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1087. William II. Rufus; reign began 26 Sept. ; killed by 1413. Henry V. his son ; reign began 21 March ; died an arrow, 2 Aug. 1100.

31 Aug. 1422. 1100. Henry I. Beauclerc, his brother ; reign began Queen, Catherine, daughter of the king of France ; 5 Aug. ; died of a surfeit, 1 Dec. 1135

married 30 May, 1420. She outlived Henry, and Queens, Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III. king of

was married to Owen Tudor, grandfather of Scotland ; married 11 Nov. 1100 ; died 1 May,

Henry VII., in 1423 ; died 1437. 1119

2. Adelais, daughter of Godfrey, earl of 1422. Henry VI. his son; reign began 1 Sept. ; deposed Louvaine ; married 29 Jan. 1129 ; died 1151.

4 March, 1461 ; murdered by Richard, duke of 1135. Stephen, earl of Blois, nephew of Henry; reign

Gloucester, in the Tower, 20 June, 1471. 26 Dec. ; diel 25 Oct. 1154.

Queen, Margaret, daughter of the duke of Anjou ; Queen, Matilda, daughter of Eustace, count of

married 22 April, 1445; survived the king; died Boulogne ; married in 1128; died 3 May, 1151.

25 Aug. 1481. [Maud, daughter of Henry I. and rightful heir to

HOUSE OF YORK.
the throne; born 1101 ; betrothed, in 1109, at
eight years of age, to Henry V. emperor of Ger-

1461. Edward IV. ; died 9 April, 1483.
many, who died u125. She married, secondly, Queen, Lady Elizabeth Grey, daughter of sir Richard
Geoffrey Plantagenet, earl of Anjou, 1130. Was

Woodville, and widow of sir John Grey, of Groby : set aside from the English succession by Stephen,

married 1463 or 1464. Suspected of favouring 1135; landed in England and claimed the crown,

the insurrection of Lambert Simnel; and closed 1139. Crowned, but soon after defeated at Win

her life in confinement, 8 June, 1492. chester, 1141: concluded a peace with Stephen, 1483. Edward V. his son ; deposed 25 June, 1483, and which secured the succession to her son Henry,

said to have been murdered in the Tower; reigned 1153 ; died 1165.]

two months and thirteen days.

Richard III. brother of Edward IV. ; began to reign, THE PLANTAGENETS.

26 June; slain at Bosworth, 22 Aug. 1485. 1154. Henry II. Plantagenet, grandson of Henry I. and Queen, Anne, daughter of the earl of Warwick, and son of Maud ; reign began 19 Dec. ; died 6 July,

wido of Edward, prince of Wales, murdered 1189.

1471. She is said to have been poisoned by Queen, Eleanor, the repudiated queen of Louis VII.

Richard (having died suddenly, 16 March, 1485), king of France, and heiress of Guienne and

to make way for his intended marriage with prinPoitou ; married to Henry, 1151 ; died 26 June,

cess Elizabeth of York. 1 202 ; see Rosamond.

HOUSE OF TUDOR. 7189. Richard I. Caur de Lion, his son ; reign began

3 Sept. ; died of a wound, 6 April, 1199. 1485. Henry VII. ; began to reign 22 Aug ; died 21 April, Queen, Berengaria, daughter of the king of Navarre ;

1509. married 12 May, 1191 ; survived the king.

Queen, Elizabeth of York, princess of England, 1199. John, the brother of Richard; reign began 27 May;

daughter of Edward IV.; inarried 18 Jan. 1486; died 19 Oct. 1216.

died 1 Feb. 1503. Queens, Avisa, daughter of the earl of Gloucester ; 1509. Henry VIII his son; began to reign, 22 April ; died married in 1189; divorced. 2. Isabella, daughter

28 Jan. 1547 of the count of Angoulême : she was the young Queens, Catherine of Aragon, widow of Henry's and virgin wife of the count de la Marche ;

elder brother, Arthur, prince of Wales ; married married to John in 1200. Survived the king, on

7 June, 1509 ; mother of queen Mary ; repudiwhose death she was re-married to the count de

ated, and afterwards formally divorced, 23 May, la Marche.

1533 : died 7 Jan. 1536. 1216. Henry III. son of John ; reign began 28 Oct. ; died 2. Anne Boleyn, daughter of sir Thomas Boleyn, 16 Nov. 1272.

and maid of honour to Catherine ; privately Queen, Eleanor, daughter of the count de Pro

married, before Catherine was divorced, 14 Nov. vence; married 14 Jan. 1236; survived the king;

1532; mother of queen Elizabeth ; beheaded at and died in 1291, in a monastery.

the Tower, 19 May, 1536. 1272. Edward I. son of Henry, surnamed Longshanks; 3. Jane Seymour, daughter of sir John Seymour, reign began 20 Nov. ; died ? July, 1307.

and maid of honour to Anne Boleyn ; married Queens, Eleanor of Castile; married in 1253 ; died

20 May, 1536, the day after Anne's execution ; of a fever, on her journey to Scotland, at Grant

mother of Edward VI. of whom she died in ham, in Lincolnshire, 1290. 2. Margaret, sister

childbirth, 24 Oct. 1537: of the king of France: married 12 Sept. 1299;

4. Anne of Cleves, sister of William, duke of survived the king, lying in 1317.

Cleves ; married 6 Jan. 1540; divorced 10 July, 1307. Edward II. son of Edward I. ; reign began 8 July ;

1540 ; died 1557 dethroned 20 Jan. 1327: murdered at Berkeley

5. Catherine Howard, niece of the duke of Norcastle, 21 Sept. following.

folk; married 28 July, 1540 ; beheaded, 12 Feb. Queen, Isabella, daughter of the king of France ;

1542. married in 1308. On the death, by the gibbet, of

6. Catherine Parr, daughter of sir Thomas Parr, her favourite Mortimer, she was confined for the

and widow of Nevill, lord Latimer; married 12 rest of her life in her own house at Risings, near

July, 1543 : survived the king, after whose death Lynn, and died in 1357.

she married sir Thomas Seymour, created lord 1327. Edward III. his son; reign began 25 Jan. ; died Sudley ; died 5 Sept. 1548. 21 June, 1377

1547. Edward VI. son of Henry VIII. (by Jane Seymour); Queen, Philippa, daughter of the count of Hainault;

died 6 July, 1553. married in 1326; died 15 Aug. 1369.

1553. Jane, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, and wife of 1377. Richard II. son of Edward the Black Prince, and lord Guildford Dudley ; proclaimed queen on the grandson of Edward III. ; reign began 22 June ;

death of Edward ; ten days afterwards returned dethroned 29 Sept. 1399; said to have been mur

to private life; was tried 13 Nov. 1553 ; beheaded dered at Pomfret castle, 10 Feb. following.

12 Feb. 1554, when but 17 years of age. Queens, Anne of Bohemia, sister of the emperor Mary, daughter of Henry (by Catherine of Aragon) Wenceslaus of Germany ; married in Jan. 1382 ;

married Philip of Spain, 25 July, 1554 ; died 17 died 7 June, 1394. Isabella, daughter of

Nov. 1558. Charles V. of France ; married when only seven 1558. Elizabeth, daughter of Henry (by Anne Boleyn), years old, 1 Nov. 1396. On the deposition of her

died 24 March, 1603.
husband she returned to her father.

HOUSE OF STUART.
HOUSE OF LANCASTER,

1603. James I. of England and VI. of Scotland, son of 1399. Henry [IV. cousin of Richard II. ; reign began

Mary, queen of Scots ; died 27 March, 1625. 30 Sept. ; died 20 March, 1413.

Queen, Anne, princess of Denmark, daughter of Queens, Mary, daughter of the earl of Hereford ;

Freder.ck I. ; married 20 Aug. 1590 ; died she died before Henry obtained the crown, in

March, 1619. 1394. 2. Joan of Navarre, widow of the duke of 1625. Charles I. his son ; beheaded at Whitehall, 30 Jan. Bretagne ; married 1403 ; survived the king :

1649. Queen, Henrietta-Maria, daughter of Henry IV.

died 1437

Jan.

king of France; married 13 June, 1625 : sur- of Prussia, 25 Jan. 1858 (dowry 40,000l. and annuity vived the king: died in France 10 Aug. 1669.

of 80ool.). Issue : Frederick William, born 27 Jan. 1649. COMMONWEALTH. Oliver Cromwell

made pro

1859; and 4 other children. tector, 12 Dec. 1653; died 3 Sept. 1658.

2. ALBERT-EDWARD), prince of Wales, duke of Saxony, 1658. Richard Cromwell, his son, made protector, 4 duke of Cornwall and Rothsay, earl of Chester, Sept. ; resigned 22 April, 1659.

Carrick, and Dublin, baron of Renfrew, and lord of 1660. Charles II, son of Charles I. ; died 6 Feb. 1685.

the Isles, born 9 Nov. 1841; marriel princess AlexQueen, Catherine of Braganza, infanta of Portugal, andra of Denmark (born 1 Dec. 1844) 10 March,

daughter of John IV. and sister of Alfonso VI.; 1863. Issue; Albert Victor, born 8 Jan. 1864 ; married 21 May, 1662 ; survived the king; re- George Frederick, born 3 June, 1865; Louisa Victoria, turned to Portugal; died 21 Dec. 1705.

born 20 Feb. 1867 : Victoria Alexandra, born 6 July, 1685. James II. his brother; abdicated by flight, 11 Dec. 1868 ; Maud Charlotte, 26 Nov. 1869 ; Alexander 1688 : died in exile, 6 Aug. 1701.

John, born 6 April, died 7 April, 1871. (See Wales) (1st Wife, Ann Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, 3. ALICE-Maud-Mary, born 25 April, 1843; marrierl earl of Clarendon; married Sept. 1660 ; died prince Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt, 1 July, 1862 1671: mother of queens Mary II. and Anne.)

(dowry 30,000l., annuity 6000l.). Issue : Victoria, 5 Qucen, Mary Beatrice, princess of Modena, daughter April, 1863; and 5 other children.

of Alphonso d'Este, duke; married 21 Nov. 4. ALFRED-Ernest, born 6 Aug. 1844 ; entered the Eur. 1673; in 1688 retired with James to France ; yalus as midshipman, 31 Aug. 1858 ; created duke died at St. Germains, 1718.

of Edinburgh, &c. 24 May, 1866 ; visited Cape of 1689. William III. prince of Orange, king, and Mary, Good Hope, Aug. ; Australia, Nov. 1867 ; escaped queen, daughter of James; married 4 Nov, 1677;

assassination by a Fenian at Port Jackson, 12 began their reigu, 13 Feb. 1689; Mary died 28 March, 1868 ; visited Japan, China, and India, 1869. Dec. 1694.

5. HELENA-Augusta-Victoria, born 25 May, 1846 ; marriet 1694. William III.; died of a fall from his horse, 8 March, to prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, 5 July, 1702.

1866. Issue: Christian Victor, vorn 14 April, 1867 ; 1702. Anne, daughter of James II. ; married George, and 3 other children.

prince of Denmark, 28 July, 1683; succeeded to 6. LOUISE-Carolina-Alberta, born 18 March, 1848; mar.
the throne, 8 March, 1702 : had thirteen children, ried to John, marquis of Lorne, 21 March, 1871.
all of whom died young; lost her husband, 7. ARTHUR-William-Patrick-Albert, born 1 May, 1850 ;
28 Oct. 1708 ; died 1 Aug. 1714.

voted 15,000l. a-year, 31 July, 1871.

8. LEOPOLD-George-Duncan-Albert, born 7 April, 1853. HOUSE OF HANOVER. (See Brunswick and Este.)

9. BEATRICE-Mary-Victoria-Feodore, born 14. April, 1857. 1714. George I. elector of Hanover and duke of Brunswick-Luneburg ; son of Sophia, who was daugh

THE QUEEN'S AUNT and Cousins, Augusta, duchess

(widow of duke) of Cambridge, born 25 July, 1797. ter of Elizabeth, the daughter of James I. ; died u June, 1727

Her son, George, duke of Cambridge, commander-in

chief, born 26 March, 1819; and Queen, Sophia-Dorothea, daughter of the duke of 2ell; died in prison, 2 Nov. 1726.

Her daughters, Augusta, grand duchess of Mecklen1727. George II. his son ; died 25 Oct. 1760.

burg-Strelitz, born 19 July, 1822 ; married 28 June, Queen, Wilhelmina Carolina Dorothea, of Branden

1843 ; and the princess Mary of Cambridge, born 27

Nov. 1833 ; married to the prince of Teck, 12 June, burg Anspach; married 1705; died 20 Nov.

1866. 1737 1760. George III. grandson of George II. ; died

Queen's cousin, George, king of Hanover, duke of Cum29

berland : see Hanorer. 1820. Queen, Charlotte Sophia, daughter of the duke of

ENGLISH LANGUAGE is traced from the Mecklenburg-Strelitz; married 8 Sept. 1761; Frisian variety of the Teutonic or Germanic branch

died 17 Nov. 1818. 1820. George IV. his son ; died 26 June, 1830.

of the great Indo-European family. “The English Quren, Caroline Amelia Augusta, daughter of the i tongue possesses a veritable power of expression duke of Brunswick; married 8 April, 1795; died such as, perhaps, never stood at the command of 7 Aug. 1821 (see article Queen Caroline)

any other language of man.” Grimm. 1830. William IV. brother of George IV. ; died 20 June,

Celtic prevailed in England

A.D. 1837.

Latin introduced Queen, Adelaide Amelia Louisa Theresa Caroline,

about sister of the duke of Saxe-Memmingen; married

Saxon prevails (Beowulf ; Cædinon ; Alfred)

450-1066 11 July, 1818; died 2 Dec. 1849. Latin re-introduced by missionaries

506 1837. Victoria, the reigning queen, WHOM GOD PRE

Norman-French combining with English

William I, and his successors used English in their SERVE.

laws, &c. ; it was superse by Latin in the THE PRESENT ROYAL FAMILY OF GREAT BRITAIN.

reign of Henry II. Norman-French was not used The QUEEN.* Alexan:Irina Victoria, only daughter of

in law-deeds till the reign of Henry III. Edward, duke of Kent, (fourth son of king George

Early English

1250-1500 III.)t born 24 May, 1819 ; succeeded to the throne on

English formed

1550 the decease of her uncle, William IV. 20 June, 1837 ;

Law pleadings were made in English by order of

Edward Ill. instead of in French crowna at Westminster, 28 June, 1838; marria

1362

The English tongue and English apparel were or(10 Feb., 1840) to her cousin,

dered to be used in Ireland, 28 Hen. VIII. Francis-ALBERT-Augustus-Charles-Emmanuel, duke of

1536 Saxe, prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha : born 26

The English was ordered to be used in all law-suits,

and the Latin disused Aug. 1819, naturalized, 24 Jan. 1840; (ordered to be styled Prince Consort 20 June, 1857:) elected chan

Per-centage of ANGLO-Saxon words in the English cellor of the university of Cambridge, 28 Feb. 1847 ;

bible, 97 ; Swift, 89 ; Shakspeare and Thomson,

85; Addison, 83 : Spenser and Milton, 81 ; Locke, died 14 Dec. 1861.

80; Young, 79 ; Pope, 76; Johnson, 75; RobertISSUE. 1. VICTORIA-Adelaide-Mary-Louisa, princess royal, born

son, 68; Hume, 65 ; Gibbon, 58. Marsh. 21 Nov. 1840; married to prince Frederick William,

Of 100,000 English words, 60,000 are of Teutonic

origin; 30,000 Greek and Latin; and 10,000 from

other sources. * On 1 Nov. 1858, the queen was proclaimed throughout India as “ Victoria, by the grace of God, of the united

PRINCIPAL BRITISH AND AMERICAN AUTHORS. kingdom of Great Britain and Irelaul, and of the colonies

Born. Died. and dependencies thereof, in Europe, Asia, Africa, John Wickliffe, t.

1324 1384 America, and Australasia, QUEEN, defender of the faith," John Gower, p.

1403 &c.

Geoffrey Chaucer, p.

1328 † He was born 2 Nov. 1767; and died 23 Jan. 1820 ; Paston Letters

1462 he married Victoria Maria-Louisa (widow of the prince of Wm. Caxton

1421 1491 Leiningen, sister of Leopoldl, king of the Belgians, and Sir Thomas More, h. p.

1482

1535 aunt to the prince consort), 29 May, 1818. She was born Sir Philip Sidney. ?. P.

1554 1586 17 Aug. 1786; and died 16 March, 1861.

Holinshed's Chronicles, 1586.

[ocr errors]

1066-1250

May, 1731

about 1320

1460

1618

1688

1728

• 1706

1800

1832

Born. Died. May, 1852. A process of enlarging and reducing John Fox, t. h..

1517 1587 engravings by means of sheets of vulcanised indiaEdmund Spenser, p.

1553 1598 rubber, was shown by the electro-printing block Richard Hooker, t.

1553 Wm. Shakspeare, d.

1564 1616 company in 1860; see Lithography and PhotoWalter Raleigh, h. p.

• 1552

Galvanography. In “Lyra Germanica,” published Francis bacon, ph.

1561 1626 in 1861, are illustrations engraved upon blocks George Herbert, p.

1593 1633 photographed from negatives taken by John LeighBen Jonson, d.

1574 1637 ton, F.S.A. Philip Massinger, d.

1584

1640 Jeremy Taylor, t. .

1613 1667 ENGRAVING ON COPPER. Prints from engraved copperJohn Milton, p.

1608 1674 plates made their appearance about 1450, and were Isaac Barrow, t.

1630

1677 first produced in Germany. Masso, surnamed FiniSamuel Butler, p.

1612 1680 guerra, is considered to have been the first Italian John Bunyan, t.

1628

engraver, about 1440. (See Niello.) John Dryden, p.

1631 1700 The earliest date known of a copper-plate engraving is John Locke, ph.

1632 1704 1461. Joseph Addison, e.

1672

1719 Rolling-presses for working the plates were invented in Matthew Prior, p.

1664 1721 1545 Richard Steele, e.

1671 1729 of the art of etching on copper by means of aqua-fortis, Daniel De Foe, n. pol..

1663 1731 Francis Mazzuoli, or Parmegiano, is the reputed inJohn Gay, p.

1688 1732
ventor, about 1532.

De Piles.
Alexander Pope, p.

1688

1744 Etching was practised by Albert Dürer. The Etching Jonathan Swift, n. P.

1667 1745 Club was established in 1838. James Thomson, p.

• 1700

1748 ENGRAVING ON Wood, long known in China, began in Henry Fielding, n. d.

1707 1754 Europe with the brief-mohlers or manufacturers of Sam. Richardson, n.

1689 1761 playing-cards, about 1400 (see Printing). The art is Edward Young, P.

1681 1765 referred by some to a Florentine, and by others to Laurence Sterne, n.

• 1713 1768

Reuss, a German ; it was greatly improved by Dürer Mark Akenside, p.

1721 1770 (1471-1528) and Lucas van Leyden (1497). It was much Thomas Gray, p..

1716

1771 improved in England by Bewick and his brother, and Tobias Smollett, n.

1720 1771 pupils, Nesbitt, Anderson, &c., 1789, et seq. The Oliver Goldsmith, n. p.

1774 earliest wood engraving which has reached our times David Hume, h. ph..

1711 1776 is one representing St. Christopher carrying the infant Samuel Johnson, e. n. p.

1709 1784 Jesus over the sea ; it bears date 1423. Benjamin Franklin, ph. pol.

1790

ENGRAVING ON SOFT STEEL, to be hardened afterwards, William Robertson, k.

1721 1793

was introduced into England by Messrs. Perkins and Edward Gibbon, h.

1737 1794

Heath, of Philadelphia, 1819. Robert Burns, p..

1759

1796 MEZZOTINTO is said to have been discovered by col. von William Cowper, p.

1731

Siegen, who engraved a portrait of princess Amelia of Percy B. Shelley, p.

1792

1822 Hesse in mezzotinto in 1643 ; it was improved by George lord Byron, p.

1788 1824 prince Rupert in 1648 ; and by sir Christopher Wren, Walter Scott, N. P.

1771

about 1662. Samuel T. Coleridge, p. ph.

1772

1834 Aquotinta, by which a soft and beautiful effect is proCharles Lamb, e. .

• 1775

duced, was invented by the celebrated French artist, William Cobbett, pol. e.

1762

1835 St. Non, about 1662 ; he communicated his invention Robert Southey, p. h..

1774
1843

to Le Prince. Barabbe of Paris was distinguished for Thomas Campbell, p.

· 1777

1844

his improvements in this kind of engraving, 1763. Sidney Smith, e. pol.

1771 1845 Chiar'-oscuro engraving originated with the Germans, Wm. Wordsworth, p.

1770

1850

and was first practised by Mair, one of whose prints J. Fennimore Cooper,.n.

1798

1851 bears date 1491 (see Zinc, &c.) Joanna Baillie, p.

1763 1851 Thomas Moore, p. n.

1780

1852

ENLISTMENT. No persons enlisting as John Wilson, p. e.

1785 1854 soldiers or sailors are to be sworn in before a magisSamuel Rogers, p.

1763

1855

trate in less than twenty-four hours after, and they Henry Hallam, h. Thomas de Quincey, e.

are then at liberty to withdraw upon their return

1859 William Prescott, h..

1855

ing the enlistment or bounty money, and 218. costs. Washington Irving, n. h.

1783

Enlistment is now entirely voluntary. In 1847 the T. B. Macaulay, h. p.

1800

1859

term of enlistment was limited to ten years for the Abp. Richd. Whateley, ph.

1787 1863 infantry, and twelve years for the cavalry, artillery, Henry lord Brougham, pol. h.

1778 1868 and royal marines ; and in 1867,, to twelve years ; Wm. M. Thackeray n.

. 1811 Thomas Carlyle, h. e.

see Army, 1867, and Foreign Enlistment.

• 1795 George Bancroft, h.

1800 Edwd. Bulwer Lytton, P. n.

ENNISKILLEN (N. W. Ireland). This

1805 Benjanin Disraeli, n. ·

1805

town made an obstinate defence against the army of Alfred Tennyson, p..

1809

Elizabeth, 1595, and resisted James II., 1689. 1500 Charles Dickens, n.

1812 1870 Enniskilleners met his general M.Carthy at Newton John Ruskin, art critic

1819

Butler with 6000 men (of whom 3000 were slain, George Ticknor, h.

• 1791 1871 and nearly all the rest made prisoners), they losing Thomas Trollope, n.

. 1810 Robert Browning, p.

but twenty men, 30 July, 1689. The dragoon regi

• 1812 Anthony Trollope, n.

1815

ment, the “Inniskillingers, was originally red. dramatist; e. essayist ; h. historian ; m. miscellaneous ; cruited here. r. novelist ; p. poet; t. theologian : pol. political ; ph.

ENOCH, BOOK OF, an apocryphal work, philosopher.

quoted by the fathers, disappeared about the 8th ENGRAVING on signets is mentioned Exod. century. A MS. Ethiopic version was found in xxviii. 11 (B.C. 1491). Engraving on plates and Abyssinia by. Bruce, and brought to England in wood began about the middle of the 15th century. 1773: of this archbishop Lawrence published an Engraving on glass was perfected by Bourdier, of English translation in 1821, and the Ethiopic text Paris, 1799. The copyright to engravings has been

in 1838. protected by several statutes ; among the principal ENSISHEIM (E. France). Here Turenne are the acts 16 & 18 Geo. III. 1775 and 1777; and defeated the Imperial army, and expelled it from the acts 7 & 8 Vict. 6 Aug. 1844, and 15 Vict. 28 Alsace, 4 Oct. 1674.

1834

1859

1778 1786 1796

1859

1863

1873

sure.

ENTAIL of estates began with the statute of that the greatest good consists in peace of mind Westminster, 1285. Subsequent legislation broke springing from virtue, as tending to prevent disthe entail in cases of treason (1534), when the estate quiet: but the name epicurean is frequently given is to revert to the crown, and of bankruptcy (1833 to those who derive happiness from sensual pleaand 1849), when it is to be sold.

ENTOMOLOGY, the science of insects, now EPIDAURUS (Greece), celebrated for the mainly based upon the arrangement of Linnæus, temple of Asclepius, or Æsculapius, god of medicine, 1739. Ray's “Methodus Insectorum,” 1705; “In and enriched by gifts from persons healed. The sectorum Historia,” 1710. The Entomological Romans sent an embassy to seek the help of the Society of London was instituted in 1833.

god during a pestilence, and his worship was in

troduced at Rome, 293 s.c. The temple was visited ENVELOPES for letters are mentioned by by Æmilius Paulus, after his conquest of MaceSwift, 1726. Stamped adhesive envelopes came donia, 167 B.C. into general use shortly after the establishment of the penny postal system, 10 Jan. 1840. Machinery

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, estabfor their manufacture was patented by Mr. George

blished in 1850. Wilson in 1814; and by Messrs. E. Hill and Warren

EPIGRAMS derive their origin from the inDe la Rue, 17 March, 1845.

scriptions placed by the ancients on tombs. Marcus ENVOYS AT COURTS, in dignity below am

Valerius Martialis, the Latin epigrammatist, who bassadors, enjoy the protection, but not the cere

flourished about A.D. 83, is allowed to have exmonies of ambassadors. Envoys extraordinary are

celled all others, ancient or modern. The following of modern date. Iricquefort. "The court of France

epigram on Christ's turning water into wine (John denied to them the ceremony of being conducted to iii.) is an example :-“Vidit et erubuit lympha court in the royal carriages, 1639.

pudica Deum.' ** The modest water saw its God,

and blushed.” Crashaw (died 1650). EPACT (Greek, added) is the excess of the solar month above the lunar synodical month,

EPIPHANY (appearance), a feast (Jan. 6),

termed Twelfth Day, celebrates the manifestation 1 day, 11 hours, 15 minutes, 57 seconds, the lunar of the Saviour, by the appearance of the star which month being only 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, 3 conducted the Magi to the place where he was to be seconds; and the excess of the solar year above the found; instituted 813. Irhately. lunar synodical year (nearly 1 days), the lunar year being 354 days. The number of the Gregorian EPIRUS (Northern Greece). Its early history epact for 1872, 20; 1873, I; 1874, 12; 1875, 23; is very obscure. 1876, 4; 1877, 15.

The first Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) settled in Epirus, EPERNAY (N.E. France), seat of the trade

after the Trojan war, 1170 B.C., and was killed in the temple of Delphi.

about B.C. 1165 in champagne, was taken from the League by Henry IV., 26 July, 1592, when marshal Armand Pyrrhus the Great reigns, 295; he takes Macedou

from Demetrius, 290, compelled to yield to LysiBiron was killed.

He invades Italy; defeats the Romans, 280; again, EPHESUS (in Asia Minor), a city founded by the Ionians about 1043 B.C. It was subdued by neinvades Italy again, and is totally defeated by

279; Cyrus in 544 R.C.; revolted from the Persians, 501 Curius Dentatus at Beneventum

275 B.C. and was destroyed by an earthquake in A.D 17;

He takes Macedon from Antigonus See Diana, Temple of, and Seven Churches. Paul

Heunsuccessfully invades Sparta; enters Argos, and

is killed by a tile, thrown by a woman preached here A.D. 55, 56 (Acts xviii. xix.) His

Philip unites Epirus to Macedon epistle to the Ephesians is dated A.D. 64. The third

Its conquest by the Romans

167 general council was held here in 431. After long investigation, Mr. Wood discovered the site of the Epirus annexed to the Ottoman empire A.D. 1466 temple of Diana in April, 1869; and about 60 tons An insurrection against the Turks put down of marble were shipped at Smyrna for the British museum, Jan. 1872, part of which arrived in the

machus

287

278

273

272 220

*

EPISCOPACY, see Bishops.

EPISTLES or LETTERS. The earliest known

letter is that sent to Joab by David by the hands of EPHORI, powerful magistrates of Sparta, five Uriah, about 1035 (2 Sam. xi. 14); see under in number, said to have been first created by Bible, p. 90. Horace Walpole, renowned for his Theopompus to control the royal power, about letters, was born 5 Oet. 1717; died 2 March, 1797. 757 B.C.

The collection entitled "Elegant Epistles," comEPIC POEMS (from Greek cpos, a song), mencing with Cicero, was published in 1790. It narratives in verse. Eminent examples :

ends with an essay on letter writing by Dr.

Johnson. Homer's “Iliad" and "Odyssey" (Greek), between 8th and oth century B.C. (see Homer).

EPITAPHS were inscribed on tombs by the Virgil's “ Æneid" (Latin) about

19 Egyptians, Jews, Greeks, and Romans. Mr. T.J. Ovid's “Metamorphoses" (Latin), about

Pettigrew published a collection entitled “ ChroniDante (died 1321), “ Divina Commedia" (Italian) cles of the Tombs," in 1857.

published Ariosto, - Orlando Furioso" (Italion)

1516 EPITHALAMIUM, a nuptial song at marCamoens' “ Lusiad " (Portuguese) Tasso, “ Jerusalem Delivered " (Italian)

1569 riage. Tisias, the lyric poet, is said to have been 1581

the first writer of one. He received the name of Spenser's “ Faery Queen"

1590-6 Milton's “ Paradise Lost"

1667

Stesichorus, from the alterations made by him in Voltaire, “ Henriade” (French)

1728 music and dancing, about 536 B.C. Bossuet. Walter Scott, “ Lay of the Last Minstrel,” &c.

1805

EPOCHA, a point of time made remarkable by EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY. Epicurus some event, from which subsequent years are reckof Gargettus, near Athens, about 300 B.C., taught oned by historians and chronologers; see Eras.

1854

summer.

B, C
A.D.

1

1472

B.C.
A.D.

753

I

Creation

B.C. 4004 (1524-83), who taught that the church had no Deluge Ist Olympiad

2348 right to exclude any person from church_ordin776

ances, Building of Rome

to inflict excommunication, &c. Persons The birth of Christ

who acknowledge the jurisdiction of the civil power The Hegira (or Hlight of Mahomet).

622 in spiritual matters and the law of patronage, are

now termed Erastians. EPSOM (Surrey). The mineral springs were discovered in 1618. The races began about 1711,

ERASURES. By order of sir John Romilly, and have been held annually since 1730.

master of the rolls, in 1855, no document corrected

by erasure with the knife was to be henceforth EQUATOR or ECUADOR, a South American received in his court. The errors must be corrected republic, formerly Quito and other provinces, part with the pen. It is so in the army courts. of Columbia, 1821; independent in 1831, when the

ERDINGTON ORPHANAGE, &c.; see Columbian republic was divided into three; the

Orphans'-houses. other two being Venezuela and New Granada. The population of Equator is about 1,040,400, of which ERFURT (Central Germany), was founded in 76,000 are in Quito, the capital.

476; and its university established about 1390.

Erfurt was ceded to Prussia in 1802. It capituPresidents: general Franco, 21 Aug. 1859: defeated lated to Murat, when 14,000 Prussian troops surrenin battle by general Flores

Aug. 1860 dered, 16 Oct. 1806. In this city Napoleon and G. G. Moreno

Jan. 1861 Geronimo Carrion, 4 Aug. 1865; disputes with the

Alexander met, and offered peace to England, 27 chambers; resigns

Dec. 1867 Sept. 1808. The French retreated to Erfurt from Dr. Xavier Espinosa was elected president, 13 Sept. 1867 Leipsic, 18 Oct. 1813. A German parliament met No president

about Nov. 1871 | here in March and April, 1850. Dr. Garcia Mureno, president,

end of 1872 See Earthquakes, 1868.

ERICSSON’S CALORIC ENGINE, see

Heat, note. EQUESTRIAN ORDER in Rome began with Romulus, about 750 B.C. ; see Knighthood. ERIVAN (Armenia), in the 16th century the

residence of the shahs of Persia, was taken by the EQUINOX. When the sun in his progress Turks in 1553 and 1582; but recovered by Abbas passes through the equator in one of the equinoc- the Great, 1604: After being several times captial points, the day and night are equal all over tured, it was ceded to Persia, 1769. It was taken the globe.' This occurs twice in the year: about by Paskewitch in 1827, and annexed to Russia by 21 March, the rernal equinox, and 22 Sept., the trcaty in Feb. 1828. autumnal equinox. The equinoctial points move backwards about 50 seconds yearly, requiring 25,000

ERZEROUM (Asiatic Turkey), a city built years to accomplish a complete revolution. This is by Theodosius II., 415; taken by the Seljuk Turks called the precession of the equinoxes, which is

in the 13th century, and by the Ottoman Turks in said to have been observed by the ancient astrono

1517. It was captured by the Russian general

Paskewitch, June, 1829, but restored in 1830. It was mers.

almost totally destroyed by earthquakes, 2 June to EQUITY, COURTS OF, are those of the lord 17 July, 1859. chancellor, the vice-chancellors, and the master of the rolls, their office being to correct the operations falls to a lord within his manor by forfeiture or

ESCHEATS. Land or other property that of the literal text of the law, and supply its defects death. The escheator observes the rights of the by reasonable construetion not admissible in a court king in the county whereof he is escheator. Cowel. of law. The supreme court of session in Scot

In London a court of escheats was held before the land combines the functions of law and equity. In lord mayor to recover the property of a bastard who 1865 equity powers were conferred on the county died intestate, for the king ; such a court had not courts for cases respecting sums under 500l.

been held in the city for 150 years before-16 July, ERAS. The principal are more fully noticed 1771. Phillips. in their alphabetical order.

ESCURIAL, properly ESCORIAL (25 miles Common Era (English Bible, Usher, &c.)

B.C. 4004

NW. of Madrid), the magnificent palace of the Era of the Jews

3761 sovereigns of Spain, termed the eighth wonder of Era of Constantinople

i Sept. 5508 Era of Nabonassar, after which the astronomical

the world, was commenced by Philip II. in 1563,

and completed in 1986, at a cost of about 10,000,0001. observations made at Babylon were reckoned,

began 26 Feb. 747

It is built in the form of a gridiron in honour of Era of the Seleucidae (used by the Maccabees),

St. Lawrence, on whose day (10 Aug. 1557) the

commenced Spaniards gained the victory of St. Quentin. AcThe Olympiods belong to the Grecians, and date cording to Francisco de los Santos the total length

from i July, 776 B.C. ; they subsequently reck- all its rooms and apartments is above 120 English oned by indictions, the first beginning A. D. 313 ;

miles. The Escurial comprises a church, mausothese, among chronologers, are still used (see Indictions).

leum, monastery, palace, library, and museum. It The Romans reckoned from the founding of their was struck by lightning and caught fire 11:30 p.m. city, A.C.C. (anno urhis conditir)

I Oct. 1872, and was much damaged; but the Spanish Era (of the conquest of Spain), Varro, 752, grand library and other treasures were preserved. Cato the Eller; the 16th year of the emperor Augustus (see Cæsars), long used by the Spaniards, ESPARTO, from the Latin spartum, stipa

A.D. 1 Jan.

38 tenacissima of Linnæus, a Spanish grass used by Era of Diocletian or Martyrs, began . 29 Aug. 284 Romans for whip-thongs, and now largely employed The Mahometans began their era from the Hegira, or flight of their prophet from Mecca 16 July, 622

in paper-making. In 1856 about 50 tons, in 1870 See Creation, Anno Domini, Calendar.

above 100,000 tons, were imported into Britain.

The price has risen from 41. to iol. per ton. ERASTIANISM, the opinions of Thomas Living plants were received at Newcastlo, July, Lieber (latinised Erastus), a German physician | 1867.

312

753

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