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19 Jan.

22 Jan,

23, 24 Jan.

24 Jan.

25 Jan.

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29 Jan.

30 Jan.

13 Feb.

Faidherbe defeated near St. Quentin ; after seven

constitute themselves the council of the Germanic hours' tighting; by Von Geben, 4000 prisoners


1 Sept. 1850 taken

19 Jan. 1871 The German sovereigns (excepting the king of Great sortie from Paris of Trochu and 100,000 men Prussia) met at Frankfort (at the invitation of repulsed with loss of about 1000 dead and 5000

the emperor of Austria), to consider a plan of Wunded

federal reform, 17 Aug. ; the plan was not Beurbaki hard pressed by von Werler

accepted by Prussia

22 Sept. 1863 Armistice for two days at Paris refused

22 Jan. Meeting of diet of Germanic confederation; conBombardinent of St Denis and Cambrai

der the treaty of Gastein

1 Oct. 1865 Faidherbe asserts that the German successes are The diet adopts the Austrian motion, that Prussia existerated

22 Jan,

has broken the treaty; the Prussian representative Resignation of Trochu; Vinoy, governor of Paris, declares the confederation at an end, and proposes

a new confederation

14 June, 1866 Favre opens negotiations with Bismarck

Entered by the Prussians, who exact heavy supplies, Longwy capitulates; 4000 prisoners, 200 guns,

16 July,

Annexed to Prussia by law of 20 Sept. ; promulgated Letter from M. Guizot to Mr. Gladstone proposing

at Frankfort; (the legislative corp's and 15,000 the demolition of fortresses on both sides of the

citizens protest against it)

8 Oct. Rhine; and the maintenance of the balance of Visited by the king of Prussia ; an ancient cathedral, power by congresses ; published

26 Jan.

St. Bartholomew (founded 1315, completed 1512), Capitulation of Paris ; arinistice for 21 days signed

destroyed by fire

14, 15 Aug. 1867 by count Bismarck and Jules Favre 28 Jan. Frankfort supported Prussia in the war July, 1870 The forts round Paris occupied by the Germans, Treaty of peace between France and Germans, signed


10 May, 1871 Advance of German troops into France suspended,

Riots through rise in price of beer ; suppressed

by N. German soldiers : 37 of the people killed ; Bourbaki and his army about 80,000, driven by

about 100 wounder

about 22, 23 April 1873 Manteuffel into Switzerland near Pontarlior, about Population in Dec. 1867, 78,277; see Germany. 6000 having been captured

30 Jan., 1 Feb. French loss about 350,000 men, 800 guns in Jan.

FRANKFORT-ON-THE-ODER (N. GerDijon occupied by the Gennans

1 Feb.

many); a member of the Hanseatic league, suffered Beltort capitulates with military honours

much from mauraders in the middle ages, and in Negotiations for peace between Thiers and Bismarck the thirty years' war. The university was founded

22-24 Feb. Preliminaries of a treaty aceepted by Thiers, Favre,

in 1506, and incorporated with that of Breslau in and 15 delegates from the national assembly : it

1811. Near Frankfort, 12 Aug, 1759, Frederick of includes cession of parts of Lorraine, including

Prussia was defeated by the Russians and Austrians; Metz and Thionville and Alsace less Belfort ; and see Cunnersdorf. jayment of 5 inilliards of francs, 200,000,000l., 25 Feb., signed 26 Feb., accepted by the national

FRANKING LETTERS, passing letters free assembly

1 March, of postage, was claimed by parliament about 1660. German loss in battles throughout the war; killed The privilege was restricted in 1839, and abolished

or died soon after, 17,570 ; cliecl of wounds on the intrcduction of the uniform penny postage, eventually 10,707 ; total killed and wounded 10 Jan. 1840. The queen was amongst the first 127,867,

to relinquish her privilege. German troops enter Paris and remain 48 hours,

1-3 March, FRANKLIN, the English freeholder in the They quit Versailles

12 March,
middle ages;

“the Franklin's Tale,” in Conference for peace open at Brussels, 28 March Treaty of peace signed at Frankfort, 10 May; ratified

Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (written about 1364). by the French national assembly 18 May,

FRANKLIN, SEARCH FOR. Sir John FrankFRANCS-TIREURS, free shooters, took an

lin, with captain Crozier and Fitzjames, in H. M. active part in the Franco-Prussian war from about ships Erebus and Terror (carrying in all 138 14 Aug. 1870; and more especially after the sur

persons), sailed on his third arctic expedition of render of 'MacMahon's army at Sedan, 2 Sept. 1845; see North-west Passage. Their last des

discovery and survey, from Greenhithe, on 24 May, Their conduct was much censured.

patches were from the Whaletish islands, dated 12 FRANKENHAUSEN, N. Germany: near July, 1845. Their protracted absence caused intense this place Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and his allies anxiety, and several expeditions were sent from defeated the insurgent peasantry headed by Munzer England and elsewhere in search of them, and the anabaptist, 15 May, 1525.

coals, provisions, clothing, and other necessaries, FRANKFORT-ON-THE-Maix, central Ger

were deposited in various places in the Arctic seas many, founded in the 5th century;'was the resi- by our own and by the American government, by dence of Charlemagne în 794; walled by Louis I. Truelore, captain Parker, which arrived at Hull,

lady Franklin, and numerous private persons. The 838; a capital city, 843; an imperial city, 1245.

4 Oct. 1849, from Davis's Straits, trought intelliUnion of Frankfort: treaty between France, Sweden, gence (not afterwards confirmed) that the natives

Prussia, and other German states led to war with had seen sir John Franklin's ships in the previous

Frankfort captured by the French by a surprise,

22 May, 1744 March, frozen up by the ice in Prince Regent's

inlet. Other accounts were equally illusory. Her Captured by Custine, 28 Oct. ; retaken by the

13 June 1759 majesty's government, on 7 March, 1850, ottered a Prussians

reward of 20,000l. to any party of any country, that Bombarded by the French ; surrendered to Kleber, should render efficient assistance to the crews of the

16 July, 1796 missing ships. Sir John's first winter quarters were Made part of the confederation of the Rhine

1806 A grand duchy under Carl von Dalberg

found at Beechy island by captains Ommanney and

1810 Republie restored ; allwinted capital of the Ger- Penny. nanie confederation

1815 1. H.M.S. Plover, capt. Moore (afterwards under Vain attempts at insurrection by students, April

capt. Maguire), sailed from Sheerness to Behring's May, 1834 Straits, in search

1 Jan. 1848 The Frankfort diet publish a federative constitution, 2. Land experlition under sir John Richardson and

30 March, 1848 Dr. Rae, of the Hudson's Bay Company, left The plenipotentiaries of Austria, Bavaria, Saxony,


25 March, Hanover, Würtemburg, Mecklenburg, &c., here

(sir Jolin Richardson returned to England



2 Dec. 1792

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in 1849, and Dr. Rae continued his search

1850. On 8 Oct. the ship was frozen in, and so till 1851.)

continued for nine months. On 26 Oct. 1850, 3. Sir James Ross, with the Enterprise and Investi.

while on an excursion party, the captain disgator (12 June, 1848), having also sailed in search

covered an entrance into Barrow's Straits, and to Barrow's Straits, returned to England (Scar

thus established the existence of a X. E. – N.W. borou h)

Nov. 1849

pussage. In Sept. 1851, the ship was again fixed 4. The Enterprise, capt. Collinson, and inrestigator, in ice, and so remained till lieut. Pim and a party commander MClure, sailed from Plymouth for

from capt. Kellett's ship, the Resolute (1), fell in Behring's Straits

20 Jan. 1850 with them in April, 1853. The position of the [Both ship's proceeded through to the eastward.) Enterprise (4) was still unknown. 5. Capt. Austin's expedition, viz. : Resolute, capt. A monument to Bellot's memory was erected at Austin, C.B. : Assistance, capt. Ommanney;

Greenwich. His “Journal" was published in 1854 Intrepid, lieut. Bertie Cator; and Pioneer, lieut. Dr. Rae, in the spring of 1853, aguin proceeded Sherard Osborn, sailed from England for Barrow's towards the magnetic pole; and in July, 1854, Straits

25 April,

he reported to the Admiralty that he had pur(Returned Sept. 1851.]

chased from a party of Esquimaux a number of 6. The Lody Franklin, capt. Penny: and Sophia, articles which had belonged to sir J. Franklin capt. Stewart, sailed from Aberdeen for Barrow's

and his party-namely, sir John's star or orier, Straits

13 April,

part of a watch, silver spoons, and forks with [Returned home Sept. 1851.)

crests, &c. He also reported the statement of 7. The AMERICAN expedition in the Adrance and

the natives, that they had met with a party of Rescue, under lieut. De Haven and Dr. Kane (son

white men about four winters previous, and had of the judge), towards which Mr. Grinnell sub

sold them a seal ; and that four months later, in scribed 30,000 dollars, sailed for Lancaster Sound

the same season, they had found the bodies of and Barrow's Straits ; after drifting in the pack

thirty men (some buried), who hai evidently down Baffin's Bay, the ships were released in

perished by starvation; the place as pears, from 1851 uninjured

25 May, 1850 the description, to have been in the neighbour8. The Felix, sir John Ross, fitted out Chiefis by the hood of the Great Fish river of Back. Dr. Rae Hudson Bay Company, sailed to the same locality,

arrived in England on 22 Oct. 1854, with the 22 May,

relics, which have since been deposited in Green[Returned in 1851.]

wich hospital. He and his companions were 9. H.M.S. North Star, commander Saunders, which

awarded 10,oool. for their discovery. hal sailed from England in 1847, wintered in 19. The Phanis, North Star, and Talbot, under the Wolstenholme Sound, and returned to Spithead, command of capt. Inglefield, sailed in May, and

28 Sept.
retuned in

Oct. 1854 10. H.M.S. llerald, captain Kellett, C.B., which

had sailed in 1848, made three voyages to Sir E. Belcher (No. 1), after mature deliberation, Behring's Straits, and returned in

1851 in April, 1854, determined to abandon his ships, Lieut. Pim went to St. Petersburg with the intention

anil gave orders to that effect to all the captains of travelling through Siberia to the mouth of the

under his command; and capt. Kellett gave river Kolyma; but was dissuaded from proceeding

similar orders to capt. M'Clure, of the Intestigator. by the Russian government

18 Nov. 1851 The vessels had been abandoned in June* when [The Enterprise and Investigator (see No. 4 arbore)

the crews of the Phonix and Talbot (under capt. not having been heard of for two years. )

Ingletield) arrived (19). On their return to 11. Sir Edward Belcher's expedition, consisting of England all the capitains were tried by court - Assistance, sir Edward Belcher, C. B. ; Resolute,

martial and honourably acquitted 17-19 Oct, 1854 captain kellett, C. B. ; North Star, capt. Pullen; Capt. Collinson's fate was long uncertain, and Intrepiul, capt. M'Clintock; and Pioneer, capt.

another expedition was in contemplation, when Sherard Osborn, sailed from Woolwich 15 April, 1852 intelligence came, in Feb. 1855, that he had met [This expedition arrived at Beechy Island 14

the Rattlesnake (16) at Fort Clarence on 21 Aur. Aug. 1852. The Assistance and Pioneer pro

1854, and had sailed immediately, in hopes of ceeded through Wellington Channel, and the getting up with capt. Maguire in the Ploter (1), Resolute and Intrepid to Melville Island; the which had sailed two days previously. Capt. North Star remaining at Beechy Island.]

Collinson having failed in getting through the ice

in 1850 with capt. M'Clure, returned to Hong. LADY FRANKLIN'S EQUIPMENTS,

kong to winter. In 1851 he passed through Lady Franklin, aided by a few friends (anıl by the

Prince of Wales's Straits, and remained in the Tasmanian Tribute" of 1500l.), equipped four

Arctic regions without obtaining any intelligence expeditions (Nos. 12, 13, 14, 16).

of Fraurklin till July, 1854, when, being once 12. Prince Albert, capt. Forsyth, sailed from Aber

more released from the ice, he sailed for Fort deen to Barrow Straits

5 June, 1850 Clarence, where he arrived as above mentioned. [Returned 1 Oct. 1850.)

Captains Collinson and Maguire arrived in England 13. The Prince Albert, Mr. Kennedy, accompanied


May, 1855 by lieut. Bellot, of the French navy, and John 20. The third AMERICAN expedition in search or Hepburn, sailed from Stromness to Prince

Dr. Kane, in the Advance, consisted of the Regent's Inlet

4 June, 1851 Release and the steamer Arctic, the barque Eringo, (Returned Oct. 1852.j

and another vessel under the command of lieut. 14. The Isabel, commander Inglefield, sailed for the

H. J. Hartstene, accompanied by a brother of head of Baffin's Bay, Jones's Sound, and the

Dr. Kane as surgeon,

31 May, 1855 Wellington Channel, 6 July; and returned Nov. 1852 (On 17 May, 1855, Dr. Kane and his party quitted 15. Mr. Kennedy sailed again in the Isabel, on a the Advance, and journeyed over the ice, 1300 renewed search to Behring's Straits

1853 miles, to the Danish settlement; on their way 16. H. M. S. Ratllosuole, commander Trollore, des home in a Danish vessel, they fell in with lieut. patched to assist the Plorer, capt. Maguire (who

Hartstene, 18 Sept. ; and arrived with him at succeeded capt. Moore), at Point Barrow in April;

New York, 11 Oct. 1855. Dr. Kane visited met with it


England in 1856; he died in 1857.) 17. The second AMERICAN expedition, the Advance, The Hudson's Bay Company, under advice of Dr. Rae under Dr. Kane

early in June, 18. The Phanis (with the Prenulolbonc transport), * Capt. Kellett's ship, the Resolute, was found adrift

commander Inglefield, accompanied by lieut. 1000 miles distant from where she was left, by a Bellot, sailed in May; he returned, bringing des Mr. George Henry, commanding an American whaler, patches from Sir E. Belcher, &c.


who brought her to New York. The British government The Investigator and sir E. Belcher's squadron having abandoned their claim on the ressel, it was

were safe ; but no traces of Franklin's party had bought by order of the American congress, thoroughly been met with. Lieut. Belot was unfortunately repaired and equipped, and entrusted to capt. H. J. drowned in August while voluntarily conveying Hartstene, to be presented to queen Victoria. It arrived despatches for sir E. Belcher. Capt. M'Clure had at Southampton, 12 Dec. 1856 ; was visited by her majesty left the Herall (10) at Cape Lisburne, 31 July, on the 16th; and formally surrendered on the zoth.

and sir G. Back, sent out an overland expedition, having been dismissed, a part of his congregation June 1855, which returned Sept. following. Some crected a temporary church. The bishop of London,

more remains of Franklin's party were discovered. 1855 after inquiry, refused to license it. On this the 21. The 18th British expedition (equipped by lady Franklin and her friends, the government having

congregation declared itself to be the Free Church declined to fit out another)--the For, screw

of England, March, 1859. Eventually, he left the steamer, under capt. (since sir F. L. M'Clintock, neighbourhood, and re-entered the establishment. RN. ( No. 11)-sailed from Aberdeen 1 July, Secessions from the church of England took place

1837; returned On 6 May, 1859, lieut. Hobson found at Point

22 Sepit: 1359 in 1872 in consequence of the decision in favour of Victory, near Cape Victoria, besides a cair, a tin

Mr. Bennett, 8 June, 1872; see Church of England. case, containing a paper, simmel 25 April, 1848,

The establishment of a bishopric for a new Free by capt. Fitzjames, which certified that the ships Church at Southampton was proposed Jan. 1873. Erebus and Terror, on 12 Sept. 1846, were beset in lat. 70°05' N., and long. 93° 23' W.; that sir John

FREE CHURCH (of Scotland) was formed Franklin diel 11 June, 1847; and that the ships

by an act of secession of nearly half the body from were deserted 22 April, 1843. Captain M'Clintock the national church of Scotland, headed by Dr. Thos. continued the search, and discovered skeletons Chalmers and other eminent ministers, 18 May, and other relics. His Journal was published in 1813. The difference arose on the question of the Def, 1859 i and on 28 May, 1860, golel metals were given to him and to lady Franklin by the

right of patrons to nominate to livings; see PatronRoyal Geographical Society.

age. The Free Church claims for the parishioners Mr. Hall, the arcticexplorer, reported, in Aug. 1865,

the right of a veto. Much distress was endured the circunstances that led him to hope that capt. first year by the ministers of the new church, Crozier and others were surviving.

although 366,7191. 148. 3d. had been subscribed. A national monument by Noble, set up in Waterloo

In 1853 there were 850 congregations. A large place, was inaugurated, 15 Nov. 1866. It is inscribed to " FRANKLIN the great navigator and

college was founded in 1846. In 1856 the sustenhis brave companions who sacriticed their lives in

tation fund amounted to 108,6381. from which was completing the discovery of the north west paid the sum of 1381. each to 700 ministers.

pusvage, A. D. 1847-8." Sir John Franklin discovered the north-west passage

FREE CHURCH SOCIETY, or National by sailing down Peel and Victoria Straits, now Association for Freedom of Public Worship, estanamed Franklin Straits.

blished in 1857, to abolish the pew-rent system FRANKS (or freemen), a name given to a com

and revive the weekly offertory to defray thie erbination of the North-western German tribes about penses of public worship. 240, which invaded Gaul and other parts of the FREE COMPANIES AND LANCES, see empire with various success in the 5th century; Condottieri. see Gaul and France.

FREEDMEN'S BUREAUS, established in FRATRICELLI (Little Brethren), a sect of the Southern States of North America in March, the middle ages, originally strict Franciscan monks, 1865, to protect the freed negroes. Having the Their numbers increased, and they were condemned support of martial law, these bureaus became very by a papal bull in 1317; and suffered persecution ; oppressive, and the act of congress making them but were not extinct till the 16th century. They permanent was vetoed by president Johnson in resembled the “ Brethren of the Free Spirit.” Feb. 1866.

FRAUDS, STATUTE OF. 29 Charles II., c. 3, FREEHOLDERS. Those under forty shil1677. “ An act for prevention of frauds and per- lings per annum were not qualified to vote for juryes."

members of parliament by 8 Hen. VI. c. 7, 1429. FRAUDULENT TRUSTEES ACT, 20 & Various acts have been passed for the regulation of 21 Vict. c. 54, passed Aug. 1857, in consequence of the franchise at different periods. The more recent the delinquencies of sir John D. Paul, the British were, the act to regulate polling, 9 Geo. IV., 1828 ; Bank frauds, &c. It was brought in by sir R.

act for the disqualification of freeholders in Ireland, Bethell, then attorney-general (afterwards lord which deprived those of forty shillings of this priviWestbury), and is very stringent.

lere, passed 13 April, 1829; Reform acts, 1832,

1867, 1868. County elections act, 7 Will. IV., 1836. FRAUNHOFER'S LINES, see Spectrum. See Chandos Clause.


SOCIETY, established for the benetit of emFREDERICKSBURG (Virginia, N. America): ployers and non-unionist workmen, in opposition On 10 Dec. 1862, general Burnside and the federal to trades' unions, about July, 1867. army of the Potomac crossed the small deep river

FREE TRADE principles, advocated by Adam Kappahannock. On 11 Dec. Fredericksburg was

Smith in his bombarded by the federals and destroyed. On the umphed in England when the corn laws were

Wealth of Nations" (1770), tri13th commenced a series of desperate unsuccessful abolished in 1846, and the commercial treaty with attacks on the confederate works, defended by France was adopted in 1860. Richard Cobden, who generals Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, and others. General Hooker crossed the river with the reserves, and termed * Apostle of Free Trade,” died 2 April,

was very instrumental in passing these measures, and joined in the contlict, in vain. On 15 and 16 1865. Since 1830 the exports have been tripled. Dec. the federal army recrossed the Rappahannock. See French Treaty. An agitation for free trade has The battle was one of the most severe in the war.

begun in the United States. A reform league was FREDERICKSHALD (Norway). Charles formed at Boston, 20 April, 1869; and the moveXII. of Sweden was killed by a cannon-shot before ment became active in New York in Nov., and has its walls, while examining the works. His hand since continued. was on his sword, and a prayer-book in his pocket,

FREEMASONRY. Writers on masonry, 11 Dec. 1718.

themselves masons, affirm that it has had a being FREE CHURCH (of England). The rev. ever since symmetry began, and harmony disI. Hampton, one of the curates of Islington, played her charms.” It is traced by some to the

1814 1817


• 1790



building of Solomon's temple; and it is said the

Born Died architects from the African coast, Mahometans,

Mad Cottin

1773 1807

St. Pierre brought it into Spain, about the gth century. Its

1737 De Stael.

1766 introduction into Britain has been fixed at 674;

De Genlis

1746 1830 and in Scotland 1140. Many of our Gothic cathe


• 1773

1842 drals are attributed to freemasons. The grand lodge Châteaubriand

1769 1848 at York was founded 926. Freemasonry was inter- | Augustin Thierry

1795 1856 dicted in England, 1424. In 1717, the grand lodge Beranger

1780 1857 of England was established; that of Ireland in Eugène Sue


1857 A. Eugene Scribe


1861 1730; and that of Scotland in 1736. Freemasons

A. G. De Barante

1782 1866 were excommunicated by the pope in 1738; again F. Guizot

1787 condemned, 30 Sept. 1865. Freemasons' Hall, A. F. Villemain

• 1791 1867 Great Queen - street, London, built 1771; A De la Martine.

1869 built, and consecrated 14 April, 1869. The charity Victor Cousin

1867 instituted, 1788. Earl de Grey was installed grand Amédée Thierry.

• 1797

1873 L. A. Thiers

1797 master of the English freemasons in room of the

Jules Michelet

1798 earl of Zetland, 14 May, 1870. The prince of Victor Hugo

1802 Wales was installed at Edinburgh as patron of the P. Mérinée

1803 1870 freemasons of Scotland, 12 Oct. 1870.

Louis Blanc

1813 C. F. Montalembert

1870 FREETHINKERS, professors of natural re. ligion ; see Deists.


house Fund. The French peasant relief fund, FRENCH ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD, originated by the Daily Vous, in Sept. 1870, was VANCEMENT OF THE SCIENCES was established closed April, 1871. by the general assembly, 22 April, 1872, its chief founders being MM. Balard, Claude Bernard, De FRENCH REVOLUTION, see France, 1789. launay, Dumas, Pasteur, Berthelot, Würtz, and others. It held its first meeting at Bordeaux, LENDAR. In 1792, the French nation adopted

FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY CA5 Sept. 1872, when many foreign scientific men were present. M. De Quatrefages, president.

a calendar professedly founded on philosophical

principles. The first year of the era of the republic FRENCH CHURCH, see Church of France. began at midnight, between 21 and 22 Sept. 1792;

but its establishment was not decreed until the FRENCH LANGUAGE is mainly based on 4th Frimaire of the year II., 24. Nov. 1793. The the rude Latin of the western nations subjugated calendar existed until the roth Nivose, year of the by the Romars. German was introduced by the republic XIV., 31 Dec. 1805, when the Gregorian Franks in the 8th century. In the 9th the Gallo- mode of calculation was restored by Napoleon I. Romanic dialect became divided into the Langue

AUTUMN. d'oc of the south and the Langue d'oil of the north.


Vintage month, 22 Sept. to 21 Oct. The French language as written by Froissart assi Brumaire

Fog month 22 O. t. to 20 Nov. milates more to the modern French, and its Frimaire

Sleet month 21 Nov. to 20 Dec. development was almost completed when the Aca

WINTER démie Française (established by Richelieu in 1634) Nivose

Snow month 21 Dec. to 19 Jan. published a dictionary of the language in 1674. Pluviose



Rain month 20 Jan. to 18 Feb. The French language, laws, and customs were


Wind month

· 19 Feb, to 20 Mar. introduced into England by William I., 1066. Law pleadings were changed from French to English in Germinal

Sprouts'month, 21 Mar. to 19 April.

Floréal. the reign of Edward III., 1362. Stow.

Flowers' month, 20 April to 16 May. Prairial

Pasture month, 20 May to 18 June.

Born , Diet Messidor

Harvest month, 19 June to 18 July. Joinville,

hirteenth century. Fervidor, or Froissart

• 1337 -

Hot month . 19 July to 17 Aug. Monstrelet

1453 Fructidor

Fruit month . 18 Aug. to 16 Sept. Comines

1445 1509 Marot



1544 Rabelais

Les Vertus. 1483

The Virtues

1553 Ronsard.

Le Genie

Genius 1524 1585

18 Sept. Montaigne

Le Travail


19 Sept. 1553 1592 Malherbe



20 Sept. Des Cartes. 1596 1650

Les Récompenses

21 Sept. Pascal


1662 Molière


FRENCHTOWN (Canada), was taken from Rochefoucault


1680 the British by the American general Winchester, Corneille



22 Jan. 1813, during the second war with the La Fontaine


1695 United States of America. It was retaken by the La Bruyère

1644 1696 Racine


British forces under general Proctor, 24 Jan., and

1699 Bossuet


the American commander and his troops were made

1724 Bavle


1906 prisoners. Boileau

1636 1711 Fénelon


FRENCH TREATY, the term given to the

1715 Rollin.

1661 1741 treaty of commerce between Great Britain and Le Sage.



France, signed 23 Jan. 1860, at Paris, by lord Montesquieu


1755 Cowley and Richard Cobden and by the ministers Voltaire



MM. Baroche and Rouher. The beneficial results J. J. Rousseau

• 1712 D'Alembert

of this treaty compensated for the depression of 1717

1783 Buffon

trade occasioned by the civil war in North America

1707 Mariontel


1799 (1861-5). The French assembly determined that


1400 ?

about 1390

17 Sept.




peace of


on 15 March, 1871, this treaty should cease in 12 Henri, a Frenchman, made duke, was assassinated months from that date. A fresh treaty was signed in 799, which was the fate of duke Berengarius, at Paris 29 Jan. 1873. Free trade was somewhat king of Italy and emperor, in 924. The emperor restricted, but the new French navigation law was Conrad gave the duchy to his chancellor Poppo, relaxed.

patriarch of Aquileia, in the vith century; it was FRESCO PAINTINGS are executed on

conquered by Venice in 1420; annexed to Austria, plaster while fresh. Very ancient ones exist in 1797; to France, 1805; to Austria, 1814; to Italy,

1866. Egypt, Italy, and England, and modern ones in the British houses of parliament, at Berlin, and other FROBISHER'S STRAITS, discovered by places. The fresco paintings by Giotto and others sir Martin Frobisher, who tried to find a northat the Campo Santo, a cemetery at Pisa, executed

west passage to China, and after exploring the coast in the 13th century, are justly celebrated. See of New Greenland, entered this strait, 11 Aug. Stereochromy.

1576. He returned to England, bringing with him FRETEVAL (Central France). Here Richard

a quantity of black ore, supposed to contain gold, 1. of England defeated Philip II. of France, and

which induced queen Elizabeth to patronise a second captured his royal seal, archives, &c., 15 July, He was mortally wounded at Brest, Nov. 1594.

voyage. This led to a third fruitless expedition. 1144

FRIARS (from the French frère, a brother); FROGNORE, near Windsor, Berks. A house see Minorites, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, here, built by Nash, was the residence of queen and other orders.

Charlotte and afterwards of the duchess of Kent.

Here is situate the mausoleum of the late prince FRIDAY, the sixth day of the week; so called

consort. See Albert. from Friga, or Frea, the Scandinavian Venus, the wife of Thor, and goddess of peace, fertility, and FRONDE, CIVIL WARS OF THE, in France, riches, who with Thor and Odin composed the in the minority of Louis XIV. (1648-52), during supreme council of the Gods. See Good Friday. the government of queen Anne of Austria and FRIEDLAND (Prussia). Here the allied

cardinal Mazarin, between the followers of the Russians and Prussians were beaten by the French, the court and the nobility, and the parliament and

The latter were called Frondeurs commanded by Napoleon, on 14 June, 1807. The allies lost eighty pieces of cannon and about 18,000 (slingers), it is said, from an incident in a street men; the French about 10,000 men. The

quarrel. In a riot on 27 Aug. 1648, barricades were

erected in Paris. Tilsit followed, by which Prussia was obliged to surrender nearly half her dominions.

FROSTS. The following are some of the most FRIENDLY ISLES, in the Southern Pacific, remarkable recorded : (see Cold.) consist of a group of more than 150 islands, form The Euxine Sea frozen over for 20 days ing an archipelago of very considerable extent. A frost at Constantinople, when the two seas there These islands were discovered by Tasinan, in 1643 ;

were frozen a hundred miles from the shore, visited by Wallis, who called them Keppel Isles, A frost in England on Midsummer-day is said to

Oet. 763-- Feb. 764 1767; and by captain Cook, who named them on

have destroyed the fruits of the earth.

1035 account of the friendly disposition of the natives, Thames frozen for 14 weeks.

1063 1773: Subsequent voyagers describe them as very Dreadful frosts in England from Nov. to April

1076 ferocious.

The Cattegut entirely frozen

Baltie passable to travellers for six weeks FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, which originated The Baltic frozen from Pomerania to Denmark in the clubs of the industrious classes, were sub In England, when all the small birds perisheel jected to slight control in 1793, and have been The ice bore riding upon it from Lübeck to Prussia, 1426 regulated by various enactments. Other acts were

Severe frost, when large fowl of the air sought

shelter in the towns of Germany passed in 1855, 1858 and 1860.

The river frozen below London-bridge to Gravesend, FRIENDS, see Quakers.

from 24 Nov. to Feb. 10


The Baltic frozen, and horse passengers crossed FRIENDS OF THE PEOPLE, an association

from Denmark to Sweden.

1460 formed in London to obtain parliamentary reform,

The winter so severe in Flanders that the wine distributed was cut by hatchets

1468 1792.

Carriages passed over from Larubeth to Westminster FRIESLAND: East (V. Germany), the Wine in Flanders frozen into solid lump's ancient Frisia, formerly governed by its own counts.

Sledges drawn by oxen travelled on the sea from On the death of its prince Charles Edward, in 1744,

Rostock to Denmark

1548 Diversions on the Thames

21 Dec. &c. 1564 it became subject to the king of Prussia; Hanover The Scheldt frozen so hard as to sustain loaded disputed its possession, but Prussia prevailed. It was

1565 annexed to Holland by Bonaparte, in 1806, to the The Rhine, scheldt, and sea at Venice frozen. French empire, 1810; and awarded to Hanover in

Fires and diversions on the Thames derived from the old Frisian dialect.-FRIESLAND, Charles X. of Sweden crossed the little-Belt over 1815. The English language is said to be mainly The rivers of Europe and the Zuyder Zee frozen; WEST, in Holland, was part of Charlemagne's the ice from Holstein to Denmark, with his whole empire in 800. It passed under the counts of army

1658 Holland about 936, and was one of the seven pro.

The forest trees, and even the oaks in England, vinces which renounced the Spanish yoke in 1580.

split by the frost; most of the hollies were killed ; The term Cheraux de Foise (or Cheval de Frise, a

the Thames covered with ice eleven inches thick;

and nearly all the birls perished, Dec, 1683--Feb, 1684 Friesland Horse) is derived from Friesland, where

The people kept trades on the Thames as in a it was invented.

fair, till 4 Feb. 1684. About forty coaches daily

Bought FRIULI (Venetia), made a duchy by Alboin

plied on the Thames as on drye land.

this book at a shop upon the ice in the middle of the Lombard, when he established his kingdom the Thaines."-Entry in the memoranda of a about 570.

It was conquered by Charlemagne. Citizen.

1294 1323 1402 1407


1515 • 1544


1594 1007


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