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31 Oct.

10 Nov. 24 Nov.

16 June, 1743


1796, &c.

May, 1775

April, 1799


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19 May,


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War of the Spanish succession

Sept. 1701

Marat stabbed by Charlotte Corday 13 July, 1793 French defeated at Blenheim

2 Aug. 1704
The queen beheaded

16 Oct. At Ramillies

23 May, 1706 Execution of the Girondists Peace of Utrecht (which sce)

11 April, 1713

Philip Egalité, duke of Orleans, who had voted for Dissensions of Jesuits and Jansenists ; the bull

the king's death, guillotined at Paris (see Orleans), Unigenitus

6 Nov.; and madame Roland

8 Nov.
Accession of Louis XV.; stormy regency of the duke Worship of goddess of reason
of Orleans

1 Sept. 1715, &c. Adoption of new republican calendar Law's bubble in France (see Law).

Execution of Danton and others, 5 April; of madame French defeated at Dettingen


12 May, 1794 Successful campaign of marshal Saxe.

1746 Robespierre president, 4 June ; he and 71 others Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ,

18 Oct. 1748

28 July, Seven years' war begun

May, 1756
Peace with Prussia

5 April, 1795 Damiens' attempt on life of Louis xv.

5 Jan. 1757
Insurrection of the Faubourgs

20, 21 May, Canada lost-battle of Quebec

13 Sept. 1759
Louis XVII, dies in prison

8 June,
The Jesuits banislied from France, and their
effects French directory chosen

i Nov. confiscated

1762 Bonaparte's successful campaigns in Italy, Peace of Paris ; Canada ceded to England, 10 Feb. 1963 Babeuf's conspiracy suppressed

12 May, Lonis XV. enslaved by madame du Barry 1769 Picheru's conspiracy fails

May, 1797 Death of Louis XV.

10 May, 1774
Expedition to Syria and Egypt (which sce),

July, 1798 Famine riots at Versailles

European coalition against France The minister Turgot dismissed

May, 1776

Council of Five Hundred deposed by Bonaparte,
Ministry of Necker

who is declared First Consul

Io Nov. Louis XVI. assists America to throw off its depen He defeats the Austrians at Marengo 14 June, 1800 dence on England, at first secretly

His life attempted by the infernal inachine, 24 Dec. Torture abolished in French judicature


Peace of Amiens (with England, Spain, and Hol. Peace of Versailles with England 3 Sept. 1783 land) signed

25-27 March, 1802 The diamond-necklace affair (which sse) 1785 Amnesty to the emigrants

April, Meeting of the assembly of notables, 22 Feb. 1787; Legion of Honour instituted again. 6 Nov. 1788 | Bonaparte made consul for life

2 Aug. Opening of states general (308° ecclesiastics, 283 The bank of France established.

14 April, 1803 nobles ; 621 deputies, tiers état) 5 May, 1789 Declaration of war against England 22 May, The tiers état constitute themselves the National Conspiracy of Moreau and Pichegru against BonaAsseinbly

17. June,

parte, 15 Feb.; the latter found strangled in prison The French revolution commences with the de (see Georges)

6 April, 1804 struction of the Bastille (which see) 14 July, Duc d'Enghien executed

: 21 March, The National Asseinbly decrees that the title of the France made an empire : Napoleon proclaimed em" king of France" shall be changed to that of the peror, 18 May ; crowned by the pope,

2 Dec, "king of the French"

16 Oct.
He is crowned king of Italy

26 May, 1805 The property of the clergy confiscated .

2 Nov.
Another coalition against France

Emigration of nobles.
Oct.-Dec. Napoleon defeats the allies at Austerlitz,

2 Dec. Confederation of the Champ de Mars; France de And the Prussians at Jena

14 Oct. 1806 clared a limited monarchy ; Louis XVI. swears And the Russians at Eylau

8 Feb. 1807 to maintain the constitution

14 July, 1790

His interview with the czar at Tilsit, 26 June; peace The silver plate used in the churches transferred to


7 July, the mint and coined

3 March, 1791

His Milan decree against British commerce, Death of Mirabeau

2 April, The king, queen, and royal family arrested at

New nobility of France created

1 March, 1808 Varennes, in their flight.

• 21 June,

Ablication of Charles IV. of Spain and his son, in Louis (a prisoner) sauctions the National Constitu

favour of Napoleon, 5 May; insurrection in Spain, tion

15 Sept. War declared against the emperor 20 April, 1792 Commencement of the Peninsular war (see Spain), The Jacobin club declare their sittings permanent,

July, 18 June, Alliance of England and Austria against France, The multitude, bearing the red bonnet of liberty,

April, 1809 march to the Tuileries to make demands on the Victories in Austria; Napoleon enters Viema, May, king

20 June,

Peace of Vienna First coalition against France; commencement of Divorce of the emperor and empress Josephine the great French war

decreed by the senate

16 Dec. [See Buttles, 1792 to 1815.]

Marriage of Napoleon to Maria Louisa of Austria, The royal Swiss guards cut to pieces ; massacre of

1 April, 1810 5000 persons 10 Aug. Holland united to France

9 July, Revolutionary tribunal set up .

19 Aug.

Birth of the king of Rome (now styled Napoleon II.); Decreeof the National Assembly against the priests;

20 March, 1811 40,000 exiled

26 Aug:
War with Russia declared

22 June, 1812 Massacre in Paris; the prisons broken open, and Victory at Borolino

· 7 Sept. 1 200 persons (100 priests) slain

2-5 Sept.

Disastrous retreat ; French army nearly destroyed, Murder of the princess de Lamballe 3 Sept.

Oct. The National Convention opened

17 Sept.

Alliance of Austria, Russia, and Prussia against Convention establishes a republic, 20 Sept. ; pro


March, 2813 claimed

22 Sept. The British enter France Duke of Brunswick lefeated at Vaimy,

20 Sept.
Surrender of Paris to the allies

31 March, 1814 The French people declare their fraternity with Abdication of Napoleon negotiated 5 April, all nations who desire to be free, and offer help, Bourbon dynasty restored, and Louis XVIII arrives

19 Nov.
in Paris

3 May, Flanders conquered

Dec. Napoleon arrives at Elba. Drence for the perpetual banishment of the Bourbon

The Constitutional Charter decreed 4-10 Jme, family, those confined in the Temple excepted, Quits Elba, anil lands at Cannes 1 March, 1815.

20 Dec.

Arrives at Fontainebleau (tive 100 days), 20 Mareli, Lonis imprisoned in the Temple distinct from the Joined by all the army

22 March, queen, and brought to trial, 19 Jan.; condemned The allies sign a treaty against him

March, to death, 20 Jan. ; beheaded in the Place de Louis He abolishes the slave trade

29 March, Quinze

21 Jan. 1793
Leaves Paris for the army

12 Juie, Committee of public safety established,

21 Jan.
Defeated at Waterloo

18 June, War with England and Holland declared,

Returns to Paris, 20 June ; abdicates in favour of War in La Vendée

his infant son

22 June, Reign of terror--proscription of Giron' lists, zi Intending to embark for America, he' arrives at May; establishment of convention,


3 July,

17 Dec.

27 May,

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15 Oct.
7 Dec.

4 Nov 5 Nov,

19-20 Noy.

15 Oct. 29 Oct.

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15 Dec.

7. Aug.

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21 Dec.

Louis XVIII. enters Paris
3 July, 1815 Birth of the count of Paris

24 Aug. 1838 Napoleon surrenders to capt. Maitland,' of the Death of the duchess of Wurtemberg (laughter of Bellerophon, at Rochefort

15 July,
Louis Philippe), a good sculptor

2 Jan. 1839 Transferred at Torbay to the Northumberland, and Insurrection of Barbès and Blanqui at Paris, with admiral sir George Cockburn sails for St.

12 May, Helena

8 Aug.

M. Thiers, minister of foreign affairs 1 March, 1840 Arrives at St. Helena to remain for life,

The chambers decree the removal of Napoleon's reExecution of marshal Ney

mains from St. Helena to France. 12 May, The family of Bonaparte excluded for ever' from [By the permission of the British government these France by the law of amnesty

12 Jan. 1816 were taken from the tomb at St. Helena (15 Oct. Duke of Berry murdered

13 Feb. 1820 1840), and embarked on the next day on board Death of Napoleon I. (see Wills)

5 May, 1821 the Belle Poule French frigate, under the comLouis XVIII. dies ; Charles X. king 16 Sept. 1824 mand of the prince de Joinville ; the vessel National Guardi disbander

30 April, 1827 reached Cherbourg on 30 November : and on 15 War with Algiers ; dey's fleet defeated

December the body was deposited in the Hótel Seventy-six new peers created

des Invalides. The ceremony was witnessed by Election riots at Paris ; barricades ; several per

1,000,000 of persons ; 150,000 soldiers assisted in sons killed

the obsequies : and the royal family and all the The Villele ministry replaced by the Murtignac, high personages of the realın were present; all

4 Jan. 1828 the relatives of the emperor were absent, being Béranger imprisoned for political songs,

10 Dec.

proscribed, and in exile or in prison. The body Polignac administration formed

8 Aug. 1829 was finally placed in its crypt on 31 March, 1861.) Chamber of deputies dissolved

16 May, 1830 Descent of prince Louis Napoleon, general MonthoAlgiers taken

5 July,

lon, and 50 followers, at Vimereux, near BouThe obnoxious ordinances regarding the press, logne, 6 Aug. ; the prince sentenced to imprisonand reconstruction of the chamber of deputies,

ment for life

6 Oet. 26 July,

Darmès fires at the king Revolution commences with barricades,

27 July,

M. Guizot, minister of foreign affairs Conflicts in Paris between the populace (ulti Project of law foranextraordinary credit of 140.000,000 mately aided by the national guard) and the army,

of francs, for erecting the fortifications of Paris,

28-30 July, Charles X. retires to Rambouillet; flight of his The duration of copyright to 30 years after the ministry, 31 July; he abdicates

2 Ang.
author's death, fixed

30 March, 1841 The duke of Orleans accepts the crown as Louis Bronze statue of Napoleon placed on the column Philippe I.

of the grande armée, Boulogne

· 15 Aug. The constitutional charter of July publisheli, Attempt to assassinate the duke of Aumale (king's

14 Aug.
son) on return from Africa

13 Sept. Charles X. retires to England

17 Aug.

The duke of Orleans, heir to the throne, killed by a Polignac and other ministers tried and sentenced to

fall from his carriage

13 July, 1842 perpetual imprisonment

The queen of England visits the royal family at The abolition of the hereditary peerage decreed

Chateau d'Eu

2 to 7 Sept. 1843 by both chambers ; the peers (36 new peers being An extradition treaty with England signed created) concurring by a majority of 103 to

War with Morocco, May; peace

10 Sept. 1844 27 Dec. 1831 Attempt of Lecompte to assassinate the king at The A. B. C. (abaissés) insurrection in Paris sup


16 April, 1846 pressed 5-6 June, 1832 Louis Napoleon escapes from Ham

25 May, Charles X. leaves' Holyrood-house for the conti The seventh attempt on the life of the king: by nent

18 Sept.
Joseph Henri .

29 July, Ministry of Souit, duke of Dalmatia

. 11 Oct.

Spanish marriages : marriage of the queen of Spain Bergeron and Benoit tried for an attempt on the

with her cousin, and of the duc de Montpensier life of Louis-Philippe ; acquitted 18 March, 1833 with the infanta of Spain

10 Oct. The duchess of Berry, who has been delivered of a Disastrous inundations in the south.

18 Oct. female child, and asserts her secret marriage The Praslin murder (see Praslin)

18 Aug. 1847 with an Italian nobleman, sent to Palermo, Death of marshal Oudinot (duke of Reggio) at Paris,

in his gist year, 13 Sept. ; Soult made general of Death of La Fayette 20 May, 1834 France, in his rooin

26 Sept. Marshal Gerard takes office

Jerome Bonaparte returns to France after an exile M. Dupuytren dies. 8 Feb, 1835 of 32 years

Io Oct. Duc de Broglie, minister


Surrender of Abd-el-Kader Fieschi attempts the king's life

28 July, Death of the ex-empress, Maria Louisa, 18 Dec.; [He tired an internal machine as the king and his and of madame Adelaide,

sons rode along the lines of the national guari, The grand reforin banquet at Paris prohibiteit, on the Boulevard du Temple. The machine

21 Feb. 1843 consisted of twenty-five barrels, charged with Revolutionary tumult in consequence: impeachvarious missiles, and lighted simultaneously by a

ment and resignation of Guizot, 22 Feb. ; barri. train of gunpowder. The king and his sons es

cades thrown up, the Tuileries ransacked, the caped ; but marshal Mortier, duke of Treviso,

prisonsopened, and frightful disorders committed, shot dead, many officers dangerously wounded, and upwards of forty persons killed Louis Philippe ablicates in favour of his infant or injured.)

9 June,

• 15 July,

23 Dec.

30 Dec.


23-24 Feb

grandson, the comte de Paris, who is not aeFieschi executed

19 Feb. 1836 cepted; the royal family and ministers escape, Louis Aliband fires at the king on his way from the

Tuileries, 25 June; guillotined : 11 July, A republic proclaimed from the steps of the Hotel Ministry of count Molė, vice M. Thiers 6 Sept.

de Ville

26 Feb. Death of Charles X.

6 Nov, Attempted insurrection at strasburg by Louis

The ex-king and queen arrive at Newhaven in Eng. Napoleon (afterwards emperor), 29-30 Oct. ; he is

Grand funeral procession in honour of the victims sent to America

of the revolution

4 March, Prince Polignac and others set at liberty from Ham, The provisional government resigns to an executive and sent out of France.

commission, elected by the National Assembly of Meunier fires at the king on his way to open the the French Republic French Chambers

[The members of this new government were ! MM. Amnesty for political offences

8 May, 1837 Dupont de l'Eure, Arigo, Gamier-Pagès, Marie, “Idées Napoléoniennes,” by prince Louis Napo

Lamartine, Ledru-Rollin, and Cremieux. The leon, published.

1838 secretaries : Louis Blanc, Albert, Flocon, and Tallevrand dies.

20 May,

Marrast. ) Marshal Soult at the coronation of the queen of The people's attack on the assembly suppressed, England 28 June,

15 May,

24 Feb.


3 March,

13 Nov.

23 Nov.

7 May,

27 Dec

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24 June,
25 June,

7 Oct.

19 Oct.

4 Nov.

21 Nov,

2 Dec.

2 Feb.

19 Oct.

Perpetual banishment of Louis-Philippe and his The departments of France released from a state of family decreed 26 May, 1848 siege


March, 1852 Election of Louis Napoleon (to the National As Legislative chambers installed

29 March, sembly) for the department of the Seine and three A crystal palace authorised to be erected in the other departments

13 June,
Champs Elysées at Paris

30 March, Rise of the red Republicans : war:

war against the troops Plot to assassinate the prince-president discovered and national guard; more than 300 barricades

at Paris

I July, thrown up, and tiring continues in all parts of President's visit to Strasburg

19 July, Paris during the night

23 June.

M. Thiers and others permitted to return to France, The troops under Caraignac and Lamoricière, with

8 Aug immense loss, drive the insurgents from the left The French senate prays “the re-establishment of bank of the Seine .

the hereditary sovereign power in the Bonaparte Paris declared in a state of siege :


13 Sept. The Faubourg du Temple carried with cannon, and Enthusiastic reception of the prince-president at the insurgents surrender 26 June,

19 Sept. (The national losses caused by this outbreak esti Internal machine, to destroy the prince-president, mated at 30,000,000 francs ; 16,000 persons killed

seized at Marseilles

23 Sept. and wounded, and 8000 prisoners were taken. The Prince-president visits Toulon, 27 Sept. ; and Borarchbishop of Paris was killed while tending the deaux, where he says “the empire is peace dring, 26 June.)

(L'Empire c'est la paris) Cavaignac, president of the council. 28 June, He releases Abel-el-Kader (see Algiers). 16 Oct. Louis Napoleon takes his seat in the National As He convokes the senate for November to deliberate sembly

26 Sept.

on a change of government, when a senatus consula Paris relieved from a state of siege, which had con

tum will be proposed for the ratification of the tinued four months

20 Oct.

French people
Solemn promulgation of the constitution of 4 Nov., Protest of comte de Chambord.

25 Oct. in front of the Tuileries.

12 Nov.

In his message to the senate, the prince-president Louis Napoleon elected president of the French

announces the conten:plated restoration of the republic, 11 Dec. ; proclaimed

20 Dec.

empire, and orders the people to be consulted [He had 5,587,759 votes ; Cavaignac, 1,474,687; Le

upon this change dru-Rollin, 381,026; Raspail, 37,121 ; Lamartine, Votes for the empire, 7,824,189; noes, 253,145; 21,032 ; and Changarnier, 4,975.)

null, 63,326 Drilitary demonstration to stifle an anticipated in The prince-president declared emperor; assumes surrection of the reds

Jan. 1849 the title of Napoleon III. Death of king Louis-Philippe, at Claremont, in His marriage with Eugénie de Montijo, countess of England 26 Aug. 1850 Teba, at Notre-Dame.

29 Jan. 1853 Liberty of the press restricteil

26 Sept. 4312 political offenders pardoned : Gen. Changarnier deprived of the command of the Bread riots

Sept. pational mart 19 Jan. 1851 Military camp at Satory, near Paris

Sept. Death of the duchess of Angoulême, daughter of

Emperor and empress visit the provinces (many Louis XVI., at Frohsdorf..

political prisoners discharged)

Oct. Drath of inarshal Soult

26 Oct. Francis Arago, astronomer, &c., died . 2 Oct. Electrie telegraph between England and France Attempted assassination of the emperor; ten peropenel

sons transported for life

Nov. Coup d'état; legislative assemblydissolved; universai

Reconciliation of the two branches of the Bourbons sutfraze established, and Paris declared in a state

at Frohsdorf

20 Nov. of siege ; the election of a president for ten years Marshal Ney's statue inaugurated exactly 38 years propose), and a second chamber or senate, 2 Dec.

after his death on the spot where it occurred, 7 Dec. DOM. Thiens, Changarnier, Cavaiynac, Bedeau, La War declared against Russia (see Russo-Turkish War) moririere, and Charres arrested, and sent to the

27 March, 1854 castle of Vincennes

2 Dee.

Visit of prince Albert at Boulogne About 180 members of the assembly, with M. Ber:

5 Sept. Death of marshal St. Arnaud

29 Sept. ryer at their heul, attempting to meet, are ar Emperor and empress visit London, 16-21 April, 1855 rested, and Paris is occupied by troops

2 Dec.
Industrial exhibition at Paris opened

15 May, Sauguinary conflicts in Paris ; the troops victorious, Attempted assassination of the emperor by Pianori,

28 April ; by Bellemarre

8 Sept. Consultative commission founded

12 Dec.

Queen Victoria and prince Albert visit France, Voting throughout France for the election of a

18-27 Aug. president of the republic for ten years ; affirmative Death of count Molé.

votes 7,473,431, negative votes 641,351 21-22 Dec. Birth of the imperial prince; amnesty granted to Installation of the prince-president in the cathe

1000 political prisoners

16 March, 1856 dral of Notre Dame; the day observed as a Peace with Russia signed

30 March, national holiday at Paris, and Louis Napoleon Awful inundation in the south

June, takes up his residence at the Tuileries, i Jan, 1852 [Subscriptions in London to relieve the sufferers Generals Changarnier, Lamorivière, and others,

announted to 43,000l. Sir Jansetjee Jejeebhoy, conducted to the Belgian frontier

of Bombay, gave 500l. for the saine purpose.] 83 meinbers of the legislative assembly banished; Distress in money market.

6 Oct. 575 persons arrested for resistance to the coup Sibour, archbishop of Paris, assassinated by Verger, dent of 2 Dec., and conveyed to Havre for trans

a priest

3 Jan. 1857 portation to Cayenne

10 Jan.

Elections (3,000,000 voters to elect 257 deputies): {The inscription" Liberty, Fraternity, Equality,gen. Caraignac elected deputy, but declines to onered to be furthwith erased throughont France,

take the oath .

21, 22 June, and the old names of streets, public buildings, Conspiracy to assassinate the emperor in Paris leand places of resort to be restored. The trees of


11 July, liberty are everywhere hewn down and burnt.) Death of Béranger, popular poet

16 July, The national guardi disbanded, reorganised anew, Longwood, the residence of Napoleon I. at St. and placed under the control of the executive ;

Helena, bought for 180,000 francs the president appointing the officers 10 Jan. The conspirators Grilli, Bartolotti, and 'Tibalai, A new constitution published



3-4 Dec,

24 Nov

9 Jan.

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tried, convicted, and sentenced to transportation, Decree obliging the Orleans family to sell all their


6, 7 Aug. real and personal property in France within a Emperor and empress visit England 6-10 Ang. Vear

22 Jan,

The emperor meets the emperor of Russia at StutSecond decree, annulling the settlement inade by garut

25 Sept. Louis-Philippe upon his family previous to his Death of Eugène Cavaimnae (aged 55) 28 Oct. accession in 1830, and annexing the property to Death of Malle. Rachel (aged 38)

4 Jan. 1853 the domain of the state

Attempte assassination of the emperor by Orsini, The birthway of Napoleon 1. (15 Aug.) decreed to be

Pieri, Rudio, Gomez, &e., by the explosion of three the only national holiday

shells(two persons killed, many wounded), 14. Jan.

14 Jan.

22 Jan.

17 Feb.


29 Jan.

20 Dec

31 Dec.

23 Oct. 25 Noy.

5 Feb

[Felix Orsini, a man of talent and energy, earnest to Commercial treaty with England signed 23 Jan. 1860

obtain Italian independence, was born Dec. 1819; L'Univers suppressed for publishing the pope's letter studied at Bologna in 1837 : joined a secret society

to the emperor. in 1843; was arrested and condemned to the gal Treaty for the annexation of Savoy and Nice

signed leys for life in 1844 ; was released in 1846 ; took

24 March, part in the Roman revolution in 1848, when he The press censured for attacking England, 7 April, was elected a member of the assembly; and on the The emperor meets the German sovereigns at Baden fall of the republic, fled to Genoa in 1849, and

15-17 June, came to England in 1853. Entering into fresh Jerome Bonaparte, the emperor's uncle, dies conspiracies, he was arrested in Hungary, Jan.

(aged 76) 1855, and sent to Mantua ; he escaped thence and The emperor, in a letter to count Persigny, discame to England in 1856, where he associated claims hostility to England

25 July, with Kossuth, Mazzini, &c. ; delivered lectures, The emperor and empress visit Savoy, Corsica, and and where he devised the plot for which he suf

Algiers .

I•17 Sept. feree In his will he acknowledged the justice of New tariff comes into operation.

1 oct. his sentence. )

Public levying of Peter's pence forbidden, and free Public safety bill passed-bold protest against it by issue of pastoral letters checked.

Nov. Ollivier

18 Feb. 1858 The empress visits London, Edinburgh, Glasgow, France divided into five military departments; &c., privately

Nov.-Dec. general Espinasse becomes minister of the interior, Important ministerial changes : greater liberty of


speech granted to the chambers; two sets of Napoleon III, et l'Angleterre" published

11 Mar.

ministers appointed speakers and administraIntemperate speeches in France against England

tors; Pelissier made governor of Algeria ; Permisconceptions between the two countries par

signy, minister o 1the interior ; Flahault, English tially removed in


Nov. & Dec. Republican outbreak at Chalons suppressed

Passports for Englishmen to cease after 1 Jan. 1861 9 March,

16 Dec. Orsini and Pieri executed

13 March,
Six bishopries vacant.

Dec. Simon Bernard, tried in London as their accomplice, Persigny relaxes the bondage of the press, Dec. 11; acquittel.

12-17 April,

[but for a short time). Marshal Pelissier, ambassador to London 15 April, The emperor advises the pope to surrender his reEspinasse retires from ministry of the interior (he

volted provinces was killed at the battle of Magenta, 4 June, 1859] Rome et les Evêques" published.

6 Jan. 1861 June, Jerome (son of Jerome Bonaparte and Elizabeth Queen of England meets the emperor; visits Cher

Paterson, an American lady) claims his legitimate bourg

4, 5 Aug.

rights ; non-suited after a trial 25 Jan.-15 Feb. Conference at Paris respecting the Danubian prin [The marriage took place in America, on 24 Dec. cipalities closes

19 Aug.

1803 ; but was annulled, and Jerome married the Dispute with Portugal respecting the Charles ei princess Catherine of Wurtemberg, 12 Aug. 1807 ; Georges (which sce) settled

their children are the prince Napoleon and the Trial of counte de Montalembert

princess Mathilde (see Bonn parte). ] [In Oct. 1858, the conte published a pamphlet en Purchase of the principality of Monaco for

4,000,000 titled “ Un Débat sur l'inile," eulogising English

francs, Feb. 2; announced institutions and depreciating those of France. Meeting of French chambers, 4 Feb. ; stormy deHe was sentenced to six months' imprisonment

bates in the chambers

Feb. & March, and a fine of 3000 francs, but was pardoned by the La France, Rome, et l'Italie" published emperor, 2 Dec. The comte appealed against the Angry reply to it by the bishop of Poitiers, who sentence of the court, and was again condemnedl;

compares the emperor to Pilate but acquitted of a part of the charge. The sen Failure of Mirès, á railway banker and loan contence was once more remitted by the emperor

tractor, &c. : he is arrested (21 Dec.). In Oct. 1859, the comte published a Many influential persons suspected of participating pamphlet entitled Pie IX. et lo France en 1849 in his frauds; the governinent promise strict et 1859,” in which England is severely censured


Feb. & March, for opposition to popery.)

Eugène Scribe, dramatist, dies (aged 80) Emperor's address to the Austrian ambassador (see Speech of prince Napoleon in favour of Italian Austria)

. 1 Jan. 1859 unity, the English alliance, and against the pope's Marriage of prince Napoleon to princess Clotilde of temporal government

1 March, Savoy

Strong advocacy of the temporal government of the Publication of " Napolcon 111. ei Intalie"


pope in the chambers; the French army stated to On the Austrians invading Sarlinian territories,

consist of 687,000 men

March, France declares war, and the French enter; the Circular forbidding the priests to meddle with politics empress appointed regent; the emperor arrives at

11 April, Genoa .

12 May, Liberal commercial treaty with Belgium 1 May, Loan of 20,000,000 francs raised

21 May,

Publication in Paris of the duc d'Aumale's severe Victories of the allies (French and Sardinians) at letter to prince Napoleon, 13 April. Printer and Montebello, 20 May ; Palestro, 30, 31 May : Ma

publisher tined and imprisoned.

May, genta, 4 June; Melegnano (Marignano), 8 June; Declaration of neutrality in the American conflict Napoleon enters Milan, 8 June; victory of allies

June, at Solferino

24 June,

Official recognition of kingdom of Italy Armistice agreed on 6 July, Visit of king of Sweden.

15 Feb

27 Feb

17 Feb.

20 Feb.

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24 June,

6 Aug. Meeting of emperors of France and Austria at Villa Conflict between French and Swiss soldiers at Ville Franca

11 July,

18 Aug. Peace agreed on

12 July, Mirės, the speculator, sentenced to five years' imLouis Napoleon returns to Paris. The emperor addresses the senate, 19 July; and the Pamphlet " La France, Rome, et l'Italie" appears diplomatie boily 21 July,

Sept. Reduction of the army and navy ordered Aug. Commercial treaty between France, Great Britain, Conference of Austrian and French envoys at Zurich

and Belgium comes into operation

1 Oct. (see Zurich)

. 8 Aug. - Nov. Meeting of emperor and king of Prussia at Com. Amnesty to political offenders

17-18 Aug

piegne, 6 Oct. : and king of Holland 12 Oct. Violent attacks of the French press on England re French troops enter the valley of Dappes (Switzerpressed


land) to prevent an arrest " Le Pape et le Congrès " published ; 50,000 soli in a Convention between France, Great Britain, and few days


Spain, respecting intervention in Mexico, signed Count Walewski, the foreign minister, resigns ; (sce Varico) M. Thouvemel succeeds him

Jan. 1860 Embarrassment in the government finances; Achille The emperor announces a free trade policy : Mr. Fould liecomes finance minister, 14 Nov. ; with Cobden at Paris.

5 Jin.
enlar,rd POWETS

12 Dec.

17 July,


27 Oct

31 Oct.

7 Jan.

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The emperor reminds the clergy of their duty “towards Citsar"

1 Jan. 1862 French army lands at Vera Cruz The French masters of the province of Bienhoa, in Annam

20 Jan. Fruitless meeting of French and Swiss commis

sioners respecting the Ville-la-Grande conflict Fould announces his finance scheme (reduction of

41 per cent. stock to 3 per cent., and additional taxes and stamp duties) Fierce debate in the legislative chamber, in which

prince Napoleon takes part French victries in Cochin-China (6 provinces ceded

28 March, The Spanish and British plenipotentiaries decide to quit Mexico; the French declare war against the Mexican government (for the events see Mexico)

16 April, Sentence against Mirès examined and reversed at Douai; he is released

. 21 April, Treaty of peace between France and Annam signed

3 June, Duke Pasquier dies (aged 96).

5 July, New commercial treaty with Prussia 2 Aug. Newspaper La France, opposed to Italian unity, set ship, Prince Jerome, with reinforcements for Mexico, burnt near Gibraltar ; crew saved.

Aug Camp at Chalons formed on account of Garibaldi's

movements in Sicily; broken, when he is taken prisoner

29 Aug. Great sympathy for him in France

Sept. Treaty of commerce with Malagascar 12 Sept. Drouyn de Lhuys made foreign minister in room of

Thouvenel Baron Gros, ambassador at London in room of comte de Flahault, resigned

18 Nov. Serjeant Glover brings an action in the court of

queen's bench against the comte de Persigny and M. Billault, claiming 14,000l. for subsidising the

Morning Chronicle, and other newspapers 22 Nov. The emperor inauguratus “ Boulevard Prince Eu

gine," Paris Great distress in the manufacturing districts through the cotton famine and the civil war in America

Dec. Treaty of commerce with Italy signed 17 Jan. 1863 Revolt in Aunami suppressed

26 Feb. Convention regulating the French and Spanish fron

tiers concludeel Resignation of Magne, the “ speaking ininistér," in the assembly

1 April, Dissolution of the chambers

8 May, Persigny issues arbitrary injunctions to electors

May, Thiers, Ollivier, Favre, and other opposition candidates elected in Paris

31 May-15 June, Changes in the ininistry--resignation of Persiyny, Walewski, and Rouland

23 Jme, The empress visits queen of Spain at Madrid, Oct. Baron Gros resigns, prince Tourd' Juvergne becomes

ainbassador at London Death of Billault (born 1805) • speaking minister"

in legislative assembly, 13 Oct.; succeeded by Rouher, as “minister of state",

18 Oct. The emperor proposes the convocation of a European

congress, and invites the sovereigns or their de-
puties by letter
Thiers and his friends form a new opposition

9 Nov.
The invitation to the congress declined by England
Thiers speaks in the chamber
Arrest of Grego and other conspirators against the

emperor's life, 3 Jan. ; tried and sentenced to

transportation and imprisonment 27 Feb. 1864 Convention between France, Brazil, Italy, Portugal,

and Hayti, for establishing a telegraphic line between Europe and America

16 May, Death of marshal Pelissier, duke of Malakhvit, yovernor of Algeria (born 1794)

22 May, Convention between France and Japan signed by Japanese ambassadors at Paris.

20 June, Convention of commerce, &c., between France and Switzerland, signeel

30 June, Prince Napoleon Victor, son of prince Napoleon

Jerome and princess Clotilde, born. 16 July,

7 Dec

Convention between France and Italy respecting evacuation of Rome, &c.

15 Sept. 1864 Garnier-Pagès and 12 others who had met at his

house for election purposes, convicted as mem

bers of a society “of inore than 20 members Death of the emperor's private secretary and old friend, Mocquard

9 Dec. Death of Proudhon (born 1809), who said “ la propriété c'est le vol

19 Jan. 1865 The clergy prohibited from reading the pope's eney

clical letter of 8 Dec. in churches ; much excitement; the archbishop of Besançon and other prelates disobey The prince Napoleon Jerome appointed vice-presi

Jan. Decree for an international exhibition of the products

of agriculture and industry, and of the fine arts, at Paris, on i May, 1867

1 Feb. Treaty with Sweden signed

14 Feb. The minister Duruy's plan of compulsory education rejected by the assembly

8 March, Death of the duc de Morny, said to be

half-brother the

10 March, " Loi les suspects" (or of public safety) suffered to expire

31 March, Attempted assassination of a secretary at the Russian embassy

24 April, The emperor visits Algeria

3-27 May, Inauguration of the statue of Napoleon 1. at

Ajaccio, with an imprudent speech by prince Napoleon Jerome, 15 May ; censured by the emperor, 23 May; the prince resigns his offices

9 June, The English fleet entertained at Cherbourg and Brest, 15 Aug. et seq.; review of the fleets

15 & 21 Aug. The French fleet entertained at Portsmouth,

29 Aug.-1 Sept. Protest of the United States against French inter

vention in Mexico-prolonged correspondence (see Merico)

Aug. 1865-Feb. 1866. Count Walewski nominated president of the corps législotif.

2 Sept. Death of general Lamoricière

11 Sept. The queen of Spain visits the emperor at Biarritz

11 Sept. Notice given of the abrogation of the Extradition

treaty in six months Riots of republican students at Paris's

(several expelled froin the Academy of Medicine) . 18 Dec. Emperor opens chambers with a pacific speech

22 Jan. 1866 At Auxerre, Napoleon expresses his detestation of the treaties of 1815.

6 May, In a letter says that in regard to the German war, “ France will observe an attentive neutrality"

11 June, The emperor of Austria cedes Venetia to France, and invites the emperor's intervention with Prussia

4 July, Empress of Mexico arrives at Paris

8 Aug. Note to the Prussian government desiring rectifica

tion of the French frontier to what it was in 1814 i declared by Prussia to be inadmissible

Aug. Resignation of M. Drouyn de Lhuys, foreign minister (succeeded by the marquis de Moustier)

2 Sept. Inundations in the south ; railways destroyed,

Sept. Pacific circular of the emperor sent to foreign

16 Sept. Death of M. Thouvenel, forinerly foreign minister,

18 Oct. Commission appointed to inquire into the advisa

bility of modifying the organisation of the army: the emperor president; report

30 Oct. The French troops quit Rome

3-1 Dec. Publication of letter from the comte de Chambord

to his adherents in favour of the pope's temporal power, dated

Dec. Commercial treaty with Austria signed

11 Dec. General opposition to the army organisation plan

published Richelieu's head, after many removals, deposited in

the Sorbonne Imperial decree announcing political reforins ;

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