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Severe letter from prince Napoleon Jerome to Jules
Favre, dated

31 May, 1871 Changes in the ministry; resignation (and reappoint

ment of some) of those who had been members of the government of defence

6 June, Solemn funeral of Darboy, archbp. of Paris Abrogation of the laws of proscription by the as

sembly (484–103): elections of the duc d'Aumale

and the prince de Joinville declared valid 8 June, Important speech of Thiers for maintaining the republic at present

8 June Imposition of new taxes (463,000,000 francs) and a loan proposed by M. Pouyer Quertier

12 June Gen. Trochu's powerful speech defending the “government of national defence"

13, 14 June, Army of reserve ordered to be dissolved

14 June, Financial measures of M. Pouyer Quertier opposeil

by Dufaure and the free-traders about 14 June, Theatres and public places reopened in Paris about

20 June, Letter from M. Guizot to M. Grévy recommending

polítical moderation to all parties, and maintenance of the present government, published

22 June, The loan of 2 milliards francs (80,000,0001.) decreed

26 June ; subscription opened, 27 June; about 4

milliards subscribed for in France alone 28 June 132 members elected for the assembly ; includes Gambetta, and a few legitimists and Bonapart

ists; the rest support the government. 2 July, Letter from the comte de Chambord at Chambord,

professing devotion to France, and adhesion to modern policy and liberality; but declining to give up the white flag of Henry IV. ; he retires to Germany to avoid all pretext for agitation, dated

5 July, The government said to have 500 votes in the assembly; bill for new taxes passed (483 to 5)

8 July, 20,000,000l. part of the indemnity, paid to the Ger

about 14 July, Prince Napoleon Jerome expelled from France (at Havre)

15 July, M. Devienne, president of the court of cassation,

acquitted of blame for settling disputes relative

to an inperial scandal (in Nov. 1860) 21 July, Jules Favre, foreign minister, resigns about 23 July;

succeeded by Charles de Remusat about 3 Aug Full compensation for losses claimed by the invaeil

provinces refused by Thiers, who acknowledges

no debt, but proposes to act generously Aug. Trial of communist prisoners at Paris, begun about

8 Aug. Great dissensions in the assembly between the

inonarchists and republican parties ; resignation of Thiers not accepted, 24 Aug. ; prolongation of his power and the sovereign and constituent authority of the assembly voted (443 to 227) about 25 Ang: Thiers' powers prolonged, and nominated president

of the French republic by the assembly :(the RivetVitet proposition), 491-93

31 Aug French postage increased

Sept. Societe de Prevoyance established to counteract the

Internationale; becomes permanent Sept. Ferré and Lullier sentenced to death, others to

transportation or imprisonment, 2 Sept. ; 3 women (retruleuses) sentenced to death for throwing petroleum on fires .

5 Sept. Bill for making the whole nation bear the losses of the invadet provinces adopted by the assembly

6 Sept. Rossel, cominunist general, sentenced to death

8 Sepit. Message from Thiers to the assembly ; consideration

of the budget adjourned 12 Sept. ; real 13 Sept. Disariament of the national guard begun at Lyons, &c.

14 Sept. Bill introduced concerning treaty with Germany

relating to tariff on goods from Alsace and Lorraine, and the reducing German troops in France to 50,000 men, 14 Sept. ; adopted by the assembly (533-33); the session declared closed, 2 a. m.

17 Sept. Courts-martial on communists go on. Sept. “ Perinanent Committee" of 25 of different parties

appointed by the assembly to watch over the course of the government during the recess (17 Sept.-4 Dec.)

15 Sept.

25,000 communists yet to be tried ; about half to be set free

15 Sept. 1871 Evacuation of Paris forts by the Germans begun

about 20 Sept. Rochefort (of La Lanterne,” and “Le Mot d'Ordre,'')

sentenced to life-imprisonment. 21 Sept. Difficulty in settling the Alsace and Lorraine treaty

21 Sept. M. Pouyer Quertier, the French finance minister, arrives at Berlin

8 Oct. M. Lambrecht, minister of the interior, dies suddenly, 8 Oct. ; succeeded by M. Casimir Perier

10 Oct. Tranquil election of above 2000 general councillors

Oct. Convention for evacuation of 6 departments, and

tinance convention of Alsace and Lorraine signed,

12 and 13 Oct. ; exchanged Count Benedetti publishes an apology, attacking the

Prussian government; count Bismarck replies (in “Ollicial Journal”) disproving his assertions

22 Oct. Dispute with Tunis settled

about 25 Oct. Prince Napoleon resigns his seat in the councilgeneral of Corsica; and denounces intimidation

28 Oct. Insurrection in Algeria ended

Nov. Eight of the murderers of generals Lecomte and Thomas condemned

18 Nov. Rossel, Ferrè, and Bourgeois, communist leaders,

shot at Satory in presence of 3000 soldiers 28 Nov.
Gaston Cremieux executed at Marseilles.
Territory held by Germans put into state of siege
Meeting of the national assembly
Sixteen political parties said to exist

Thiers reads his message to the assembly; depre-

cates free trade, but proposes moderate protec

tion of French manufactures Sharp despatch from count Bismarck in reference

to the acquittal of murderers of Germans at

Melun and Paris
After some discussion with M. Thiers, 'th

d'Aumale and prince de Joinville take their seats

in the assembly A committee of the assembly decide against the

assembly removing to Paris Joseph Lemettre condemned to death for 27 crimes

(chiefly atrocious murders). Income tax proposed and negatived 28 Dee. Vautram, a government candidate, elected deputy for Paris, and not Victor Hugo

7 Jan. 1872 The duc de Persiyny dies

12 Jan. Long debate in the assembly; opposition to the

proposed taxes on raw materials; government de

feated (377-307) Resignation of Thiers and the ministry opposed by

the assembly: M‘Mahon writes that the army will respect the orders of a majority of the assembly,

but not obey dictatorship ; Thiers resumes office Death of Arlès Dufour, of Lyons, St. Simonian and free-trader

about 22 Jan, The government taxes voted Conviction of the assassins of archbishop Darboy

and others (on 24 May, 1871), I to death Manifesto of the comte de Chambord : his mind

changed ; he will not become a legitimate king by

revolution Abrogation of the commercial treaties with Great Britain and Belgium determined on

Feb. Sardou's play, “Rabagas," satirising the radicals; causes much excitement

i Feb. Proposed return of the assembly to Paris negativeri (377-318); resignation of Casimir Perier, minister

of the interior League for commercial liberty formed Feb. Five Communists sentenced to death for murder of

the Dominicans on 25 May Blanqui condemned to transportation to a fortified prison


M. Rouher elected a member of the assembly about
Universal subscription to pay the indemnity to the
Germans begins

Manifesto in favour of a constitutional monarchy

signed by about 280 of the “ Right," about 21 Feb.

19 Dec.

22 Dec.

23 Dec,

19 Jan.


20 Jan.

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30 Noy!

10 Dec. 14 Dec.

Assassins of generals Clement and Thomas executeil

22 Feb. 1872 Janvier de la Motte, a prefect, prosecuted for forgery,

&c., by government, acquitted ; M. Pouyer Quertier, who gives evidence in his favour, resigns,

about 5 March, Joseph Lemettre executed

5 March, The treaty of commerce with Great Britain (1867),

denounced (to cease in 12 months) 15 March, War budget of 27,000,000l. (formerly 10,000,cool.) proposed

Mareh, Publishers of " Figaro" convicted of libel against

general Trochu ; moderate punishment 2 April, Abolition of passports for British subjects announced

10 April, Law against the International Society placarded

22 April, In a letter, the ex-emperor takes upon himself the whole responsibility of the surrender at Sedan

12 May, Rouher in the assembly repels the duc d'Aulitfret

Pasquier's severe attack on the empire 21 May, Three more condemned communists shot 25 May, The duc d'Aumale speaks in the chamber in favour of the army organisation bill.

28 May, Marshal Vaillant dies

4 June, Thiers threatens to resign at opposition in the chamber

about 9 June, Interview of delegates of the majority (the right) in

the assembly with Thiers (respecting his policy); much censured

20 June, Budget for 1873 ; deticiency, 4.800,000l. ; 8,000,000!!

to be raised; Thiers advocates duty on raw mate

rials, and opposes income-tax, 26 June, et se. The majority in the assembly propose MacMahon as president in room of Thiers

July, New convention between Germany and France re

specting speedy payment of the indemnity and evacuation of territory, signed

29 June, Anniversary of the destruction of the Bastille cele

brated by public dimers ; important moderate

Speech by Gambetta at Ferté-sous-Jouarre, 14 July, Announcement of a public loan of 120,000,000l. at 6 per cent.

26 July, Three communists (murderers of hostiges) executei at Satory

25 July, The loan subscribe for, nearly iz times the amount, chiefly in France

July, Thiers' financial measures carried (taxes materials, &c); the session of the assembly closed

3 Aug. Meeting of Guizot and Thiers at Val Richer 1 Sept. Arrest of Edmond About at Saverne, by the Ger

mans, on account of a newspaper article (written Oct. 1871), 14 Sept. ; released

21 Sept. Three more communist murderers shot at Satory

15 Sept. Attempted celebration of the anniversary of the

establishinent of the first French republie; banquet at Chambery stopped

22 Sept. M. Thiers and the ministry in Paris

Sept. Progress of Gambetta in the south; violent speech at Grenoble against Thiers

27 Sept. Pilgrimage of about 20,000 persons to the grotto of

the Virgin Mary at Lourdes, on account of alleged

iniracles (the Virgin was said to have appeared to Report that the Russian minister remonstrated on Gambetta's speech at Grenoble

Oct. The supreme council of war constituted ; includes

MacMahon, Canrobert, duc d'Aumale, and other

eminent generals ; first meeting, Thiers present Prince Napoleon and princess Clothilde come to

Paris ; expelled by order of the government (he

protests) Letter from the comte de Chambord to M. de la

Rochette, protesting against a republic, and asserting that France can be saved by a monarchy alone ; that she is catholic and monarchical, and cannot, therefore, perish; dated Elections for vacancies in the assembly ; radical republicans mostly elected

23 Dec.


New commercial treaty with Great Britain signed at

5 Nov. 1872 Re-assembling of the national assembly, un Nov. ;

Thiers in his message declares that the republic is the legal government; and that to exist it must

be conservative ; and proposes changes 12 Nov. Service of prayer on behalf of the assembly 17 Nov. Fruitless attack of general Changarnier on Thiers'

policy and Gambetta's speech at Grenoble : motion to pass to order of the day ; majority for government, 150 ; (300 did not vote) 18 Nov. M. Kerdrel proposes a commission to consider

Thiers' proposals for changes ; adopted 19 Nov.
Thiers threatens to resign ; crisis

19, 20 Nov. Report of the commission read by M. Batbie, claim

ing the right of the assembly to frame a constitution with a responsible ministry ; the president not to speak in the assembly, &c.; he advocated gouvernement de combat

26 Nov. Amendment proposed by Dufaure, minister of justice, accepting ministerial responsibility, rejected by the committee

28 Nov. M. Thiers ad tresses the assembly; declares he pre

fers the English to the American system ; but that a monarchy in France is at present impos. sible ; that he is faithful to the republic; and that he wishes to render it conservative; and that he has for two years served his country with boundless devotion ; Dufaure's amendment carried by 370-334 (union of royalists with Bonapart

ists against the radicals) Vote of censure on the home minister (Lanfrane)

carried ; 305-299 : he resigns Agitation respecting the appointment of the commission of 30, proposed by Dufaure : it consists of 19 for the right, u1 for the government, 6 Dee. ; changes in the ministry announced 8 Dec. Manifesto of the left, proposing a dissolution of the

assembly by legal means Negatived by the assembly (490-201) Powerful speech of Thiers to the commission of 30

16 Dec. Execution of Poitevin, a traitor Meeting of the national assembly

o Jan. 1873 Illness of the ex-emperor.

Jan. Death of Napoleon III. at Chiselhurst

9 Jan. Bonapartist manifesto ; "the emperor is dead, but

the empire is living and indestructible The “30 coinmittee" considering Tallon's project for a constitution


15 Jan.

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20 Oct. The Germans evacuate Haute Marne and other des partments

Oct., Nov. Banquet of the monarchical party at Bordeaux

Jan. Three communist murderers shot at Satory 22 Jan. Reported recognition of the comte de Chambord as king by the Orleans princes

, 26 Jan. Powerful speech of Thiers before the commission of 30 against their proposed changes

2 Feb). The commission of 30 close their meetings 8 Feb. Letterofthe comte de Chambord published; destroys

all hopes of the fusion of the Bourbons Feb. Debate begins on the report of the commission,

which reserves the legislative rights of the present assembly, and the adherence to the provisional state in accordance with the “ pacte de Bordeaux," 27. Feb. ; powerful speech of Thiers in favour of this “truce of parties," adopted (175-199).

4 March, Convention for the total evacuation of the depart

ments in Sept. on payment of indemnity, signed at Berlin

15 March, Declaration in the assembly " that M. Thiers bas de served well of his country'

17 Mareh, M. Grévy resigns the presidency on account of the

conduct of the party of the right, 2 April; M. Butlet, a liberal Bonapartist, electeri in oppo

sition to Martel the government candidate, 4 April, M. Barodet, radical, ex-mayor of Lyons, elected

member of the assembly for Paris hy a large majority over the minister de Remusat 27. April, Thiers' ministry defeated; he resigns ; Marshal MacMahon appointed president


MEROVINGIAN RACE. Pharamond (his existence doubtful). 428. Clodion the Hairy ; his supposed son; king of the

Salic Franks. 447. Meroveus, or Mérovée : son-in-law of Clodion. 458. Childeric; son of Mérovée.



31 Oct.

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14 July,



481. Clovis the Great, his son, and the real founder of

THE CAPETS. the monarchy. He left four sons, who divided 987. Hugh Capet, the Great, count of Paris, &c., eldest the empire :

son of Hugh the Abbot, 3 July; he seizes the 511. Childebert ; Paris.

crown, in prejudice to Charles of Lorraine, uncle Clodomir; Orleans.

of Louis Transinarine. From him this race of Thierry ; Metz; and

kings is called Capevingians and Capetians. He Clotaire ; Soissons.

died 24 Oct. 534. Theodebert; Metz.

996. Robert II., surnamed the Sage; son; died lainented, 548. Theodebald ; succeeded in Metz.

20 July 558. Clotaire I. ; now sole ruler of France. Upon his 1031. Henry I., son; died 29 Aug.

death the kingdom was again divided between 1060. Philip I. the Fair, l'Amoureur; son; succeeded at four sons : viz.,

8 years of age; ruled at 14; died 561. Charibert, ruled at Paris.

1108. Louis VI., surnamed the Lusty, or le Gros; son; Gontram, in Orleans and Burgundy.

died 1 Aug. Sigebert, at Metz, and Both assassinated by 1137. Louis VII. ; son; surnamed the Young, to distinChilperic, at Soissons. Fredegond.

guish him from his father, with whom he reigned 575. Childebert II.

for some years; died 18 Sept. 584. Clotaire II. ; Soissons.

1180. Philip II. (Augustus); son ; succeeils at 15; 596. Thierry II., son of Childebert; in Orleans.

crowned at Rheims in his father's lifetime; died Theodebert II. ; Metz. 613. Clotaire II. ; became sole king.

1223. Louis VIII., Caur de Lion; son ; died 8 Nov. 628. Dagobert I. the Great, son of Clotaire II. ; divided 1226. Louis IX. ; son; called St. Louis; ascended the the kingdom between his two sons:

throne at 15, under the guardianship of his 638. Clovis II., Burgundy and Neustria.

mother, who was also regent; died in his camp Sigebert II., Austrasia.

before Tunis, 25 Aug. 656. Clotaire III., son of Clovis II.

1270. Philip III., the Hardy; son; died at Perpignan, 670. Childeric II. ; sole king; assassinated, with his

6 Oct. queen and his son Dagobert, in the forest of Livri.

1285. Philip IV., the Fair; son; king in his 17th year ; 670. Thierry III. ; Burgundy and Neustria.

died 29 Nov. 674. Dagobert II., son of Sigebert, in Austrasia; assas- 1314. Louis X. ; son; surnamed Hutin, an old word for sinated 679

headstrong, or mutinous, died June 691. Clovis III. (Pepin, mayor of the palace, rules in his 1316. John I., posthumous son of Louis X.; born name; succeeded by his brother).

15 Nov. ; died 19 Nov. 695. Childebert III., surnamed the Just; Pepin Philip V. the Long (on account of his stature); supreme.

brother of Louis; died 3

Jan. 711. Dagobert III., son of Childebert.

1322. Charles IV., the Handsome; brother; died


Jan. 725. Chilperic II., deposed by Charles Martel, mayor of

1328. the palace.

HOUSE OF VALOIS. 717. Clotaire IV., of obscure origin, raised by Charles

1328. Philip VI., de Valois, the Fortunate; grandson of Martel to the throne; dies soon after; Chilperic

Philip III. ; died 23 Aug. is recalled from Aquitaine.

1350. John II. the Good; son ; died suddenly in the Savoy 720 Chilperic II, restored; shortly afterwards dies at

in London, 8 April, Noyon ; succeeded by

1364. Charles V., the Wise; son; died 16 Sept. Thierry IV., son of Dagobert III., surnamed de

1380. Charles VI. the Beloved ; son; died 21 Oct. Chellos; died in 737. Charles Martel now reigns

1422. Charles VII., the Victorious; son; died 22 July, under the new title of “duke of the French."

1401. Louis XI. ; son; able but cruel: died 30 Aug. Hinault.

483. Charles VIII., the Affable; son; died 7 april, 737. Interreunum, till the death of Charles Martel, in 741.

1498. Louis XII., Duke of Orleans; the Father of his 742. Childeric III., son of Chilperic II., surnamed the

People ; great-grandson of Charles V.; died
Stupid. Carloman and Pepin, the sons of Charles

I Jan.
Martel, share the government of the kingdom in
this reign.

1515. Franeis I. of Angoulê me; called the Father of

Letters : great-great-grandson of Charles V.;


1547. Henry II. ; son; died of a wound received at a 752. Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel; he is suc-.

tournament at the nuptials of his sister with the ceeded by his two sons,

duke of Savoy, accidentally inflicted by the comte 768. Charles the Great (Charlemagne) and Carloman;

de Montmorency, 10 July, Charles crowned EMPEROR OF THE WEST, by

1559. Francis II. ; son; married Mary Stuart, queen of Leo III., 800. Carloman reigned but three years.

Scots; died 5 Dec. 814. Louis I. le Dibonnaire, EMPEROR; dethroned, but

1560. Charles IX. ; brother; Catherine de Medicis, hisrestored to his dominions.

mother, regent: died 30 May, 840. Charles, surnamed the Bald, KING; EMPEROR in

1574. Henry III. ; brother; elected king of Poland : last 875: poisoned by Zedechias, a Jewish physician.

of the house of Valois; stabbed by Jacques 877. Louis II., the Stammerer, son of Charles the Bald,

Clement, a Dominican friar, 1 Aug ; died 2 Aug. KING.

1589. 879. Louis III. and Carloman II. ; the former died in

HOUSE OF BOC'RBOX. 882, and Carloman reigned alone. 884. Charles III. le Gros; a usurper, in prejudice to 1589. Henry IV., the Great, of Bourbon, king of Nararre ; Charles the Simple.

son-in-law of Henry II.; murdered by Francis 887. Eudes, or Hugh, count of Paris.

Ravaillac, 14 May, 898. Charles III. (or IV.), the Simple; deposedl, and 1610. Louis XIII., the Just; son; died 14 May,

died in prison in 929; he married Elgiva, | 1643. Louis XIV., the Great, Dieudonné; son; died daughter of Exlward the Elder, of England, by

1 Sept. whom he had a son, King Louis IV.

1715. Louis XV., the Well-beloved : great-grandson; died 922. Robert, brother of Eudes ; crewned at Rheims ;

20 May, Charles killed him in battle. Henault.

1774. Louis XVI., his grandson; ascended the throne in 923. Rudolf or Raoul, duke of Burgundy; elected king,

his 20th year; married the archduchess Marie but never acknowledged by the southern pro

Antoinette, of Austria, May, 1770; dethroned, vinces. Hinault.

14 July, 1789: guillotined, 21 Jan. 1793, and his 906. Louis IV. d'Outremer, or Transmarine (from having

queen, 16 Oct. following. been conveyed by his mother into England), son (Lonis was executed Monday, 21 January, 1793, at

of Charles III (or IV.); died hy a fall from his horse. eight o'clock A.M. On the scaffold he said, “French954. Lothaire, his son; reigned jointly with his fatherfrom men, I die innocent of the offences imputed to ine. I

052, and succeeds him at 15 years of age, under pardon all my enemies, and I implore of Heaven that

the protection of Hugh the Great ; poisoned. my beloved France-- At this instant Santerre gɛ6. Louis V., the Indolent, soul of Lothaire; also ordered the drums to heat, and the executioners to

poisoned, it is supposed by his queen, Blanche; perform their office. When the guillotine descended, last of the race of Charlemagne.

the priest exclaimed: “Son of St. Louis! ascend to


heaven." The bleeding head was then held up, and a 1852. Napoleon III., formerly president of the French few of the populace shouted, “Vive la République !"

republic, elected emperor, 21, 22 Nov. 1832 ; The body was interred in a grave that was immediately

proclaimed, 2 Dec. 1852 ; surrendered himself a afterwards filled up with quick lime, and a strong

prisoner to the king of Prussia at Sedan, 2 Sept. guard was placed around until it should be consumed.

1870 ; deposed at Paris, 4 Sept. ; arrives at Wil1793. Louis XVII., son of Louis XVI. He never reigned;

helmshöhe, near Cassel, 5 Sept. ; deposition conand died in prison, supposed by poison, 8 June,

firmed by the national assembly, 1 March : he 1795, aged 10 years 2 months.

protested against it, 6 March, 1871; diedat Chisel

hurst, England, 9 Jan. 1873 ; buried there 15 Jan. THE FIRST REPUBLIC.

Empress : Eugenie-Marie (a Spaniard, countess of 2792. The NATIONAL CONVENTION (750 members), first

Teba), born 5 May, 1826 ; married 29 Jan. 1853. sitting, 21 Sept.

Heir: Napoleon - Eugène-Louis-Jean-Joseph, son; 1795. The DIRECTORY (Lareveillère Lépaux, Letourneur,

born 16 March, 1856. Rewbell, Barras, and Carnot) nominated 1 Nov. ;

[On 18 Dec. 1852, the succession, in default of issue abolished, and Bonaparte, Ducos, and Sieyès

from the emperor, was determined in favour of appointed an executive commission, Nov. 1799.

prince Jerome-Napoleon and his heirs male.] 1799. The CoxsULATE. Napoleon Bonaparte, Cambacérès, and Lebrun appointed consuls, 24 Dec.

THIRD REPUBLIC. Napoleon appointed consul for 10 years, 6 May, Louis Adolphe Thiers (born 16 April, 1797) appointed chief 1802 ; for life, 2 Aug. 1802.

of the executive power, 17 Feb., and president of the

French republic, by the national assembly, 31 Aug. 1871. FIRST EMPIRE. (See article Bonaparte Family.) (Established by the senate 18 May, 1804.)

FRANCE, ISLE OF, see Mauritius. 1804. Napoleon (Bonaparte) I. ; born 15 Aug 1769.

He married,
ist, Josephine, widow of Alexis, vicomte de France, was conquered by 'Julius Cæsar, about 45

FRANCHE COMTÉ, in upper Burgundy, E.
Beauharnais, 8 March, 1796 (who was divorced
16 Dec., 18 and died 29 May, 1814);

B.C.; by the Burgundians, carly in the fifth century, and, Maria-Louisa of Austria, 2 April, 1810 (she A.D.; and by the Franks about 534. It was made

died 17 Dec. 1847). Son, Napoleon Joseph, duke a county for Hugh the Black in 915, and received
of Reichstadt, born 20 March, 1811 ; died, 22 its name from having been taken from Renaud III.

July, 1832.
He renounced the thrones of France and Italy, (1127-48), and restored to him. By marriage with

the count's daughter, Beatrice, the emperor
and accepted the isle of Elba for his retreat, 5
April, 1814.

Frederick I. acquired' the county, 1156. Their Again appeared in France, 1 March, 1815.

descendant, Mary of Burgundy, by marriage with Was defeated at Waterloo, 18 June, 1815.

the archduke Maximilian, conveyed it to the house Abdicated in favour of his infant sou, 22 June, of Austria, 1477. It was conquered by the French, 1815.

1668; restored by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, Banished to St. Helena, where he dies, 5 May, 1821. (See France, P. 274).

2 May, 1668; again conquered; and finally annexed

to France by treaty, 1674. 1814. Louis XVIII. (comte de Provence), brother of FRANCHISE. A privilege or exemption

Louis XVI. ; born 17 Nov. 1755 ; married Marie, from ordinary jurisdiction, and anciently an asylum
Josephine-Louise of Savoy ; entered Paris, and

or sanctuary where the person was secure.
took possession of the throne, 3 May, 1814;
obliged to flee, 20 March, 1815 ; returned': July, Spain, churches and monasteries were, until lately,
same year ; died without issue, 16 Sept. 1824.

franchises for criminals, as formerly in England; 1824. Charles X. (comte d'Artois), his brother; born 9 Oct. see Sanctuaries. In 1429, the ELECTIVE FRAN

1757 ; married Marie-Thérèse of Savoy ; deposed CHISE for counties was restricted to persons having 30 July, 1830. He resided in Britain till 1832,

at least 40s, a year in land, and resident; for recent and died at Gratz, in Hungary, 6 Nov. 1835. [Hcir: Henry, duc de Bordeaux, called comte de

changes, see Reform.
Chambord, son of the duc de Berry; born 29
Sept. 1820'
; married princess Theresa of Modena, John Francis, a youth, fired a pistol at queen Vic-

Nov. 1846 ; no issue.]
HOUSE OF ORLEANS. (See Orleans.)

toria as she was riding down Constitution-hill, in 1830. Louis-Philippe, son of Louis-Philippe, duke of an open barouche, accompanied by prince Albert, 30

Orleans, called Egalité, descended from Philippe, May, 1842. The queen was uninjured. Previous duke of Orleans, son of Louis XIII. ; born 6 intimation having reached the palace of the intenOct. 1773 ; married 25 Nov. 1809, Maria Amelia, tion of the criminal, her majesty had commanded daughter of Ferdinand I. (IV.) king of the Two that none of the ladies of her court should attend Sicilies ;(she died 24 March, 1866). Raised to the

her. Francis was condemned to death, 17 June, throne as king of the French, 9 Aug. 1830; abdicated 24 Feb. 1848. Died in exile, in England, following, but was transported for life.

26 Aug. 1850. [Heir: Louis-Philippe, count of Paris ; born 24

FRANCISCANS. Grey or Minor Friars, an Aug. 1838. ]

order founded by St. Francis d'Assisi, about 1209. SECOND REPUBLIC, 1848.

Their rules were chastity, poverty, obedience, and The revolution commenced in a popular insurrection at very austere regimen. About 1220 they appeared in

Paris, 22 Feb. 1848. The royal family escaped by England, where, at the time of the dissolution of flight to England, a provisional government was estab

monasteries by Henry VIII., they had tifty-five lished, monarchy abolished, and France declared a abbeys or other houses, 1536-38. republic. Charles-Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte, declared by the National Assembly (19 Dec.) PRESIDENT of the republic

FRANCONIA, or FRANKENLAND (on the of France; and proclaimed next day, 20 Dec. ; elected Maine), formerly a circle of the German empire, for ten years, 22 Dec. 1851.

part of Thuringia, was conquered by Thierry, king FRENCH EMPIRE REVIVED.

of the Franks, 530, and colonized. Its count or [1821. Napoleon II. (decreed to be termed hy duke, Conrad, was elected king of Germany, 912;

Napoleon III. on his accession). Napoleon and his descendant was the emperor Conrad III., Joseph, son of Napoleon I. and Maria-Louisa, elected 1138, and another duke. Franconia was made archduchess of Austria ; born 20 March, 181 :

a distinct circle from Thuringia in 1512. At its subcreated king of Rome. On the abdication of his father he was made duke of Reichstadt, in

division in 1806 various German princes obtained Austria ; and died at the palace of Schoenbrunn, a part; but in 1814 the largest share was awarded 22 July, 1832, aged 21.]

to Bavaria.

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FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR originated in 5th corps, under general De Failly. the emperor of the French's jealousy of the greatly

6th coris, under marshal Canrobert. increased power of Prussia, through the successful

Imperial guard, under general Bourbaki.

Commander-in-chief, the emperor ; general Le Boeuf, issue of the war with Denmark in 1864, and with

second ; succeeded by marshal Bazaine. Austria in 1866. The German Confederation was

PRUSSIAN ARMY, about 640,000:thereby annulled, and the North German Con

1. Northern, under general Vögel von Falckenstein, federation established under the supremacy of

about 220,000, defending the Elbe, Hanover, &c. the king of Prussia, to whose territories were

2. Right, under prince Frederick Charles, about further annexed Hanover, Hesse-Cassel, Nas

180,000. sau, Frankfort, and other provinces. This great 3. Centre, under generals Von Bittenfeld and Von augmentation of the power of Prussia was mainly

Steinmetz, abont 80,000.

4 The left, under the crown prince of Prussia, about due to the energetic policy of count Bismarck

166,000. Schönhausen, prime minister since Sept. 1862.

Commander-in-chief, king William ; second, general

Von Moltke. In a draft treaty, secretly proposed to the Prossian

The North German army, at the beginning of August, government by the French emperor in 1866 : “1.

consisted, firstly, of 550,000 line, with 1,200 guns and The emperor recognises the acquisitions which Prussia has made in the last war ; 2. The king of

53,000 cavalry ; secondly, of 187,000 reserve, with 234 Prussia promises to facilitate the acquisition of

guns and 18,000 cavalry; and, thirdly, of 205,000 land

wehr or militia, with 10,000 cavalry, making a grand Luxemburg by France ; 3. The emperor will not

total of 944.000 men, with 1,680 mobilised guns and oppose a federal union of the northern and

193,000 horses, southern states of Germany, excluding Austria ;

To these must be added, firstly, the Bavarians, 69,000 4. The king of Prussia, in case the emperor should

line, with 192 guns and 14,800 horses--25,000 reserve enter or conquer Belgium, will support him in

with 2,400 horses, and 22,000 landwehr ; secondly, the arns against any opposing power ; 5. They enter

Würtembergers-22,000 line with 54 guns and 6,200 into an alliance offensive and defensive."

horses, 6,500 reserve, and 6,000 landwehr; and, thirilly, [This draft treaty was published in the Times, 25

the Badenese--16,000 line with 54 guns, 4,000 reserve, July, 1870. After some discussion, its authenti

and 9,600 landwehr. city was admitted ; count Bismarck asserting

All the German troops taken together as under arms at that it emanated entirely from the French em

present, 1,124,000 men. Jug. 1870. peror, and that the scheme had never been

Four weeks previously, on the peace footing, they numseriously entertained by himself.)

bered only 360,000. In March, 1867, a dispute arose throngh the French emperor's proposal for purchasing Luxemburg

The French and Germans in this war were considered to from the king of Holland, which was strongly op

be equally brave and efficient; but the French generals posed by Prussia, as that province had formed

appear to have acted greatly upon impulse. The Gerpart of the dissolved Germanie Confederation ;

mans seem to have been invariably guided by a well and the affair was only settled by a conference of

matured plan, their tactics mainly consisting in bringthe representatives of the great powers in London,

ing vast masses to bear on the point where they were at which the perfect neutrality of Luxemburg

anxious to prevail. From Saarbrück to Sedan, Moltke was determined, together with the withdrawal of

appears to have left nothing to chance; and all his arthe Prussian garrison and the destruction of the

rangements were ably carried out. fortifications

7-11 May, 1867 Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (con:

The causes of the early ruin of the French army were :

“1, the enormous superiority of the Germans in regard nected with the Prussian dynasty, and brother of

to numbers ; 2, the absolute unity of their command Charles, prince of Roumania), consented to be

and concert of operation : 3, their superior mechanism come a candidate for the throne of Spain, 4 July, 1870

in equipment and supplies ; 4, the superior intelliThis was denounced by the French government.

gence, steadliness and discipline of the soldiers ; 5, Threatening speeches were made in the French

superior education of the officers, and the dash and chamber by the duc de Grammont, the foreign

intelligence of the cavalry."-Quarterly Review, minister, and eventually, after some negotiation and the intervention of Great Britain, prince Leo.

War resolved on by the French government, 15 July; pold, with the consent of his sovereign, declined

declaration delivered at Berlin the proffered crown 12 July,

19 July, 1870 The submission did not satisfy the French govern

The north German parliament meet at Berlín, and

engage to support Prussia in the war ment and nation, and the demand for a guarantee

19 July,

Wurtemberg, Bavaria, Baden, and Hesse Darmagainst the repetition of such an acceptance

stadt declare war against France, and send conirritated the Prussian government, and led to the

tingents to the army termination of the negotiations, the king refusing

20 July,

War proclamation of the emperor Napoleon, de to receive the count Benedetti, the French

claring that the national honour, violently excited minister

13 July,

alone takes in hand the destinies of the Energetic but fruitless efforts to avert the war were

country male by earl Granville, the British foreign

23 July,

Part of the bridge at Kehl blown up by the minister

about 15 July,

Prussians War was announced by the emperor, with the Proclamation of the king that love of the common hearty consent of the great majority of the

fatherland, and the unanimous uprising of the chambers. The left or republican party opposed the

German races, have conciliated all opinions, and war; M. Thiers and a few others only protested

dissipatel all «lisagreements . . . . The war will against it as premature

procure for Germany a durable peace, and from [After his surrender on 2 Sept., the emperor toid

this bloody seel will arise a harvest blessed by count Bismarck that he did not desire war, but

God--the liberty and unity of Germany,” 25 July, was driven into it by public opinion. He appears

Skirmish at Niederbronn; a Bavarian officer killed, to have been greatly deceived as to the numerical

26 July, strength of his army, and its state of preparation.)

Day of general prayer observed in Prussia, 27 July, ** The greatest national crime that we have had the

The emperor Napoleon joins the army; at Metz aspain of recording since the days of the first

sumes the chief command, and issues a proclamaFrench revolution has been consummated. War

tion declaring that the war will be long and severe, is declared -an unjust but premeditated war."

28, 29 July, Times, 16 July, 1871.

Repulse of a French attack at Saarbrück, 30 July, (For dtails of the battles see separate articles.)

20 Badenese enter France at Lauterbury ; Mr. FRENCH ARMY, about 300,000:

Winsloe killed; some captured ; others escape ist corps, un ler marshal MacMahon.

with valuable information

31 July, and corps, unler general Frossird.

Proclamation of the king of Prussia to his people, 3rd crops, unier marshal Bazuine.

granting an amnesty for political offences, and 4th corps, under general Ladimiraut.

"resolving, like our forefathers, placing full

· 15 July,

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