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26 Dec. 1135
1204 I 208
ENGHIEN or STEENKIRK (S. W. Belgium). Sweyn dies, and Ethelred returns, 1014; dies
1016 Here the British under William III. were defeated Canute the Dane sole monarch .
1017 by the French under marshal Luxemburg, 24 July,
Edward the Confessor king; Saxon dynasty restored 1042
Harold II. crowned, 6 Jan. ; defeats the Norwegians, 1692.--The duc d'Enghien, a descendant of the
25 Sept. ; defeated and slain at Hastings by Wilgreat Condé, was seized in Baden by order of Bona
liam of Normandy
14 Oct. 1066 parte, conveyed to Vincennes, and, after a hasty WILLIAM I. crowned trial, shot by torch-light, immediately after con The northern counties rebel; ravaged from the demnation, 21 March, 1804. The body was ex
Humber to the Tyne
1069-70 humed, 20 March, 1816.
Introiluetion of the feudal system, about
1070 Justices of peace pointe
1085-6 ENGINEERS, Military, formerly called Domesday book compiled
WILLIAM II. crowned .
26 Sept. 1087 Trench-masters. Sir William Pelham officiated as
The crusades begin
1096 trench-master in 1622 ; the chief engineer was HENRY I. crowned ; restores Saxon laws, te called camp-master-general in 1634. Capt. Thomas
5 Aug. 1100 Rudd had the rank of chief engineer to the king Defeats his brother Robert, and gains Normandy 1106 about 1650. The corps of engineers was formerly
STEPHEN Crowned a civil corps, but was made a military force, and
Civil war between the empress Maud, Henry's directed to rank with the artillery, 25 April, 1787.
daughter, and Stephen ; her friends the Scots ile
feated at the battle of the Standari, 22 Aug. 1138 It has a colonel-in-chief, 16 colonels-commandant, She lands in England, and is successful
• 1139 and 16 colonels. Civil Engineering became im- Crowned at Winchester portant in the middle of the last century, when Defeated : retires to France
· 1147 Smeaton began the Eddystone lighthouse, and
Concludes a peace with Stephen ,
HENRY II, crowned Brindley the Bridgewater canal. Since then the
19 Dec. 1154 Rennies, Telford, the Stephensons and Brunels, Arrogance of Becket; murdered
Constitutions of Clarendon enacted
Jan. 1164 29 Dec.
1170 Locke, and others have constructed breakwaters, Conquest of Ireland
1172 docks, bridges, railways, tunnels, &c., which are England divided into six circuits for the administrathe marvel of our age.
tion of justice.
1176 English laws digested by Glanville, about
1181 The first society of Civil Engineers formed by Smea
RICHARD I. crowned
3 Sept. 1189 ton and others, afterwards termed the Smeatonian
He joins the crusades
1991 Society of Civil Engineers 1793 Defeats Saladin
1192 Institution of Civil Engineers established
Made prisoner by Henry VI. of Germany 1818; obtained a charter
3 June, 1828
Ransomed for 400,000l. 1472 members
27 May, 1199 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, which has its
Normandy lost to England head-quarters in Birmingham, established
England put under an interdict Isambard Kingdon Brunel, projector of the Great
Magna Charta granted
15 June, 1215 Eastern, aged 53, died 15 Sept. ; Robert Stephen
HENRY III. crowned
28 Oct. 1216 son, railway engineer, aged 59, died 12 Oct. 1859 The Barons' war (which see)
1262-8 Engineers’ Amalgamated Society, in 1867, consisted
The first regular parliament.
1265 of above 30,000 members; annual income, 86,000!, ;
EDWARD I. crowned
1272 disbursed to disabled workmen, &c., about 50,000l.; Wales united to England
1283 amassed capital, about 125,000.
Death of Roger Bacon
1 292 Engineer, weekly journal, established 4 Jan. 1856 Scotland subdued, 1296 ; revolts .
• 1297 Engineering, weekly journal, established. Jan. 1866
EDWARD II, crowned .
Defeated by Bruce at Bannockburn 24 June, 1314 ENGLAND (from Angles and lond, land), so
Insurrection of the barons against his favourites 1308 named, it is said, by Egbert, first king of the
1315, 1325 English in a general council held at Winchester,
EDWARD III, crowned
25 Jan. 1327 829; or by Athelstan, 925. See Anglo-Saxons.
Defeat of the Scots at Hallidown-hili.
Invades France ; victorious at Crecy 26 Aug. 1346 England was united to Wales, 1283; to Scotland in
1347 1603; they have had the same legislature since 1707,
Order of the Garter instituted .
1349 when the three were styled Great Britain. Ireland Victory at Poictiers
19 Sept. 1356 was incorporated with them, by the act of legislative Peace of Bretigny
8 May, 1360 union, 1 Jan. 1801, and the whole was called the Law pleadings in English
RICHARD II. crowed.
Insurrection of Wat Tyler suppressed .
15 June, 1381 Death of Wickliffe
1385 square miles of territory, with 200,000,000 inhabi
HENRY IV. crowned
30 Sept. 1399 tants. Statistical details are given under the re Order of the Bath instituted by Henry IV. spective headings; Army, Nary, Rerenue, &c. For Insurrection of the Percies and the Welsh .
1402-5 previous history, see Britain. Histories of England, HENRY V. crowned
21 March, 1413 by Rapin (in English), 1725-31; Thomas Carte, France invaded by Henry V. who gains the battle of 1747-55; David Hume, 1755-62; Tobias Smollett, Treaty of Troyes ; the French crown gained
25 Oct. 1415
· 1420 1757-65; John Lingard, 1819-30; Charles Knight,
HENRY VI. crowned at Paris 1856-62. See Chronicles.
Appearance of the maid of Orleans; the French conquests lost, except Calais .
1429-31 Egbert, “king of the English," 828 ; defeats the Cade's insurrection Welsh, Danes, &c., at Hengestdown 835 War of the Roses (see Roses and Battles)
1455-71 Alfred, king, 871;" after many vicissitudes, van
EDWARD IV. deposes Henry VI.
March, 1401 quishes the Danes . 871-896 | Printing introduced by Caxton
1471 He frames a code of laws, 890 ; forms a militia and
EDWARD V. accession.
9 April, 1453 navy, surveys and subdivides the country, and Murdered in the Tower (soon after) promotes education
896 RICHARD III. deposes Edward V. Athelstan's great victory over the Danes, Scots, &c
Valuable statutes enacted
1484 at Brumanburg
937 HENRY VII. accession; Richard defeated and Predominance of Dunstan ; he promotes monachisin
slain at Bosworth Field
22 Aug. 1485 and the celibacy of the clergy, about
Henry marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Iv.. 1486 Ethelred compounds with the Danes for peace
1486-7 Causes their massacre .
13 Nov. 1002 Yeomen of the guard, the first appearance of a Avenged by Sweyu, king of Denmark : Ethelred
standing army in England instituted
1485 flees to Normandy. 1003 Court of Star-Chamber instituted
8 July, 1307
22 June, 1377
1683 6 Feb. 1685
16 sept. 1701 8 March, 1702 2 Aug. 1704
16 June, 1722 11 June, 1727
16 June, 1743
· 17 Nov.
Insurrection of Perkin Warbeek quelled .
1492-8 “Rye-house plot ;" William, lord Russell (executed Garlening introduced into England, principally froin
21 July), and Algernon Sydney executed. the Netherlands, about
1507 JAMES II. accession Death of Prince Arthur
Duke of Monmouth's rebellion defeated at Sedge. HENRY VIII. accession . 22 April, 1509 moor, 6 July; he is beheaded
15 July, Rise of Wolsey
30 June, 1688 Henry VIII.'s interview with Francis I. at Ardres Abdication of James II.
In Dee. (see "Field of the Cloth of Gold") 4-25 June, 1520 William III, and Mary proclaimed by the conFirst map of England drawn by G. Lilly, about
13 Feb. 1689 Henry VIII, becomes “ Defender of the Faith".
1521 National debt begins. Fall of Wolsey ; he dies 29 Nov. 1530
Bank of England incorporated Henry VIII. marries Anne Boleyn privately, Nov. Death of the queen regnant, Mary
27 July, 1694
28 Dec. 1532 or January 1533 ; divorced from Catherine, Peace of Ryswick.
1697 23 May, 1533 Death of James II. in exile Henry VIII, styled “ Head of the Church
1534 ANNE, accession The pope's authority in England is abolished
Victory of Marlborough at Blenheim Sir Thomas More beheaded
6 July, 1535 Union of the two kingdoms under the title of Great Queen Anne Boleyn beheaded
19 May, 1536 Britain Queen Jane Seymour dies
24 Oct. 1537
Sacheverell riots Monasteries suppressed
1710 1538 Treaty of Utrecht, advantageous to Great Britain Statute of Six Articles passed
11 April, 1713 Abbots of Glastonbury, Reading, &c. expentei
GEORGE I. of Hanover, accession . I Aug. 1714 The first authorised edition of the Bible (Cranmer's) The Scots' rebellion quelled
1720 Cromwell, lord Essex, beheaded .
1540 Death of the duke of Marlborough Anne of Cleves divorced
Order of the Bath revived (which see) Queen Catherine Howard beheaded :
1725 1542 GEORGE II. accession. The title of king of Ireland" confirmed to the Eng Death of Newton
20 March, lish sovereigns
1543 Georye 11. at the victory of Dettingen Henry marries Catherine Parr
Second Scots rebellion: prince Charles-Edward EDWARD VI, accession, 28 Jan. ; promotes the gains Edinburghi, 17 Sept. ; victor at Prestonpans, Reformation (Somerset, protector) • 1547
21 Sept. 1745 Book of Common Prayer authorised
Victory at Falkirk, 18 Jan. ; defeated totally at CulSomerset deprived of power, 1549 ; behearled .
loden MARY, accession, 6 July ; restores propery
Death of prince Frederick Louis, son of George II.
16 April, 1746
1553 Execution of larly Jane Grey and her friends 1554
and father of George III.
20 March, 1751 Mary marties Philip of Spain; persecutes the Pro New style introduced into England, 3 Sept. (made 14) 1752 testants
Seven years' war begins Riley, Latimer, and Cranmer burnt 1555 and 1556 Conquest of India begins, under colonel (afterwards Calais re-taken by the French 7 Jan. 1558
1757 ELIZABETH, accession; the church of England Victory and death of general Wolfe (see Quebec) re-established
GEORGE III. accession
• 1759 Mary, queen of Scots, lands in England, 1568; exe His marriage with Charlotte Sophia, of Mecklen
25 Oct. 1760 tutel.
8 Feb. 1587 burg Strelitz, 8 Sept. ; crowned The Spanish armada repulsei. July, 1588 Peace of Paris ; Canada gained
22 Sept. 1761
10 Feb. 1763 Devereux, earl of Essex, beheaded
25 Feb. 1601 Isle of Man annexed to Great Britain JAMES I. accession; union of the two crowns Death of the old Pretender, the chevalier de st.
1765 24 March, 1603 George" Styled "king of Great Britain” 24 Oct. 1604 Royal marriage act passed
1772 The Gunpowder Plot Nov. 1605 American war begins (see United States)
1773 The present translation of the Bible completed 1611 Death of earl of Chatham
1 May, 1778 Baronets first created
May, " No Popery" riots The Overbury murder 15 Sept. 1613 Separation of America from England .
· 2-7 June, 1780
30 Nov. 1782 Shakespeare dies
23 April, 1616
Margaret Nicholson's atteinpt the life of Raleigh beheaded
29 Oct. 1618
George III. Book of Sports published
Trial of Warren Hastings begins
2 Aug. 1786 CHARLES I. accession 27 March, 1625 Death of the Young Pretender, at Rome, 3 March,
13 Feb. 1788 Death of lori Bacon. 9 April, 1626 The king's illness made known
12 Oct. Duke of Buckingham assassinated
23 Aug. 1628
He recovers, and goes to St. Paul's to make thanksHampen's trial respecting "ship money". 1637 giving Contest between the king and parliament ; impeach First coalition against France
23 April, 1789 ngent and execution of lord Strafford 1641 Habeas Corpus act suspended .
23 May, 1794 “Artist of the five members"
. 4 Jan, 1642 Howe's victory Civil war begins ; see Battles
Marriage of the prince of Wales with the princess
. 1 June, Archbishop Laud heheaded 10 Jan. 1645 Caroline of Brunswick.
8 April, 1795 Charles defeated at Nasehy
Warren Hastings acquitted Heters to the Scotch, 5 May ; is given up, 21 Sept. 1646 Princess Charlotte of Wales born
7 Jan. 1796 Ererntion of Charles I. 30 Jan. 1649 Cash payments suspended
25 Feb. 1797 Cromwell's victory at Worcester
3 Sept. 1651 Death of Edmund Burke OLIVER CROMWELL protector of the Common Battle of the Nile ; Nelson victor.
9 July, wealth 16 Dec. 1653
. 1 Aug. 1798 Irish rebellion
May, Naval victories of Blake
1652-7 Habeas Corpus act again suspended RICHARD CROMWELL, protector . 3 Sept. 1658 Hattield's attempt on the king's life. 15 May, 1800 Richard resigns 25 May, 1659 Union of Great Britain with Ireland
1 Jan. 1801 CHARLES 11. : monarchy re-established, 20 May, 1660 Nelson's victory at Copenhagen Act of uniforinity passeil ; church of Englind re Habeas Corpus act again suspended'.
2 April, wtoreri 1662 Peace of Amiens concluded
1 Oct. The great plague
1665 War against France under Bonaparte. 18 May, 1803 The Trat tire of London
2, 3 Sept. 1666
Nelson's victory and death at Trafalgar . 21 Oct. 1805 Distrace of lori Clarendon
23 Jan, 1806 Deuth of John Milton 8 Nov. 1674 "Delicate investigation" (which sce)
May, Oates's “ popish plot" creates a panic
13 Aug. 1678 Lord Melville impeached, 29 April; acquitted 12 June, Sr Elmond Berry Godfrey found murdered, 17 Oct. | Death of Charles James Fox Muy Roman Catholics executed. 1678-9'Orders in council against Berlin decree
7 Jan. 1807 The Habeas Corpus act, for protecting English sub Abolition of the slave trade by parliament, 25 Mar. jects against false arrest and imprisonment, pussel Victory and death of sir J. Moore. (See Corunna) 27 May, 1679
16 Jan. 1809
26 June, 1792
Duke of York impeached hy col. Wardle
2 Dec. 1849 Jubilee celebrating king's accession .
“ Exhibition of 1851" announced
3 Jan. 1850 Unfortunate Walcheren expedition Aug-Nov.
Death of Wordsworth (aged 80)
. 2 July,
21 Aug. REGENT— The prince of Wales
. 5 Feb, 1811
Great excitement occasioned by the pope's establishLuddite riots
Nov. mentofa Roman Catholie hierarchy in England, Nov. Assassination of Mr. Perceval, premier 11 May, 1812 Sixth census of United Kingdom (see Population) Earl of Liverpool premier
(27.637,761) War with America cominencei.
· 30 March, 1851 18 June, The first Great Exliibition " opened
1 May, Peace with France, &c. 14 April, 1814 Australian gold arrives
Dec. Visit of the emperor of Russia and king of Prussia Death of the poet Thomas Moore
26 Feb. 1852 to England
7 June, John Camden Neild, an eccentric miser, bequeathed Centenary of the house of Hanover
30 Aug. War with America
Slight earthquake at Liverpool, &c. Peace with Americal (treaty of Ghent)
Death of Wellington (aged 83), Sept. 14 : public Battle of Waterloo (elose of French war), 18 June, 1815 funeral.
18 Nov. Princess Charlotte inarries prince Leopold, of Suxe
Camp at Chobham
14 June-19 Aug. 1353 Coburg
2 May, 1816 Death of sir Charles Napier, conqueror of Scinde, Death of R. B. Sheridan 9 July,
29 Aug. Spa-fiel is meeting (which see)
English and French fleets enter Bosphorus, 22 Oct. Green-bag inquiry (achich see)
2 Feb. 1817 Protocol signed between England, France, Austria, Habeas Corpus act suspended
and Prussia, for re-establishment of peace between Caslı payments resuuned
Russia and Turkey Princess Charlotte dies childbirthi
Many meetings on eastern question, favourable to
17 Nov. 1818
Sept. to Dec.
24 May, 1819 Great strike at Preston ; 14,972 hands unemployed Manchester reform meeting (Peterloo) 16 Aug.
at one time
15 Oct. 1853, to 1 May, 1854 Duke of kent dies 23 Jan. 1820 Queen reviews Baltic fleet
· 11 March, GEORGE IV. accession
Treaty of alliance between England, France, and Cato-street conspirators arrested, 23 Feb. executed,
12 March, 1 May, War declared against Russia (see Russo-Turkish War) Trial of queen Caroline 19 Aug. to 10 Nov.
28 March, Coronation of George IV.
19 July, 1821
26 April, Queen Caroline dies at Hammersmith
June, Cominercial panic
1825-6 Crystal Palace opened by the queen 10 June, Duke of York dies
5 Jan, 1827 Cholera prevails in the south and west of London, Mr. Camins, premier, 30 April; dies 8 Aug.
Aug. and Sept.
Thanksgiving for abundant harvest
12 Dec. Mr. Huskisson killed at the opening of the Liver
Resignation of Aberdeen ministry
29 Jan. 1855 pool and Manchester railway . 15 Sept. Formation of Palmerston ministry
20 Feb. King opens new London bridge .
Aug. 1831 Sebastopol inquiry committee named The cholera morbus in England
26 Oct. Visit of emperor and empress of French, Reform bill rejected by the lords, 7 Oct. ; fatal
16 to 21 April, Bristol riots
Loan of 16 millions agreed to
April, English Reform aet passed 7 June, 1832 Distribution of Crimean medals
19 May, Sir Walter Scott (lies
21 Sept. Metropolitan cattle market opened Assault on William IV. by a discharged pensioner at
Agitation and rioting concerning Sunday trading
18 Aug; Slavery ceases in the colonies
1 Aug. Peace with Russia proclaimed, 19 April; thanksCorporation reform act passed.
Sept. 1835 VICTORIA, accession", Hanover separated from
giving day, 4 May : illuminations, &c. 29 May, 1856 War with China (which see)
28 June, 1838 Dissolution of parliament, 21 March ; new parliaBeginning of war with China
30 April, 1857 Penny postage begins
10 Jan. 1840 Death of duchess of Gloucester (aged 81), the last of Marriase of the queen with prince Albert of Saxe
George III.'s children
30 April, Coburg (see p. 244)
Mutiny of Indian army begins (see inidin)March, Oxford's assault on the queen .
Opening of the Fine Arts exhibition at Manchester, Prince of Wales bom 9 Nov. 1841
5 May, King of Prussia visits England
24 Jan. 1842 Educational conference in London, prince Albert in John Francis fires at the queen
22 June, Bean presents a pistol at her .
Victoria crosses (which see) distributed by the queen
26 June, Queen embarks for Scotland (1st visit).
Meetings for relief of sufferers by the mutiny in Peace of Sankin (with China)
India (by 15 Nov. 260,000l. raised] 25 Aug. Death of duke of Sussex
21 April, 1843 Great commercial panic ; relieved by suspension of Queen's visit to the Orleans family at Château d'Eu,
Bank Charter Act of 1844
3 Dec Emperor of Russia visits England
I June, 1844 Marriage of princess royal to prince Frederick-WilKing Louis Philippe's visit
liam of Prussia Tractarian or Pustrite controversy
Excitement respecting attempted assassination of Anti-corn-law agitation
Louis Napoleon, 14 Jan, ; indiscreet addresses of
French colonels, published
March, 1846 Palmerston, 8 Feb.) rejected, 19 Feb. ; Palmerston
... Cholera re-appers in England in . 1848 and 1849 Dr. Simon Bernard acquitted of conspiracy against Queen embarks on her visit to Ireland i Aug.
the life of Louis Napoleon .
The Jewish Disabilities bill passed 23 July, 1858 The India bill passed
2 Aug. The queen visits Birmingham, 15 June: Cherbourg,
4, 5 Aug. ; the princess royal (at Potsdam), 12
Sept. Excitement about the confessional; public meetings held against it
12 July and 18 Sept. The Association for the Promotion of Social Science meet at Liverpool
12 Oct. Excitement respecting the Italian war; proclamation for manning the navy.
30 April, 1859 Thanksgiving for suppression of Indian mutiny, 1 May, Declaration of neutrality of England . 12 May, Proclamation for the organisation of volunteer rifle corps : many formed
dissolve parliament, 23 April ; again defeateil,
18 June, The Handel commemoration .
20, 22, 24 June, The income tax increased to provide for the defences of the country
July, Lord Macaulay dies (aged 50)
28 Dec. Commercial treaty with France, signed 23 Jan. ; approved by parliament
March, 1860 Sir Charles Barry dies (aged 65)
12 May, The queen reviews 18,000 volunteers in Hyde-park,
23 June, Great failures in the leather trade July, &c. National rifle shooting match at Wimbledon (see
Volunteers) The earl of Derby reviews about 11,000 Lancashire volunteers at Knowsley
1 Sept. The queen and prince visit their daughter in Prussia
Sept. Peace with China signed
24 Oct. Thos. Cochrane, earl of Dundonald, dies (aged 82) Prince of Wales visits Canada and United States,
24 July-20 Oct. ; returns Severe cold (see Cold),
Dec. 1860, and Jan. 1861
navy) forcibly taking Messrs. Slidell and Mason
8 Nov. King of Sweden and his son visit London
Aug. Death of the prince consort of “typhoid fever,
duration 21 days," 14 Dec. ; buried (see Albert
28 Dec. Second great International Exhibition opened by the duke of Cambridge
1 May, 1862 Inundations in Norfolk (see Levels).
May, Marriage of princess Alice to Louis of Hesse, 1 July, Prince Alfred declared king of Greece at Athens
(throne declined) Final closing of international exhibition Remains of the prince consort transferred to the mausoleum at Frogmore
18 Dec. Great distress in the cotton manufacturing districts
begins, April : contributions received, central re
lief fund, 407,8301. ; Mansion-house fund, 236,926l. Rupture with Brazil
Jan. 1863 Prince Alfred elected king of Greece. Princess Alexandra of Denmark enters London, 7 March; married to the prince of Wales,
10 March, The British, French, and Austrian governments remonstrate with Russia on cruelties in Poland,
7 April, Inauguration of the Great Exhibition memorial to
the prince consort in the Horticultural gardens,
11 June, Arrival of captains Grant and Speke from exploring the source of the Nile
8 Jan. 1864 Final judgment of the judicial committee of the
privy council that the government had no authority to seize the Alexandra (Confederate) steamer
8 Feb. 1864 Garibaldi's visit to England.
3-27 April, The Ionian isles made over to Greece 1 June, European conference at London on the Schleswig
Holstein question; no result, 24 April—25 June, Great excitement through the murler of Mr. Briggs
in a first-class carriage on the North-London railway
9 July, Great explosion of gunpowder at the Belvedere magazine, near Woolwich.
i Oct. Death of John Leech (aged 47). Death of Richard Cobden (aged 61) 2 April, 1865 Prince George of Wales born
3 June, Resignation of lord-chancellor Westbury
· 4 July, General election; majority for Palmerston administration
10 July, &c. Visit of Abd-el-Kader ; departs
6 Aug. Prevalence of a cattle plague, June-Oct. ; royai commission appointed ; met
10 Oct. English fleet visits Cherboury, 15 Aug. ; French fleet
visits Portsmouth. Fine art and industrial exhibitions opened in London and the provinces
July-Sept. Death of lord Palmerston, i8 oct. ; public funeral Earl Russell premier
3 Nov. Important commercial treaty with Austria signed
16 Dec. New parliament opened by the queen . 6 Feb, 1866 New reform bill introduced by Mr. Gladstone, 12 Mar. Cominercial panic in London 11 May, et seq. International botanical congress opened 22 May, Defeat of the government on the reform bill,
18 June ; resignation of ministers 26 June, Marriage of princess Helena to prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein
5 July, The third Derby cabinet formed.
6 July, The Atlantic telegraph completely laid, and mes: sages sent to lord Stanley
27 July, The cable of 1865 recovered, and communication established with Valentia, 2 Sept. ; and with Newfoundland.
8 Sept. Projected attack of Fenians on Chester prevented by the authorities
11, 12 Feb. 18677 The queen laid foundation of the Albert hall of arts at S. Kensington
20 May, Visit of the viceroy of Egypt.
6-18 July, Visit of the Belgian volunteers (see Belgium),
10-22 July, Visit of the Sultan (see Turkey). 12-23 July, "Early Years of the Prince Consort,” published end of
July, New Reform act passed (see Reform).
15 Aug Michael Faraday, natural philosopher(nearly 76) died
25 Aug. Preparations for the expedition to Abyssinia (see Abyssinia)
Aug. rescue of prisoners at Manchester Fenian outrages;
(see Fenians) Synod of bishops at Lambeth (see Pan-Anglican)
24-27 Sept. Meeting of parliament respecting Abyssinian war, Fenian explosion at Clerkenwell prison, London,
13 Dec. Special constables called for ; 113,674 (in the U. K.) sworn in by.
28 Jan. 1860 " Leaves from our Journal in Scotland," &c., by the queen, published
Jan. Resignation of earl of Derby, 25 Feb. ; the Disraeli
ministry forined The queen holds a drawing-room again 12 March, Death of lord Brongham, aged 89
7 May, Arrival of the duke of Edinburgh from Australia
26 June, Irish and Scotch reform acts passed
13 July, Mr. Gladstone's resolution for disestablishing the
Irish church ; adopted by the commons, 30 April, Nearly 21,000 extra deaths attributed to the hot summer (23 July said to be the hottest)
1 July--30 Sept. Parliament dissolved in Nov., new parliament meets
Io Dec. Resignation of Disraeli ministry, 2 Dec. ; Gladstone
ministry take office Convention with the United States respectiug the
23 Oct. 15 Nov.
Alabama claim signed (afterwards rejected by the
14 Jan. 1869 New parliament meet for business
16 Feb. Irish Church bill introduced into the commons, 1 March ; royal assent.
26 July, The earl of Derby dies (aged 20).
23 Oct. Parliament meets
.8 Feb. 1870 Charles Dickens died (aged 58)
9 June, Earl of Clarendon died (aged 70) Irish land bill brought in, 15 Feb., received royal assent
8 July, Neutrality in Franco-Prussian war (which see) pro
claimed 2,000,000l. voted to increase the army by 20,000 men
1 Aug. Foreign enlistment act passed, 1 Aug. ; stringent proclamation of neutrality issued
9 Aug. Parliament prorogued
10 Aug Treaty with Prussia and France for neutrality of Belgium signed
9, II Aug. Long drought : bad hay harvest : good wheat barvest
Mar.-Aug. Earl Granville repels the charge of violating neutralities made by the Prussian government,
1-15 Sept. The queen's consent to the marriage of the princess
Louise to the marquis of Lorue announced Foot and mouth disease prevalent among cattle
Aug.-Nov. Election of elementary school-boards
Nov. Excitement through the Russian note respecting the Black sea (see Russia)
Nov. Foundation of new Post-office laid
16 Dec. Resignation of Mr. Bright announced Parliament meets
. Feb. 1871 Marringe of the princess Louise and the marquis of Lorne
21 March, Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, opened by the queen
29 March, Eighth census taken (31,817,108)
3 April, Death of sir John F Herschel, astronomer and philosopher (aged 79)
11 May, Death of George Grote, historian of Greece (aged 77)
18 June, First annual International Exhibition at South Kensington, opened 1 May, closed .
30 Sept. Black Sea conference met 17 Jan., closed (neutralisation of Black Sea abrogated, &c.)
13 March, Disestablishment of the Church of England bill re
jected in the commons (374-89), 1 May ; parliament prorogued
· 21 Aug. mness of the queen at Balmoral, 4 Sept. ; recovery
13 Sept. Serious illness of the prince of Wales from typhoid
fever, Dec. ; began to recover Letter from the queen and princess to the people, thanking them for sympathy
26 Dec. Thanksgivings for recovery of prince of Wales
21 Jan. 1872 Excitement respecting the American claims under
the treaty of Washington Meeting of parliament.
6 Feb. The queen, prince and princess of Wales, and court
and parliament go in state to St. Paul's : national thanksgiving for recovery of the prince of Wales : London decorated ; illuminations, &c. ; a success.
ful day The queen in a public letter, gazetted 1 March, says,
“Words are too weak for the queen to say how very deeply touched and gratitied she has been by the immense enthusiasm and affection exhibited towards her dear son and herself," dated
Supplemental treaty proposed ; accepted by U.S.
senate, 25 May ; further discussion in parliament;
10 June, 1872 Strikes among builders and other trades
Dec. Death of Edward Bulwer Lord Lytton, orator, poet, and novelist, aged 66
18 Jan. 1873 Strikes among colliers, Jan. ; great dearth of coal ;
the best, 528, a ton in London Visit of the Shah of Persia 18 June, 5 July, KINGS AND QUEENS OF ENGLAND.
BEFORE THE CONQU'EST. 827. Egbert, styled “ king of England" in 828. 837. Ethelwolf; his son. 857. Ethelbald ; his son. 860. Ethelbert; brother, 866. Ethelredl; brother. 871. Alfred the Great ; brother; died 21 or 28 Oct. gor. 901. Edward the Elder ; son ; died 925. 925. Athelstan; eldest son; died 17 Oct. 940. 940. Edmund I., fifth son of Edward the Elder ; died
from a wound received in an affray, 26 May, 946. 946. Edred ; brother; died 955. 955. Edwy, eldest son of Edmund; died of grief in 958. 958. Edgar the Peaceable; brother; died 1 July, 975. 975. Edward the Martyr, his son, stabbed at Corfe
Castle, at the instance of his step-mother Elfrida,
18 March, 979.
Ethelred restored in Canute's absence; died 24 April,
1016. 1016. Edmund Ironside, his son, divided the kingrom
with Canute; murdered at Oxford, 30 Nov, 1016;
reigned seven months. 1017. Canute sole king ; married Emma, widow of Ethel
red; died 12 Nov. 1035. 1035. Harold I. ; son; died 17 Mar. 1040. 1040. Hardlicanute, son of Canute and Einma: died of re
pletion at a marriage feast, 8 June, 1042. 1042. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred and Emma;
died 5 Jan. 1066. 1066. Harold II., son of earl Godwin; reigned nine months; killed near Hastings, 14 Oct. 1066.
Rouen, 9 Sept. 1087.
Flanders ; inarried in 1054 ; died in 1083.
ROYAL ARMS OF ENGLAND.
zodiac (trouiitional). Henry II. to Edwird II. Three lions passant. Edward VII, and his successors quartered the preceding
with fleurs de lys, the arms of France.
land and France (ist and 4th quarter); and, the lion
The queen, while entering Buckingham Palace,
threatened by Arthur O'Counor, aged about 18, who presents an unloaded pistol, with a paper to be signed ; immediately apprehended The queen sailed for Germany, and stayed several weeks.
introduced the wicorn as a supporter of the arms. George I. George II. and George III, introduced the arms
of Brunswick. In 1801 the arms of France were omitted. In 1816 the
arms were moditied through Hanover being made a
kingdom. VICTORIA. In 1837 the arms of Hanover were omitted.
The arms are now: ist and 4th quarters, 3 lions passant for England ; zud, lion rampant for Scotland ; 3rd, harp for Ireland.
23 Mareh--7 April, Strikes among agricultural labourers in Warwick shire and other counties; a union formed,
29 March, Arthur O'Connor pleads guilty (sentenced to imprisonment and flogging).
· 9 April, Correspondence between the British and American
governments respecting the claims for indirect losses, which the foriner rejects . 3 Feb. - May,