joined the Achæan league, 274; and 1781. (Tungsten


with the rest of Greece was subjugated by the 1782. Tellurium


Romans in 146. 1789. I Uranium Zirconia -ium

Klaproth. 1791. Titanium

ELL (so named from ulna, the arm) was fixed at

Gregor. Strontia -iuin 1793

45 inches, by king Henry I. in 1101. Hopie.

The old 1794. Yttria -ium


French ell, or aune, was 46.790 inches. 1797. Chromium. 1798. Glucina -um.


ELLISON GALLERY. In April, 1860, 1802. Tantalum


Mrs. Elizabeth Ellison (in conformity with the wish 1803. Cerium.


of her deceased husband, Richard), presented to the (Palladium.


South Kensington Museum a series of 50 original Rhodium ( Iridium

Descotils & Smithson

water-colour drawings, by the first masters. Osmium

Tennant. 1811. Iodine


ELLORA or ELORA, Central India; remark1817. Lithium


able for its very ancient rock-cut temple; excavated Selenium


according to Hindoo legends nearly 7000 years ago; 1818. Cadmium


but more probably about 800 A.D. The town was 1826. Bromine

Balard. 1828. Thorinum

ceded to the British by Holkar in 1818, and trans

Berzelius. 1830 Vanadium

ferred by them to the Nizam of the Deccan in 1822. 1839. (Lanthanum 1841. Didymiu..


ELMINA, and Dutch Guinea, W. Africa, 1843. Erbium

were ceded by the Dutch government by treaty, 1844. Ruthenium

signed Feb. 1872, and consolidated with ihe West 1846. Niobium

H. Rose.

African settlements; first governor, Mr. Pope Hen1859. I Casiun


nessy, April, 1872.

ELOPEMENT. A wife who departs from her 1863. Indiuin

Reich and Richter.

husband, loses her dower by the statute of Westm. ELEPHANT, in the earliest times trained to 1285-unless her husband, without coercion of the war. The history of the Maccabees informs us, church, be reconciled to her. Earlier laws punished that "to every elephant they appointed 1000 men elopement with death when adultery followed. armed with coats of mail, and 500 horse : and upon the elephants were strong towers of wood, &c.” The cathedral near Elphin, by a river issuing from

ELPHIN (Ireland). St. Patrick founded a elephants in the army of Antiochus were provoked two fountains,” in the 5th century, and placed over to fight by showing them the blood of grapes and it St. Asicus, whom he created bishop, and who mulberries." The first elephant said to have been seen in England was one of enormous size, presented turies, Roscommon, Ardcarn, Drumclive, and others

soon after filled it with monks. After many cenby the king of France to our Henry III. in 1238. of less note, were also annexed to Elphin, which Baker's Chron. Polyænus states that Cæsar became one of the richest sees in Ireland. It is brought one to Britain 54 B.C., which terrified the valued in the king's books, by an extent returned inhabitants greatly. See Knighthood.

28 Eliz., at 10zl. 188. sterling. The see was united ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES. The insti- to Kilmore in 1841, under the provisions of the tution of these annual secret religious ceremonies Church Temporalities act, passed Aug. 1833. (in honour of Ceres) at Athens, is attributed to ELSINORE, Zealand, Denmark, the station Cadmus, 1550; to Erechtheus, 1399; or to Eumolpus, for receiving the Sound dues (which see). 1356 B.c. If any one revealed them, he was to be put to death. They were introduced' from Eleusis ELY, an island in Cambridgeshire, on which a into Rome; lasted about 1800 years, and were abol- church was built about 673, by Etheldreda, queen ished by Theodosius A.D. 389. The laws were—I. of Egfrid, king of Northumberland; she also founded To honour parents; 2. To honour the gods with the a religious house, filled it with virgins, and became fruits of the earth; 3. Not to treat brutes with herself first abbess. The Danes ruined the convent cruelty. Cicero makes the civilisation of mankind one about 870; but a monastery was built in 879, on of the beneficial effects of the Eleusinian mysteries. which king Edgar and succeeding monarchs be

stowed great privileges and grants of land ; whereby ELGIN MARBLES, derived chiefly from the it became the richest in England. Richard, the Parthenon, a temple of Minerva, on the Acropolis at eleventh abbot, wishing to free himself from the Athens, of which they formed part of the frieze and bishop of Lincoln, made great interest with Henry pediment, the work of Phidias, under the govern- | I. to get Ely erected into a bishopric, 1108, and his ment of Pericles, about 440 B.C.' Thomas lord Elgin successor Hervæus was the first prelate, 1109. It began the collection of these marbles during his is valued in the king's books at 21341. 188. 5d.; mission to the Ottoman Porte, in 1802; and from him present stated income, 5500l.


chine is said to have been invented by John Duncan 1781. James York, died 26 Aug. 1808. 1808. Thomas Dampier, died 13 May, 1812.

of Glasgow in 1804. Heilman's embroidery machine 1812. Bowyer Edward Sparke, died 4 April, 1836.

was patented by Köchlin. Berlin Wool-work has 1836. Joseph Allen, died 20 March, 1845.

been much improved of late years by the production 1845. Thomas Turton, died 7 Jan. 1864.

of more elegant patterns, first publishid by Mr. 1864. Edward Harold Browne.

Wittich in Berlin, about 1810. ELZEVIRS, a celebrated family of printers, EMERALD, a precious stone, of a green colour, in Holland, whose reputation is based on fine pocket found in the East and in Peru. It has been ereditions of the classics. Their first book is dated roneously alleged that there were no true emeralds 1683

in Europe before the conquest of Peru ; but there is EMANCIPATION, see Roman Catholics and

one in the Paris Museum, taken from the mitre of Slavery. The Emancipation Society for slaves Pope Julius II. who died in 1513, and Peru was not lasted 1862-5.

conquered till 1545. EMBALMING. The ancient Egyptians be

EMESA, now Hems, Syria, renowned for a lieving that their souls, after

temple of the sun, the priest of which, Bassianus, many thousand

years, would reinhabit their bodies, if preserved entire,

was proclaimed emperor with the name Heliogabalus embalmed the dead. Some of the bodies, called

or Elagabalus, 218. His atrocities led to his assasmummies, buried 3000 years ago are still perfect.

sinaiion, 11 March, 222. “ The physicians embalmed Israel,” 1689 B.C. Gen. EMIGRANTS. The French aristocracy and 1. 2; see Mummies. Carbolic acid was successfully clergy (émigrés) began to leave their country in employed by professor Seely in America, in 1868.

July, 1789, at the breaking out of the revolution : The most perfect specimens of modern embalming are pre

their estates were confiscated in Dec. A large numserved in the inuseum of the royal college of surgeons,

ber returned in 1802, by an amnesty granted after one being the body of the wite of Van Butchell, pre- the peace of Amiens. Many were indemnified after served by John Hunter by injecting camphorated the restoration in 1815. Spirits of wine, &c., into the arteries and veins ; and the other the body of a young woman, who died about

EMIGRATION. Phænician and Greek emi1780 of consumption, in the Lockhospital. The method grants colonised the coasts of the Mediterranean and of embalming royal personages in modern times is fully the Black Sea ; see Magna Graecia, Marseilles, &c. described in " Hunter's Posthumous Works." He died

The discovery of America opened a vast field for in 1793. --During the American War (1861-5), many soldiers' bodies were embalmed and sent home.

emigration, which was restrained by Charles I. in

1637. It has been greatly encouraged since 1819. EMBANKMENTS of earth were erected by Regulations for emigration were made in 1831, and the ancients for preservation from their enemies in Jan. 1840, the Colonial Land and Emigration and the inundations of the tide. Those of the Board was established. Emigration much promoted Egyptians and Babylonians are described by Hero- through want of employment in London, 1869-70. dotus and Strabo. "To the Romans are attributed the first dykes of Holland, and the embankments of Emigration from the United Kingdom, in 1815, 2081 : in Romney Marsh, considered to be the oldest in Britain.

1820, 25,729 ; in 1830, 56,907; in 1840, 00,743 : in 1850,

280,843; in 1860, 128,469 ; in 1866, 204,882 ; in 1867, In 1250 Henry III. issued a writ enforcing the sup 195,953 ; in 1868, 196,325; in 1869, 258,027 ; in 1870, port of these works; and his successors followed his 256,940; in 1871, 252,435. example. James I. greatly encouraged the embank

1846. 1851. ment of the Thames. Sir W. Dugdale's “ History from England


Scotland of Embanking” first appeared in 1662 ; sec Draina

3,427 18,646 Ireland

38,813 62,350 age, Levels, and Thames. Since 1830, millions of pounds have been expended in embankments for

128,851 335.966 railways.

Emigration to North American colonies, West Indies,

Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, Swan River, EMBARGO, from the Spanish embargar, to Van Diemen's Land, &c., in 1820-30, 154,291; in 1830-40, detain, applied to the restraining ships from sailing. 277,695. This power is vested in the crown, but is rarely To North American Colonies, in 1842, 54,123 ; in 1847, exercised except in extreme cases, and sometimes as 109,680 ; in 1856, 16,378; in 1861, 12,707 ; in 1863, a prelude to war. The most memorable instances

18,083 ; in 1864, 12,721 ; in 1866, 13,255; in 1867, 15,503 ;

in 1868, 21,062 ; in 1869, 33,891 ; in 1870, 35,295. of embargo were those for the prevention of corn To United States, in 1842, 63,852 ; in 1847, 142,154 ; in going out of the kingdom in 1766; and for the de

1857, 126,905 ; in 1861, 49,764 ; in 1863, 146,813 ; in tention of all Russian, Danish, and Swedish ships 1864, 147,042 ; in 1866, 161,000; in 1867, 159,275 ; in in the sereral ports of the kingdom, owing to the 1868, 155,532; in 1869, 203.001; in 1870, 196,075. armed neutrality, 14 Jan. 1801 ; see Armed Neu

To Australia and New Zailand, in 1842, 8534 ; in 1845, trality.

830 : in 1850, 16,037 ; in 1852 (go'd discovery), 87,881 ;

in 1853, 61,401; in 1854, 83,237 ; in 1855, 52,309 ; in EMBER WEEKS, instituted, it is said, by 1856, 44,584 ; in 1857, 61,248 ; in 1861, 23,738 ; in 1863, pope Callixtus I. (219-223), to implore the blessing

53,054 ; in 1864, 40,942 ; in 1866, 24,097 ; in 1867, 14,466 ; of God on the produce of the earth by prayer and

in 1868, 12,809 ; in 1869, 14.901; in 1870, 17,065.

To other places, in 1854, 3366 ; in 1859, 12,427 ; in 1868, fasting, in which penitents used to sprinkle the

6922 ; in 1870, 8505. ashes (embers) of humiliation on their heads. In the English church the Ember days are the Wed

EMILY ST. PIERRE, see United States, nesday, Friday, and Saturday, after the following 1862. days—the first Sunday in Lent, Whit-sunday, 14 EMINENCE, a title conferred upon cardinals Sept. (Holy Cross), and 13 Dec. (St. Lucia).

by pope Urban VIII. Jan. 10, 1631, as more honourEMBROIDERY is usually ascribed to the able than “Excellency.” Previously cardinals had Phrygians ; but the Sidonians excelled in it, and it

the title of Illustrissimi. Ashe. The grand-master is mentioned in 1491 B.C. Exoilus xxxv. 35 and of Malta also obtained this title. Pardon. xxxviii. 23. See Bayeux Tapestry. Embroidery is EMIR, a title of the caliphs among the Turks now done by machinery. The first embroidery ma and Persians, first awarded to the descendants of


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A. D.

Mahomet's daughter Fatima, about 650. To such 600. They were also feasts celebrated by the Jews only was originally given the privilege of wearing on the 25th of the ninth month, in commemoration the green turban.

of the Maccabees cleansing the temple, which had EMISSION THEORY OF LIGHT (advo

been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes, 131 B.C. cated by Newton, about 1672), supposes that indi. ENCAUSTIC PAINTING, enamelling by vidual particles pass from the luminous body to the

fire. Painting with burnt wax is said to have been eye, and that each ray of light passes from the sun known to Praxiteles about 360 B.C. This art was to the earth. It is opposed to the Undulatory revived by M. Bachelier, 1749, by count Caylus, Theory (which see) now generally received.

1765, and by Miss Greenland, 1785 and 1792. EMLY, an Irish see, said to have been founded by St. Patrick Emly was called Imelaca-Ibair: denounced marriage, and abstained from flesh, and

ENCRATITES, followers of Tatian, about 170, St. Ailbe was the first bishop in 448. In 1568, the from wine even at the Lord's supper. see was united to Cashel (which see). It is now an inconsiderable village.


July 1849, to enable owners of land or leases in founded in 1594 by lady Anne Dacre for aged people

Ireland, subject to encumbrance, to apply to comand children. Its original annual income had in

missioners appointed under it to direct a sale of such

property: creased from 3601. to about 40001. in 1870, when

These commissioners held their first changes in the disposition of the funds were pro

court in Dublin, 24 Oct. 1849, and their last 28 July, posed by the Charity Commissioners, and opposed.

1858, a new court being established under the

Landed Estates act. The number of estates sold up EMPALEMENT. This mode of executing to 1858 was 2380, producing twenty-two millions of criminals, mentioned by Juvenal, and often inflicted pounds. In 1854 a similar act was passed for the in Rome, is still used in Turkey and Arabia. In West Indies. England the dead bodies of murderers were some- ENCYCLICAL LETTER, see Rome, 1864. times staked in this manner, previously to being buried; abolished, 1823. See Suicide.


general dictionary of art, science, and literature. EMPEROR, from Imperator (ruler), a title ! This name has been given to a work by Abulpharaconferred on victorious Roman generals.

gius in the 13th century. Augustus Cæsar the first Roman emperor

Alsted's Encyclopaedia

1620 Valentinjan I. first emperor of the west, and Valens, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire Historique

1673 first emperor of the east 364 Hofmann's Lexicon Universale.

1677 Charlemagne first emperor of Germany, crowned by

Corneille's Dictionnaire des Arts.

1694 Leo. III. 800 Bayle's Dictionnaire

1696 Othman I founder of the Turkish empire, the first

Lexicon Technicum of John Harris (earliest English emperor of Turkey.

22 Oct. 1721

encyclopedia) 1704 : supplements The Czar the first emperor of Russia

1710, 1741 Ephraim Chambers' Cyclopædia .

1728 Napoleon Bonaparte first emperor of the French 1804 Zedler's Universal Lexicon

1732-50 Napoleon III., his nephew, founded the second

Encyclopédie (hy Diderot and D'Alembert)

1751-80 French empire, Dec. 1852, deposed 4 Sept. 1870

[The contributors were termed ENCYCLOPEDISTES, Iturbide, emperor of Mexico, Feb. 1822 ; shot

and their daring writings are believed to have 19 July, 1824

hastened the French revolution in 1789.) Dom Pedro IV. of Portugal the first emperor of

Encyclopædia Britannica (ist edition by William Brazil. Faustin I. the first emperor of Hayti, in 1849 ; de


· 1778

[The 8th completed, 1861.) posed. Maximilian I. emperor of Mexico, 10 April, 1864;

1859 Encyclopédie Méthodique (by Pancoucke) 1782-1832 Chainbers' Cyclopædia (edited by Rees)

1785 shot

19 June, 1867
Rees' Cyclopædia


Brockhaus's Conversations Lexicon, 1st edition EMPIRICS, a sect of physicians, formed in the

[New editions frequent.) 3rd century before Christ, who contended that all

Encyclopaedia Metropolitana

1817-45 reasoning respecting the animal economy was use- Cabinet Cyclopædia (a collection of treatises) 1829-46 less, and that experience and observation were the Penny Cyclopedia

1833-46 only foundations of medicine. The sect adopted Knight's English Cyclopædia (4 divisions).


Chambers' Cyclopædia the principles of Acron of Agrigentum, who flour


Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyclopadie, began ished about 430 B.C.

1818 ; 125 vols. published .

1861 ENAMELLING was practised by the Egyp

ENDERBY LAND, see Southern Continent. tians, Chinese, and other nations, and was known in England in the time of the Saxons. At Oxford ENDOSMOSIS. M. Dutrochet, about 1826, is an enamelled jewel, which belonged to Alfred, I found that if two fluids, gases or vapours, of unequal and which, as appears by the inscription, was made density, are separated by an animal or vegetable by his order, in his reign, about 887. Limoges membrane, the denser will attract the less dense enamelled ware was popular in the 16th century. through the medium. This property he called Magnificent specimens by Lepec, Elkington, Eman- endosmose, when the attraction is from the outside uel, and others, appeared at the exhibition at Paris, to the inside, and erosmose when it operates from 1867. See Mosaic. On 19 June, 1862, madame the inside to the outside. Many natural phenomena Rachel sued captain Carnegie for 9281. for enamel- are thus more clearly understood. Brande. ling his wife's face : and was nonsuited; see

ENDOWED SCHOOLS ACT, containing Trials, 1868.

the “ Conscience Clause," passed 1860; another ENCÆNIA. Greek festivals kept on days on

similar act passed 2 Aug. 1869. which cities were built and temples consecrated;

ENFIELD MUSKET, see Fire-arms. and in later times, as at Oxford, at the celebration of founders and benefactors. Oldisworth. They ENGEN, Baden. Here Moreau defeated the were the origin of church-wakes in England, about lustrians, 3 Vay, 1900.




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