Page images

in 1710.

ESPIERRES (Belgium). At Pont-à-Chin, the ancestor of the Estes, dukes of Ferrara and near this village, the French, under Pichegru, Modena. attacked the allied English and Austrian army

ESTHONIA or REVEL, a Russian province, (100,000 men), commanded by the duke of York, said to have been conquered by the Teutonic and were repulsed after a long and desperate en

knights in the 12th century; after various changes gagement, losing the advantages gained by the it was ceded to Sweden by the treaty of Oliva, 3 victory at Turcoing, 22 May, 1794.

May, 1660, and finally to Russia by the peace of ESPRIT, SAINT (or Holy Ghost), the title of Nystadt, 30 Aug. 1721, having been conquered by an order of knighthood, founded by Henry III. of Pet France in 1578, and abolished in 1791.

ETATS, see States. ESQUIRES, among the Greeks and Romans, ETCHING, see Engraving. were armour-bearers to, or attendants on a knight. ETHER was known to the earliest chemists. Blount. In England the king created esquires by Nitric ether was first discovered by Kunkel, in putting about their necks the collars of SS, and 1681; and muriatic ether, from the chloride of tin, bestowing upon them a pair of silver spurs. John by Courtanvaux, in 1759. Acetic ether was disde Kingston was created a squire by patent, 13 covered by count Lauraguais, same

year; and Richard II., 1389-90.

hydriotic ether was first prepared by Gay-Lussac. "ESSAYS AND REVIEWS," by six clergy: The discovery that by inhaling ether the patient is

The phosphoric ether was obtained by M. Boullay. men and one layman of the church of England (the rendered unconscious of pain, is due to Dr. Charles Rev. Drs. Fred. Temple and Rowland Williams, 1. Jackson, of Boston, U. S. Mr. Thomas Morton, professor Baden Powell, H. B. Wilson, Mark Pattison, and professor B. Jowett, and Mr. C. W.

of the same place, first introduced it into surgical Goodwin) were published in an 8vo vol. in March, practice, under Dr. Jackson's directions (1846), see 1860. The book did not excite much attention at Chloroform, and Amylene. The term “ether" was first, but having been sererely censured for hetero- applied to the transparent celestial space by the dox views by nearly all the bishops and many of German astronomer Eneke, about 1829, when the clergy, it created much excitement in 1861, studying the elements of Pons' romet, discovered in

1818. and was condemned by convocation 24 June, 1864. "The ecclesiastical courts sentenced the revs. R. ETHICS (Greek term for Morals). The works Williams and H. B. Wilson to suspension for one of Plato, Aristotle, and Confucius, contain heathen year, and costs, 15 Dec. 1862; but on appeal the systems; the New Testament is that of Christianity. sentence was reversed by the judicial committee of Paley's Moral Philosophy appeared in 1785, and the privy council

, 8 Feb. 1864. The most remark- Whewell's Elements of Morality in 1845. able amongst the works put forth in opposition (in 1862) are the " Aids to Faith," edited by the bishop rather vaguely to countries the inhabitants of

ETHIOPIA. The name was applied anciently of Gloucester (W. Thomson, now abp. of York), which had sun-burnt complexions, in Asia and and “Replies to Essays and Reviews,” edited by Africa ; but is now considered to apply properly to the bishop of Oxford (S. Wilberforce). The elec- the modern Nubia, Sennaar, and Northern Abyssinia. tion of Dr. Temple to the see of Exeter was much Many pyramids exist at Napata, the capital of opposed on account of his essay in this collection; Meroë, the civilised part of ancient Ethiopia. see Church of England, 1869.

The Ethiopians settle near Egypt

B.C. 1615 ESSENES, an ascetic Jewish sect at the time Zerah, the Ethiopian, defeated by Asa of Christ.

A dynasty of Ethiopian kings reigned over Egypt

765 to 715 ESSEX, KINGDOM OF; see under Britain. Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, marches against Semna

EARLS OF ESSEX (from Nicolas.) Geoffrey de Mandeville, created earl of Essex by

Unsuccessful invasion of Cambyses Matilda, was slain

14 Sept. 1144

Ptolemy III. Euergetes extended his conquests in Humphrey de Bolun, succeeded by right of his mother, Ethiopia Mary, sister of William, who died without leir 1189

Candace, queen of Meroe, advancing against the Humphrey de Bohun, died without heir

Roman settlement at Elephantine, defeated and Thonias of Woodstock, son of Edward 11i.

subdued by Petronius murdered Henry Bourchier (grandson)

ETHNOLOGY, a branch of Anthropology, is

1461 Henry Bourchier, grandson ; died without heir

defined as the science " which determines the dis(earldom extinct)

tinctive characters of the persistent modifications of

1539 Thomas Cromwell, 1539 : beheaded

mankind, their distribution, and the causes of the William Parr, 1543 ; attainted

modifications and distribution.” The study of the Walter Devereux, 1572 ; died Robert Devereux, lord lieut. of Ireland, 1599 ; cen

1576 relations of the different divisions of mankind, to

each other is of recent origin. Balbi's Ethnographic sured for misgovernment; conspired against the government; beheaded, 25 Feb.

Atlas was published in 1826, and Dr. Prichard's

1601 Robert, son; died without heir

1696 great work, Researches on the Physical History of Arthur Capel, ancestor of the present (26th) earl Mankind, 1841-7. The Ethnological Society,

established in 1843, published transactions. On 17 ESSLING, BATTLE OF, see Asperne. Jan. 1871, it was amalgamated with the Anthropo

ESTE, HOUSE OF. Boniface, count of Lucca logical Society, (which sce) and named the Anthropoand duke of Tuscany, about 811,'is said to have logical Institute. Dr. R. G. Latham's works, on descended from Odoacer, king of Italy. From

the Ethnology of the British Empire, appeared in Boniface sprang Albert Azzo II. marquís of Italy 1851-2. Professor T. H. Huxley gave courses of and lord of Este, born about 996, who married lectures on Ethnology at the Royal Institution, first, Cunegonda of the house of Guelf, by whom he London, May & June, 1866, 1867. had Guelf, duke of Bavaria, the ancestor of the ETHYL, a compound radicle, a colourless gas, house of Brunswick (see Bavaria and Brunswick); with a slightly ethereal odour, a compound of mnd secondly, Gersonda, by whom he had Fulk, carbon and hydrogen, first obtained in the free state


710 525-522



A.D. 22-23

1372 ;




by professor Edw. Frankland in 1849. Several of Athens, and was its most valuable possession. It its compounds with metals take fire on exposure to revolted in 445, but was soon subdued by Pericles. the air.

After the battle of Charonea, 338, it became subject ETNA, MOUNT (Sicily). Here were the fabled

to Macedon. It was made independent by the forges of the Cyclops: and it is called by Pindar the province of Achaia. It now forms part of the

Romans in 194; but was afterwards incorporated in the pillar of heaven. Eruptions are mentioned by kingdom of Greece. Diodorus Siculus as happening 1693 B.C., and Thucydides speaks of three eruptions as occurring EUCHARIST, thanksgiving, an early name 734, 477, and 425 B.C. There were eruptions, 125, for the Lord's Supper; see Sacrament. 121, and 43 B.C. Liry.

EUCLID'S ELEMENTS. Euclid, a native Eruptions, A. D. 40, 254, and 420. Carrera.

of Alexandria, flourished about 300 B.C. The One in 1012. Geoffrey de Viterbo.

Elements are not wholly his; for many of the One overwhelmed Catania, when 15,000 inhabitants perished in the burning ruins

demonstrations were derived from Thales, Pytha

1169 Eriptions, 1329, 1408, 1445, 1536, 1537, 1564, et seq. goras, Eudoxus, and others; Euclid reduced them In 1669, when tens of thousands of persons perished to order, and probably inserted many theorems of

in the streams of lava which rolled over the whole his own. The Elements were first printed at Basil country for forty days,

by Simon Grynæus, in 1533. Eruptions in 1766, 1787, 1809, 1811, and in May,

1830, when several villages were destroyed, and EUDIOMETER, an apparatus to ascertain showers of lava reached near to Rome.

the purity of atmospheric air, or the quantity of The town of Bronte was destroyed 18 Nov. 1832 oxygen gas or vital air contained in it; one was Violent eruption occurred in

Aug. & Sept. 1852

invented by Dr. Priestley, in 1772. In eruption began on 1 Feb., and ceased in

1865 Violent eruption began

28 Nov. 1868

EUNUCHS, first mentioned among the EgypETON COLLEGE (Buckinghamshire),

tians and Assyrians, and said to have been first founded by Henry VI. in 1440, and designed as a

employed by Semiramis, queen of Assyria, about nursery to king's College, Cambridge. Jolin 2007 B.C. Eunuchs frequently attained to political Stan bery, confessor to Henry VI. (bishop of Bangor, power in the later Eastern empire. in 1448), was nominated the first provost. One of EUPATORIA (KOSLEFF), a sea-port on the the provosts, William Wayntlete, (bishop of Win- west coast of the Crimea. After the allied French, chester, 1417) greatly promoted the erection of the English, and Turkish armies landed in the Crimea, buildings. Besides about three hundred noblemen's 14 Sept. 1854, a detatchment under captain Brock and gentlemen's sons, there were seventy king's occupied this place, which was afterwards reinforced scholars on the foundation, who, when properly by the Turks. It was attacked 17. Feb. 1855, by qualified, are elected, on the first Tuesday in August, 40,000 Russians under Liprandi. The latter were to King's College, Cambridye, and are removed repulsed with the loss of 500 men by the Turks, there when there are vacancies, according to whose loss was only 50, among which, however, seniority. In Dec. 1860 there were in all 820

was Selim Pasha, the commander of the Egyptian scholars; see Cambridge. The establishment of contingent. the Montem is nearly coeval with the college. It consisted in the procession of the scholars, arrayed

EUPHRATES VALLEY RAILWAY, as a in fancy dresses, to Salt-hill once in three years ; the speedy means of reaching India, has been much donations collected on the road (sometimes as much advocated, especially by the late general Chesney, 28 8001.) were given to the senior or best scholar, their Tigris in 1850. A parliamentary commission reported

who published his survey of the Euphrates and captain, for his support while studying at Cambridge. The montem was discontinued in 1847, and the

on it, Aug. 1872, when it was also considered at the regatta took its place. The college system was

meeting of the British association at Brighton. modified by the Public Schools act, 1868.

The construction would cost from tive to ten millions

sterling and its advantages are considered rather ETRURIA (or TUSCIA, hence the modern hypothetical by the best judges. name Tuscany), a province of Italy, whence the

EUPHUISM, an affected style of language, Romans, in a great measure, derived their laws prevalent in the time of Elizabeth, arose from customs, and superstitions. Herodotus asserts that the country was conquered by a colony of Lydians. published in 1581.

Euphues; the Anatomy of Wit," by John Lyly, The subjugation of this country forms an important part of early Roman history. It was most powerful EURASIAN PLAIN, the great central plain under Porsena of Clusium, who attempted to rein- of Europe and Asia, so named by ethnologists state the Tarquins, 506 B.C. Veii was taken by (1865). Camillus, 396 B.C. A truce between the Romans

EUROPE, the smallest of the three divisions and Etrurians for forty years was concluded, 351 B.C. of the old continent, really an appendage of Asia ; The latter and their allies were defeated at the Vadimonian lake, 310; with the Boii their allies, 301,200,000 (1872). For the history, see Greece,

area, nearly 3,800,000 square miles; population, 283 B.C., and totally lost their independence about Rome, and the modern kingdoms. 265 B.c. The vases and other works of the Etruscans still remaining, show the degree of their EURYMEDON, a river in Pamphylia, near civilisation. Napoleon I. established a kingdom of which Cimon, son of Miltiades, destroyed the fleet Etruria, 1801, and suppressed it 1807, see Tuscany.- of the Persians at Cyprus, and defeated their land Etruria, Statfordshire the site of Josiah Wedgood's forces, 466 B.C. porcelain works, &c., was founded in 1771.

EUSTACE, ST. (Lower Canada). The rebels EUBEA, the largest island in the Ægean sea.

were defeated here, 14 Dec. 1837, and compelled Two of its cities, Chalcis and Eretria, were very

to surrender their arms. Their chiefs fled. iinportant, till the former was subdued by Athens, EUSTATIUS, ST., a West India island, set506 B.C. and the latter by the Persians, 490. After tled by the Dutch, 1632; taken by the French in ihe Persian war, Eubea became wholly subject to 1689; by the British in 1690; again by the British

forces under Rodney and Vaughan, 3 Feb. 1781. the French. The rioters were headed by one It was recovered by the French under the marquis Lincoln, who, with 15 others, was hanged; and de Bouillé, 26 Nov. same year; captured by the 400 more in their shirts, and bound with ropes, and British, 1801, 1810; restored to the Dutch, 1814. halters about their necks, were carried to West

minster; but they crying "mercy, mercy!” were all EUTAW SPRINGS (S. Carolina). Tiere the pardoned by the king, Henry VIII. Americans were defeated by the British under Arnold, 8 Sept. 1781.


nebular theory and Mr. Darwin's doctrine of natural EUTYCHIANS, so called from Eutyches, an

selection; see Development, and Progressionists. abbot of Constantinople, who asserted in 446 that there was but one nature in Christ, the human EXALTATION, see Cross. having been absorbed in the divine. This doctrine was condemned by councils—at Constantinople in EXAMINATIONS of candidates for employ448, and at Chalcedon in 451. It has been also ment in the civil service has been enforced since called Monophysite (of one uature), and Jacobite, 1855. Mr. Gladstone in 1862 said that the present from Jacobus Baradæus, its zealous defender in the might be termed the “age of examinations;” see 6th century. It is the form of Christianity now

Civil Service. existing among the Copts and Armenians.

EXAMINER, liberal weekly journal, estabEVACUATION TREATY, see France, blished Jan. 1808. Sept. 1871.


office under the lord chamberlain, now held by

Mr. Wm. Bodham Donne; appointed 27 March, EVANGELICAL, a term applied to a portion 1857. His more recent predecessors were, George of the clergy of the church of England (also called Colman, Chas. Kemble, and his son John Mitchell the low church), who profess to preach the gospel Kemble. more purely than their brethren termed the high church party; see Church of England.

EXARCHS, appointed by the Byzantine emThe Evangelical Alliance was founded by sir Culling perors of the East, to govern central Italy after its Eardley Smith and others at Liverpool in 1845, with the

conquest by. Belisarius and Narses, 548. They ruled view of promoting unity among all denominations of

Ravenna from 568 to 752, when Eutychus, the last, protestant Christians against Romanism and infidelity. was overcome by Astolphus the Lombard. It holds annual meetings. It met in Sept. 1857, at Berlin, where it was well received by the king. The EXCHANGE, formerly Bourse, the Royal 19th meeting was held at Hull, 3 Oct. 1865; the 20th at Exchange being “ Britain's Burse;" that at Paris Bath, 16 Oct. 1866; the 21st at Amsterdam, Aug. 1867; | is still named La Bourse," from bursa, a purse. at Derby, 23-28 Nov. 1869. Lord Ebury presided at a day of united prayer for the issue of the general election

One called Collegium Mercatorum existed at Rome, about to take place, 1 Oct. 1868. The proposed meeting 493 B.C. The Exchange at Amsterdam was reckat New York in Sept. 1870 was deferred on account of oned the finest structure of the kind in the world.

The alliance mét at Geneva, 23-28 Sept. 1872; Many edifices of this name in the United Kingdom and at Brighton, 22-24 April, 1873.

are magnificent; see Royal Exchange, and Bills of The “ Evangelical Church" in Germany began with a Exchange. fusion of the Lutherans and Calvinists in Nassau in 1817; followed by similar movements in different parts EXCHEQUER, an ancient institution, conof Germany, 1818-22.

sisting of officers with financial and judicial funcEVANGELISTS, preachers of the "gospel,” tions: the chancellor of the exchequer, the financial or good news; see Gospels.

officer, formerly sat in the court of exchequer above

the barons. The first chancellor was Eustace de EVELINA HOSPITAL, Southwark, estab- Fauconbridge, bishop of London, in the reign of lished in 1869 by baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, Henry III. about 1221. Sir Robert Walpole was in memory of his wife, and since maintained by the last chancellor of the exchequer who acted him. Its enlargement by public aid was proposed judicially (in 1735). The exchequer stopped parin 1871.

ment from Jan. to 24 May, Charles II. 1673. EVENING SCHOOLS for adults of the lower Stow.. The English and Irish exchequers were classes were strongly recommended by bishop Hinds consolidated in 1816; see Chancellors of the Exin 1839, and by the committee of the Privy Council chequers, and Tally Office. on Education in 1861. One was set up at Bala in

EXCHEQUER BILLs. The government securities, so called. Wales by the Rev. T. Charles in 1811.

said to have been invented by Montague, afterwards EVESHAM (Worcestershire), where prince

earl of Halifax, were first issued in 1697, and first cir. Edward, afterwards Edward I., defeated the barons

culated by the bank in 1796. These bills, of which

more than twenty millions sterling are often in circuheaded by Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester,

lation, are in effect accommodation notes of gover4 Aug. 1265, when the earl, his son Henry, and ment, that are issued in antiiipation of taxes, at daily most of his adherents were slain. Henry III. at interest; and being received for taxes, and paid by the one period of the battle was on the point of being bank in lieu of taxes, in its dealings with the exchequer, cut down by a soldier who did not know him, but

they usually bear a premium. Amount in circulation, was saved by exclaining, "Do not kill me, soldier;

56,974,780l. in 1817; in 1854, 16,008,700l.

Robert Aslett, a cashier of the bank of England, tried I am Henry of Winchester, thy king!” This vic

for embezzling exchequer bills, and found not guilty. tory broke up the combination of the barons.

on account of the invalidity of the bills, though the EVIDENCE, LAW OF, regulated by 14 & 15

actual loss to the bank amounted to 342,6971., 18 July,

1803 Vict., c. 99 (1851), 16 & 17 Vict., c. 83 (1853), 32 & Mr. Beaumont Smith tried for forging exchequer bills to 33 Vict., c. 68 (1869).

the annount of 350,000l. ; pleaded guilty; sentenced to EVIL MAY-DAY (1 May, 1517), thus called

transportation, 4 Dec. 1841. on account of the violence of the apprentices and

EXCHEQUER BONDS, a species of public securities, intro

duced by Mr. W. E. Gladstone, in 1853, have not been populace, directed against foreigners, particularly well received.

the war.

29 Nov.

17 Dec.

12 Feb.

24 Feb.

9 Jan.

27 Dec. 25 June.

14 Oct.

9 June

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TELLERS OF THE EXCHEQUER. Besides chamberlains of

CHIEF BARONS. the exchequer, clerks of the pells, and auditor of the 1689. Sir Robert Atkins. 10 April exchequer (offices which have all been discontinued

1695. Sir Edward Ward. Io June. since their last avoidance in Oct. 1826, or by surrender 1714. Sir Samuel Dodd.

22 Noy. or abolition, in Oct. 1834), there were the four lucrative 1716. Sir Thomas Bury. II June. offices of tellers of the exchequer, also abolished, 10 1722. Sir James Montagu. 9 May. Oct. 1834.

1723. Sir Robert Eyre. 5 Dec. John Jeffreys Pratt, earl, afterwards marquis Camden, 1725. Sir Geoffrey Gilbert. I June.

was appointed a teller of the exchequer, in 1780, and 1726. Sir Thomas Pengelly. 29 Oct.
held the appointment until his death, in 1840. During 1730. Sir James Reynolds. 30 April.
nearly half of this long term he relinquished the income 1738. Sir John Comyn. 7 July.
(announting in the whole to upwards of a quarter of a 1740. Sir Edmund Probyn. 24 Nov.
million sterling) and placed it at the service of the state, 1742. Sir Thomas Parker.
as it annually accrued.

1772. Sir Sidney Stafford Smythe. 29 Oct. COMITROLLER-GENERAL OF THE EXCHEQUER. This office 1777. Sir John Skyuner.

was created on the abolition of the offices of the auditor 1787. Sir James Eyre. 26 Jan.
and the four tellers of the exchequer, and the clerk of 1793. Sir Archibald Macdonald.
the pells, mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The 1813. Sir Vicary Gibbs. 8 Nov.
first comptroller-general was sir John Newport, ap- 1814. Sir Alexander Thomson.
pointed 11 Oct. 1834-—-34,4381. per annum have been 1817, Sir Richard Richards. 22 April
saved to the state by the retrenchments in this depart- 1824. Sir William Alexander.
ment of the government.

1831. John, lord Lyndhurst. 18 Jan. Previously lori! COURT OF EXCHEQUER CHAMBER. Erected by Edward

chancellor; again lord chancellor, 1834. III. in 1357

It was remodelled by Elizabeth, in 1584, 1834. Sir James Scarlett. 24 Dec. Created lord Abinger, and then made to comprise the judges of all the courts.

Jan. 1835. This court is for error from the judgments of the courts 1844. Sir Frederick Pollock. of queen's bench, common pleas, and exchequer of

15 April

1866. Sir FitzRoy Kelly. 16 July.
pleas in actions commenced therein. Re-modelled by
act 2 Geo. IV. and 1 Will. IV. c. 70 (23 July, 1830).

The Exchequer office, Westminster, was instituted by 1690. John Hely. 5 Dec.
Henry IV. in 1399.

1695. Robert Doyne. 10 May

1703. Nehemiah Donnellan. CHANCELLORS OF THE EXCHEQUER.

1706. Richard Freeman. Henry Addington (aft. lord Sidmouth) 21 March, 1801 1707. Robert Rochfort.

12 June. Win. Pitt (premier)

16 May, 1804

1714. Joseph Deane. Lord Henry Petty (afterwards marquis of Lans- 1715. Jeffrey Gilbert. 16 June. downe)

. 10 Feb. 1806

1722. Bernard Hale. Spencer Perceval

31 March, 1807 1725. Thomas Dalton. 2 Sept. And premier 6 Dec. 1809 (assassinated 11 May, 1812) 1730. Thomas Marlay.

29 Sept. Nicholas Vansittart (aftes, lord Bexley) 9 June, 1741. John Bowes.

21 Dec. Fred. J. Robinson (afterwards lord Goderich and 1757. Edward Willis,

11 March. earl of Ripon)

31 Jan. 1823 1766. Anthony Foster. 5 Sept. George Canning (premier).

April, 1827 1777

James Dennis (aftds. baron Tracton). 3 July. John C. Herries 17 Aug. 1782. Walter Hussey Burgh.

2 July. Henry Goulburn

26 Jan, 1828 1783. Barry Yelvertor (afterwards viscount Avonmore). Viscount Althorp (aft, earl Spencer) 22 Nov. 1830 Sir Robert Peel (premier).

jo Dec. 1834 1805. Standish O'Grady (afterwards viscount Guillamore). Thos, Spring Rice (aft. lord Monteagle) 18 April, 1835

5 Oct. Francis T. Baring (afterwards baronet) 26 Aug. 1839 1831. Henry Joy. 6 Jan. Henry Goulburn

3 Sept. 1841 Charles Wood (afterwards baronet, iord Halifax,

1838. Stephen Woulfe. 20 July.

1840. Maziere Brady. 1866)

6 July, 1846 1846. David Richard Pigot. 1 Sept. Benjamin Disraeli

. 21 Feb. 1852 William Ewart Gladstone

28 Dec.

EXCISE. The system was established in Sir George Cornewall Lewis,

5 March, 1855 England by the Long Parliament in 1643, duties Benjamin Disraeli, again William E. Gladstone, again

27 Feb. 1858 being levied on wines, beer, &c., and tobacco, to

June, 1859 support the army against Charles I. It was conBenjamin Disraeli, again

6 July, 1866 George Ward Hunt

tinued under Charles II. The present system was

29 Feb. 1868 Robert Lowe

9 Dec. 1868
settled about 1733;

The old excise office was built

on the site of Gresham college in 1774; the present EXCHEQUER, COURT OF (Curia Regis), is at Somerset-house. The officers of excise and instituted by William I. on the model of the Trans- customs were deprived of their votes for returning marine Exchequer of Normandy, in 1079; according members to parliament in 1782; but received them to some authorities, by Henry I. It included the again in 1868. In 1849 the boards of excise, common pleas until they were separated, 16 John, stamps and taxes, were united, as "the board of 1215. Coke's Reports. The exchequer is so named commissioners of inland revenue." Notwithstandfrom a chequered cloth which anciently covered the ing the abolition of the excise duty upon numerous table where the judges and chief officers sat.* Here articles, and the reduction of duty upon various are tried all causes relating to the king's revenue; others, of late years, the total excise revenue, so far such as are concerning accounts, disbursements, from having decreased, has progressively advanced customs, and fines imposed, as well as all matters at (1847 and 1861 excepted) in its aggregate annual common law between subject and subject. The amount. Additional excise duties were charged by judges are styled barons, first appointed 1234: There 17 & 18 Vict. c. 27, July 3, 1854. The excise duties are a chief and four puisne barons: the fifth judge were further modified in 1860; see Revenue. having been added 23 July, 1830. The office of Cursitor Baron was abolished in 1856.


Great Britain. * In process of time the court of exchequer became


£3,754,072 gradully enlarged in its jurisdiction, until at length it


5,540,114 was not merely a revenue court and one at common law


19,867,914 between subject and subject, but one in which suits in


26,364,702 equity were also instituted. In fact, until the act 5 Vict.

1827 (United Kingdom)

20,995,324 c. 5 (1841), the court of exchequer possessed a triple


18,644,385 jurisdiction; but by this statute its equity business was

16,877,292 transferred to the court of chancery.



29 Nov.

11 Feb.


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13 Dec


1840 (United Kingdom)

£12,607,766 Keys, and Fawkes, 31 Jan.; Henry Garnett, jesuit: 1845

at London

3 May, 1606 1847


John Felton, murder of' duke of Buckingham ; 1848


28 Nov. 1623 1850 15,278,208 James, duke of Monmouth, treason ; Tower-hill

, 1858 (to March 31) 17,901,545

15 July, 1685 1860


Charnock, King, and Keys, 18 March ; sir John 1865

19,428,324 Friend, and sir Wm. Perkins (“assassination 1868 20,190,338 plot")

3 April, 1696 1869


Capt. Wm. Kidd and three others, piracy 23 May, 1701 1870

21,879,238 James, earl of Derwentwater, and William, earl of 1871 22,833,907 Kenmure, rebellion ; Tower-bill

24 Feb. 1716

John Price, the hangman; murder, Bunhill-row, EXCLUSION BILL (to exclude the duke of

21 May, 1718 York, afterwards James II., from the throne), was

Jack Sheppard, highwayman ; Tyburn

16 Nov. 1724

Richard Turpin, highwayman ; York 7 or 10 April, 1739 passed by the commons, but rejected by the lords in

Lord Balmerino and others, rebellion; Tower-hill, 1679. The revival of the question led to the disso

18 Aug. 1746 lution of parliament in 1681.

Lord Lovat, rebellion ; Tower-hill

9 April, 1747

Richard Wm. Vaughan, first forger of Bank of EngEXCOMMUNICATION, or separation from land notes

u May, 1758 Christian communion, founded on Matt. xviii. 17; Eugene Aram, murder ; York

6 Aug. 1759 1 Cor. V., &c., was instituted to preserve the purity Earl Ferrers, murder of his steward ; Tyburn, 5 May, 1700 of the church. The Roman church excommuni

4 April, 1761

John Perrott, fraudulent bankrupt; Smithfield, cated by Bell, Book, and Candle (which see). See

I Nov. Interdict.

Joh M‘Naughten, esq., murder of Miss Knox; Gregory VII.

Strabane. excommunicated the

emperor Henry IV., and absolved his subjects from

Elizabeth Brownrigg, murder of her apprentice; their allegiance


14 Sept. 1767 Innocent ill. exconimunicated John of England,

Daniel and Robert Perreau, wine merchants, forgery: placing the country under an interdict


17 Jan. 1776

Rev. Dr. Dodd, found guilty of forging å bond, in Gregory IX. excommunicated the

emperor Frederick II. four times between


the name of lord Chesterfield for 42001. ; the Louis XII. of France was excommunicated by

highest influence was exerted to save him, but Julius II. 1510; Francis I. by Leo X. 1521 ;

when the case came before the council, the Henry VIII. of England by Clement VII. in

minister of the day said to George III., “ If 1527, and by Paul III. in 1535; and Elizabeth

your majesty pardon Dr. Dodd, you will have

murdered the Perreaus;" Tyburn by Pius V. 25 April, 1570

27 June, 1777 The emperor of France, the king of Sardinia, and Rev. Henry Hackman, murder of Miss Reay, misothers, were virtually excommunicated (but not

tress of earl of Sandwich ; Ty burn 19 April, 1779 by name) on account of the amexation of the

Capt. John Donellan, murder of sir Theodosius komagna by Sardinia

29 March, 1860
Boughton ; Warwick

2 April, 1781

Christian Murphy (or Bowman), a woman; strangled EXECUTIONS, see Crime. In the reign of Richard Parker and others, mutiny at the Nore,

and burnt for coining

18 March, 1789 Henry VIII. (38 years) it is said that no less a

30 June, 1797 number than 72,000 criminals were executed. Stow. Mrs. Phepoe, celebrated murderess; Old Bailey, In the ten years between 1820 and 1830, there were executed in England alone 797 criminals; but as our

Sir Edward Crosbie, high treason ; Ireland, 4 June, 1798 laws became less severe, the number of executions

Messrs. Sheares, high treason ; Dublin 12 July, 1799 decreased. In the three years ending 1820, the

Galloping Dick, highwayman ; Aylesbury, 4 April, 1800

Governor Joseph Wall, murder of serjeant Armexecutions in England and Wales amounted to

strong : Old Bailey

28 Jan. 1802 312; in the three years ending 1830, they were Mr. Crawley, murder of two females ; Dublin, 178; in the three years ending 1840, they were 62.

10 March, The place of execution in London (formerly gene

George Foster, murder of wife and child ; Old Bailey, rally at Tyburn) was in front of Newgate from 1783 Colonel Despard and others, high treason ; Horse

18 Jan. 1803 to 1868, when an act was passed directing execu

monger-lane tions to take place within the walls of prisons. The John Hatfield (a rank impostor, who married, by dissection of the bodies of executed persons was means of the most odious deceit, the celebrated abolished in 1832, see Death, 1868.

Beauty of Buttermere"), forgery; Carlisle,

3 Sept.
Robert Emmett, high treason ; Dublin

20 Sept. " 1820, 43 ;-1825, 17 ;--1830, 6 ;--1835, 0 ;-1836, 0 ;- Richard Patch, murder of Mr. Bligh ; Horsemonger1837, 2; -1838, 0;- 1839, 2 ;-1840, 1 ;-1842, 2;--1843, 0; lane

8 April, 1806 1844, 1 ;--1845, 3 ;--1846, 2.

John Holloway, owen Haggerty, murder of Mr.

Steele; Old Bailey (thirty of the spectators of

this execution were trodden to death, and num-
England. London,

England, London,

bers were pressed, mained and wounded), 23 Feb. 1807 1847 1860

T. Simmons, the man of blood, murder; Hertford, 1848


7 March, 1808

2 Major Campbell, murder of capt. Boyd in a duel : 1850 6 1863 ·

Armagh 1851 .


Capt. Sutherland, murder; Execution dock, 1852


29 June, 1800
1853 ·

Richard Armitage, forgery; Old Bailey 24 June, 1811

John Bellingham, murder of Mr. Perceval; Old

18 May, 1812 1856 15 1869.

Philip Nicholson, murder of Mr. and Mrs. Bonar; 1857 · 13


23 Aug. 1813 1858

1871 .

Francis Tuite, murder of Mr. Goulding : Dublin,
1859 ·

Charles Callaghan, murder of Mr. Merry ; HorseGunpowder plot conspirators, Digby, R. Winter,


2 April, 1814

William Sawyer, murder of Jack Hacket; Old Bailey, Grant, and Bates, 30 Jan.; T. Winter, Rookwood,

15 May,

11 Dec.

21 Feb.


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