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and sir G. Back, sent out an overland expedition, June 1855, which returned Sept. following. Some more remains of Franklin's party were discovered. 1855 21. The 18th British expedition (equipped by lady Franklin and her friends, the government having declined to fit out another) the Fox, screw steamer, under capt. (since sir F. L. M'Clintock, R.N. (see No. 11)-sailed from Aberdeen 1 July, 1857; returned 22 Sept. On 6 May, 1859, lieut. Hobson found at Point Victory, near Cape Victoria, besides a cairn, a tin case, containing a paper, signed 25 April, 1848, by capt. Fitzjames, which certified that the ships Erebus and Terror, on 12 Sept. 1846, were beset in lat. 70° 05' N., and long. 98° 23′ W.; that sir John Franklin died 11 June, 1847; and that the ships were deserted 22 April, 1848. Captain M'Clintock continued the search, and discovered skeletons and other relics. His Journal was published in Dec. 1859; and on 28 May, 1860, gold medals were given to him and to lady Franklin by the Royal Geographical Society.

Mr. Hall, the arctic explorer, reported, in Aug. 1865, circumstances that led him to hope that capt. Crozier and others were surviving.

A national monument by Noble, set up in Waterlooplace, was inaugurated, 15 Nov. 1866. It is inscribed to " FRANKLIN the great navigator and his brave companions who sacrificed their lives in completing the discovery of the north west passage, A. D. 1847-8."

Sir John Franklin discovered the north-west passage by sailing down Peel and Victoria Straits, now named Franklin Straits.

1859

FRANKS (or freemen), a name given to a combination of the North-western German tribes about 240, which invaded Gaul and other parts of the empire with various success in the 5th century; see Gaul and France.

FRATRICELLI (Little Brethren), a sect of the middle ages, originally strict Franciscan monks. Their numbers increased, and they were condemned by a papal bull in 1317; and suffered persecution; but were not extinct till the 16th century. They resembled the "Brethren of the Free Spirit."

FRAUDS, STATUTE OF. 29 Charles II., c. 3, 1677. "An act for prevention of frauds and perjuryes."

FRAUDULENT TRUSTEES ACT, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 54, passed Aug. 1857, in consequence of the delinquencies of sir John D. Paul, the British Bank frauds, &c. It was brought in by sir R. Bethell, then attorney-general (afterwards lord Westbury), and is very stringent.

FRAUNHOFER'S LINES, see Spectrum. FRASER'S MAGAZINE, first appeared, Feb. 1830.

FREDERICKSBURG (Virginia, N. America), On 10 Dec. 1862, general Burnside and the federal army of the Potomac crossed the small deep river Rappahannock. On 11 Dec. Fredericksburg was bombarded by the federals and destroyed. On the 13th commenced a series of desperate unsuccessful attacks on the confederate works, defended by generals Lee, Jackson, Longstreet, and others. General Hooker crossed the river with the reserves, and joined in the conflict, in vain. On 15 and 16 Dec. the federal army recrossed the Rappahannock. The battle was one of the most severe in the war. FREDERICKSHALD (Norway). Charles XII. of Sweden was killed by a cannon-shot before its walls, while examining the works. His hand was on his sword, and a prayer-book in his pocket, 11 Dec. 1718.

FREE CHURCH (of England). The rev. H. Hampton, one of the curates of Islington,

having been dismissed, a part of his congregation erected a temporary church. The bishop of London, after inquiry, refused to license it. On this the congregation declared itself to be the Free Church of England, March, 1859. Eventually, he left the neighbourhood, and re-entered the establishment. Secessions from the church of England took place in 1872 in consequence of the decision in favour of Mr. Bennett, 8 June, 1872; see Church of England. The establishment of a bishopric for a new Free Church at Southampton was proposed Jan. 1873.

FREE CHURCH (of Scotland) was formed by an act of secession of nearly half the body from the national church of Scotland, headed by Dr. Thos. Chalmers and other eminent ministers, 18 May, 1843. The difference arose on the question of the right of patrons to nominate to livings; see Patronage. The Free Church claims for the parishioners the right of a veto. Much distress was endured the first year by the ministers of the new church, although 366,719. 148. 3d. had been subscribed. In 1853 there were 850 congregations. A large college was founded in 1846. In 1856 the sustentation fund amounted to 108,6387. from which was paid the sum of 1387. each to 700 ministers.

FREE CHURCH SOCIETY, or National Association for Freedom of Public Worship, established in 1857, to abolish the pew-rent system and revive the weekly offertory to defray the expenses of public worship.

FREE COMPANIES AND LANCES, see Condottieri.

FREEDMEN'S BUREAUS, established in the Southern States of North America in March, 1865, to protect the freed negroes. Having the support of martial law, these bureaus became very oppressive, and the act of congress making them permanent was vetoed by president Johnson in Feb. 1866.

FREEHOLDERS. Those under forty shillings per annum were not qualified to vote for members of parliament by Hen. VI. c. 7, 1429. Various acts have been passed for the regulation of the franchise at different periods. The more recent were, the act to regulate polling, 9 Geo. IV., 1828; act for the disqualification of freeholders in Ireland, which deprived those of forty shillings of this privilege, passed 13 April, 1829; Reform acts, 1832, 1867, 1868. County elections act, 7 Will. IV., 1836. See Chandos Clause.

FREE LABOUR REGISTRATION SOCIETY, established for the benefit of employers and non-unionist workmen, in opposition to trades' unions, about July, 1867.

FREE TRADE principles, advocated by Adam Smith in his 66 umphed in England when the corn laws were Wealth of Nations" (1776), triabolished in 1846, and the commercial treaty with France was adopted in 1860. Richard Cobden, who was very instrumental in passing these measures, 1865. Since 1830 the exports have been tripled. and termed "Apostle of Free Trade," died 2 April, See French Treaty. An agitation for free trade has begun in the United States. A reform league was formed at Boston, 20 April, 1869; and the movement became active in New York in Nov., and has since continued.

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building of Solomon's temple; and it is said the
architects from the African coast, Mahometans,
brought it into Spain, about the 9th century. Its
introduction into Britain has been fixed at 674;
and in Scotland 1140. Many of our Gothic cathe-
drals are attributed to freemasons. The grand lodge
at York was founded 926. Freemasonry was inter-
dicted in England, 1424. In 1717, the grand lodge
of England was established; that of Ireland in
1730; and that of Scotland in 1736. Freemasons
were excommunicated by the pope in 1738; again
condemned, 30 Sept. 1865. Freemasons' Hall, A. F. Villemain
Great Queen-street, London, built 1771;
built, and consecrated 14 April, 1869. The charity
instituted, 1788. Earl de Grey was installed grand-
master of the English freemasons in room of the
earl of Zetland, 14 May, 1870. The prince of
Wales was installed at Edinburgh as patron of the
freemasons of Scotland, 12 Oct. 1870.

A. Eugène Scribe
A. G. De Barante
F. Guizot

re

A De la Martine.
Victor Cousin
Amédée Thierry.
L. A. Thiers
Jules Michelet
Victor Hugo
P. Mérimée
Louis Blanc
C. F. Montalembert

FREETHINKERS, professors of natural religion; see Deists.

FRENCH ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE SCIENCES was established by the general assembly, 22 April, 1872, its chief founders being MM. Balard, Claude Bernard, Delaunay, Dumas, Pasteur, Berthelot, Würtz, and It held its first meeting at Bordeaux, others. 5 Sept. 1872, when many foreign scientific men were present. M. De Quatrefages, president.

FRENCH CHURCH, see Church of France.

Joinville,

Froissart

Monstrelet

Comines

Marot

Rabelais

Ronsard.

Montaigne

Malherbe

Des Cartes.

Pascal

Molière
Rochefoucault

Corneille

La Fontaine

La Bruyère

FRENCH LANGUAGE is mainly based on the rude Latin of the western nations subjugated by the Romans. German was introduced by the Franks in the 8th century. In the 9th the GalloRomanic dialect became divided into the Langue d'oc of the south and the Langue d'oil of the north. The French language as written by Froissart assimilates more to the modern French, and its development was almost completed when the Académie Française (established by Richelieu in 1634) published a dictionary of the language in 1674. Pluviose The French language, laws, and customs were introduced into England by William I., 1066. Law pleadings were changed from French to English in Germinal the reign of Edward III., 1362. Stow.

Nivose

Ventose

Floréal.
Prairial

PRINCIPAL FRENCH AUTHORS.

Racine

Bossuet

Bayle

Boileau

Fénélon

Rollin.

Le Sage.
Montesquieu
Voltaire

J. J. Rousseau

D'Alembert
Buffon
Marmontel

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Mad. Cottin
St. Pierre
De Staël.

De Genlis

Sismondi

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Châteaubriand
Augustin Thierry
Béranger
Eugène Sue

Vendémiaire
Brumaire
Frimaire

Messidor
Fervidor, or
Thermidor
Fructidor

Les Vertus.

Le Génie

Le Travail

L'Opinion

Les Recompenses

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SANSCULOTIDES,

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Born

1773

1737

1766

1746

. 1773
1769

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1795

1780

1804

FRENCH RELIEF FUND, see Mansionhouse Fund. The French peasant relief fund, originated by the Daily News, in Sept. 1870, was closed April, 1871.

FRENCH REVOLUTION, see France, 1789.
CA-

FRENCH

REVOLUTIONARY

LENDAR. In 1792, the French nation adopted a calendar professedly founded on philosophical principles. The first year of the era of the republic began at midnight, between 21 and 22 Sept. 1792;

but its establishment was not decreed until the 4th Frimaire of the year II., 24 Nov. 1793. The calendar existed until the 10th Nivose, year of the republic XIV., 31 Dec. 1805, when the Gregorian mode of calculation was restored by Napoleon I.

Genius

Labour

1791

1790

1792

1797

- 1797

1798

1802

Opinion
Rewards

1803

1813

. 1810

Died

1807

1814

1817

1830

1842

1791

1752 1866

1787

1848

1856

1857

AUTUMN.

Vintage month, 22 Sept. to 21 Oct.
Fog month
Sleet month

22 Oct. to 20 Nov.

. 21 Nov. to 20 Dec.

1857

1861

21 Dec. to 19 Jan. 20 Jan. to 18 Feb. Wind month . 19 Feb. to 20 Mar.

WINTER.
Snow month
Rain month

OR FEASTS DEDICATED TO

The Virtues

1867 1869

1867

1873

SPRING.

Sprouts' month, 21 Mar. to 19 April.
Flowers' month, 20 April to 16 May.
Pasture month, 20 May to 18 June.

1870

1870

SUMMER.

Harvest month, 19 June to 18 July.

Hot month. . 19 July to 17 Aug.
Fruit month . 18 Aug, to 16 Sept.

FRENCHTOWN (Canada), was taken from the British by the American general Winchester, 22 Jan. 1813, during the second war with the 1695 United States of America. It was retaken by the

1684

1696

1699

British forces under general Proctor, 24 Jan., and the American commander and his troops were made 1706 prisoners.

1724

1711

17 Sept.

18 Sept. 19 Sept. 20 Sept. 21 Sept.

FRENCH TREATY, the term given to the treaty of commerce between Great Britain and France, signed 23 Jan. 1860, at Paris, by lord Cowley and Richard Cobden and by the ministers MM. Baroche and Rouher. The beneficial results of this treaty compensated for the depression of trade occasioned by the civil war in North America (1861-5). The French assembly determined that

on 15 March, 1871, this treaty should cease in 12 months from that date. A fresh treaty was signed at Paris 29 Jan. 1873. Free trade was somewhat restricted, but the new French navigation law was relaxed.

FRESCO PAINTINGS are executed on plaster while fresh. Very ancient ones exist in Egypt, Italy, and England, and modern ones in the British houses of parliament, at Berlin, and other places. The fresco paintings by Giotto and others at the Campo Santo, a cemetery at Pisa, executed in the 13th century, are justly celebrated. See Stereochromy.

FRETEVAL (Central France). Here Richard I. of England defeated Philip II. of France, and captured his royal seal, archives, &c., 15 July,

1194.

FRIARS (from the French frère, a brother); see Minorites, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans,

and other orders.

FRIDAY, the sixth day of the week; so called from Friga, or Frea, the Scandinavian Venus, the wife of Thor, and goddess of peace, fertility, and riches, who with Thor and Odin composed the supreme council of the Gods. See Good Friday.

FRIEDLAND (Prussia). Here the allied Russians and Prussians were beaten by the French, commanded by Napoleon, on 14 June, 1807. The allies lost eighty pieces of cannon and about 18,000 men; the French about 10,000 men. The peace Tilsit followed, by which Prussia was obliged to surrender nearly half her dominions.

of

FRIENDLY ISLES, in the Southern Pacific, consist of a group of more than 150 islands, forming an archipelago of very considerable extent. These islands were discovered by Tasman, in 1643; visited by Wallis, who called them Keppel Isles, 1767; and by captain Cook, who named them on account of the friendly disposition of the natives, 1773. Subsequent voyagers describe them as very ferocious.

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES, which originated in the clubs of the industrious classes, were subjected to slight control in 1793, and have been regulated by various enactments. Other acts were passed in 1855, 1858 and 1860.

FRIENDS, see Quakers.

FRIENDS OF THE PEOPLE, an association formed in London to obtain parliamentary reform, 1792.

FRIESLAND: EAST (N. Germany), the ancient Frisia, formerly governed by its own counts. On the death of its prince Charles Edward, in 1744, it became subject to the king of Prussia; Hanover disputed its possession, but Prussia prevailed. It was annexed to Holland by Bonaparte, in 1806, to the French empire, 1810; and awarded to Hanover in 1815. The English language is said to be mainly derived from the old Frisian dialect.-FRIESLAND, WEST, in Holland, was part of Charlemagne's empire in 800. It passed under the counts of Holland about 936, and was one of the seven provinces which renounced the Spanish yoke in 1580. The term Chevaux de Frise (or Cheval de Frise, a Friesland Horse) is derived from Friesland, where it was invented.

Henri, a Frenchman, made duke, was assassinated in 799, which was the fate of duke Berengarius, king of Italy and emperor, in 924. The emperor Conrad gave the duchy to his chancellor Poppo, patriarch of Aquileia, in the 11th century; it was conquered by Venice in 1420; annexed to Austria, 1797; to France, 1805; to Austria, 1814; to Italy,

1866.

FRIULI (Venetia), made a duchy by Alboin the Lombard, when he established his kingdom about 570. It was conquered by Charlemagne. |

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The Euxine Sea frozen over for 20 days

A frost at Constantinople, when the two seas there
were frozen a hundred miles from the shore,
A frost in England on Midsummer-day is said to
Oct. 763-Feb. 764

have destroyed the fruits of the earth
Thames frozen for 14 weeks.
Dreadful frosts in England from Nov. to April
The Cattegat entirely frozen
Baltic passable to travellers for six weeks
The Baltic frozen from Pomerania to Denmark
In England, when all the small birds perished 1407
The ice bore riding upon it from Lübeck to Prussia, 1426
Severe frost, when large fowl of the air sought
shelter in the towns of Germany
The river frozen below London-bridge to Gravesend,
from 24 Nov. to Feb. 10
The Baltic frozen, and horse passengers crossed

1433

1434

from Denmark to Sweden.

1460

The winter so severe in Flanders that the wine distributed was cut by hatchets

1468

Carriages passed over from Lambeth to Westminster 1515

Wine in Flanders frozen into solid lumps

. 1544 Sledges drawn by oxen travelled on the sea from Rostock to Denmark 1548 Diversions on the Thames Dec. &c. 1564 The Scheldt frozen so hard as to sustain loaded

.

21

waggons

The Rhine, Scheldt, and sea at Venice frozen.

Fires and diversions on the Thames

The rivers of Europe and the Zuyder Zee frozen; ice covers the Hellespont Charles X. of Sweden crossed the Little-Belt over the ice from Holstein to Denmark, with his whole The forest trees, and even the oaks in England, split by the frost; most of the hollies were killed; the Thames covered with ice eleven inches thick; and nearly all the birds perished, Dec. 1683-Feb. 1684 "The people kept trades on the Thames as in a fair, till 4 Feb. 1684. About forty coaches daily plied on the Thames as on drye land. Bought this book at a shop upon the ice in the middle of the Thames."-Entry in the memoranda of a Citizen.

401

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1035

1063 1076

1294 1323

. 1402

1565 1594 1007

1622

1658

1691

1716

The wolves, driven by the cold, entered Vienna,
and attacked cattle and men
Three months' frost, with heavy snow, from Dec.
to March 1709
A fair held on the Thames, and oxen roasted; frost
continued.
One lasted 9 weeks, when coaches plied upon the
24 Nov. to 9 Feb.
Thames, and festivities and diversions of all
kinds were enjoyed upon the ice. (The "hard
winter ")
From 25 Dec. to
Jan. and from 18 to 22 Jan.;
One general throughout Europe; the Thames pass-
able opposite the Custom House Nov. to Jan.
One from 24 Dec. 1794, to 14 Feb. 1795, with the
intermission of one day's thaw

. 1740

16

most terrible

23 Jan. 1795 all Dec. 1796

1812

Intense frosts

Severe frost in Russia

Very destructive to the French army in its retreat from Moscow. Napoleon commenced his retreat on the 9th Nov. The men perished in battalions, E.and the horses fell by hundreds on the roads. France lost in the campaign of this year more than 400,000 men.

Booths erected on the Thames; the winter very severe in Ireland

Jan. 1814 The frosts so intense in parts of Norway, that quicksilver freezes, and persons exposed to the atmosphere lose their breath

and very cold weather up to 26 June On 22 Feb. fires were made on the Serpentine, Hyde Park. A traffic on the ice of 35 miles long, was established in Lincolnshire Very severe frost, 20 Dec. 1860; to

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Very severe frost in London, 14 Jan. to 2 Jan. 1849

24 Feb.;

1855

Mulberry, Italy

Mulberry, white, China, about
Mulberry, the red, N. America, before

Mulberry, paper, Japan, before

Nectarine, Persia

Olive, Cape

Olive, the sweet-scented China'
Oranges

Peaches, Persia
Pears, uncertain
Pine-apple, Brazils
Pippins, Netherlands
Plums, Italy.

5 Jan. 1861 FROST'S INSURRECTION, see Newport. FRUCTIDOR CONSTITUTION; that promulgated in France on the 5th Fructidor, year 3, or 22 Aug. 1795. See Directory.

FRUITS. Several varieties introduced into Italy, 70 B.c. et seq. Many exotic fruits and flowers, previously unknown in England, were brought thither between 1500 and 1578, and very many in the present century. See Gardening, and Flowers.

Almond-tree, Barbary, about
Apples, Syria
Apple, custard, N. America
Apple, osage, ditto
Apricots, Epirus
Cherry-trees, Pontus
Cherries, Flanders

Cornelian cherry, Austria.
Currant, the hawthorn, Canada
Fig-tree, S. Europe, before
Gooseberries, Flanders, before
Grapes, Portugal
Lemons, Spain
Limes, Portugal, about
Limes, American, before

Melons, before

Pomegranate, Spain, before
Quince, Austria
Quince, Japan

Raspberry, the Virginian, before.
Strawberry, Flanders

Strawberry, the Oriental, Levant
Walnut, the black, N. America, before

1766

1789

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1548

1522

1736

. 1818

. 1540

100

1540
1596

1705

1548

1754

1652

. 1730

. 1771

1595

1562

#

Fuchsia fulgens, the most beautiful variety, was introduced from Mexico, about 1830.

*

FUCHSIA, an American plant named after the German botanist Leonard Fuchs, about 1542. The

FUENTES DE ONORO (central Spain). On 2 May, 1811, Massena crossed the Agueda with 40,000 infantry, 5000 horse, and about 30 pieces of artillery, to relieve Almeida. He expected every day to be superseded in his command, and wished to make a last effort for his own military character. Wellington could muster no more than 32,000 men, of which only 1200 were cavalry. He however determined to fight rather than give up the blockade of Almeida. After much fighting, on 3 May, night came on and stopped the conflict. Next day Massena was joined by Bessières with a body of the Imperial guard; and on 5 May, made his grand attack. In all the war there was not a more dangerous hour for England. The fight lasted until evening, when the lower part of the town was abandoned by both parties-the British maintaining the chapel and crags, and the French retiring a cannon-shot from the stream. Napier.

1540

1528

1554

. 1554

FULFORD, Yorkshire. Here Harold Hardrada of Norway, and Tostig, brother of Harold of 1752 England, defeated the earls Edwin and Morcar,

. 1540 20 Sept. 1066; and the people near York submitted 1520 to them; see Stanford-bridge.

1596

1629

FÜESSEN, Bavaria. By a treaty signed here, 22 April, 1745, peace was made between Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary, and the elector of Bavaria, the latter renouncing his claim to the imperial crown and recovering his lost territories.

FUMIGATION. Acron, a physician of Agrigentum, is said to have first caused great fires to be lighted and aromatics to be thrown into them to purify the air, and thus to have stopped the plague at Athens and other places in Greece, about 473 B.C.

1568

FUNDS, see Stocks, and Sinking Fund.

1525
1522

1573

1530
1724
1629

FUNERALS. David lamented over Saul and 1548 Jonathan, 1056 B.C., and over Abner, 1048 B.C. 2 Sam. i. and iii. In Greece, Solon was the first 1796 who pronounced a funeral oration, according to 1696 Herodotus, 580 B.C.. The Romans pronounced harangues over their illustrious dead. Theopompus obtained [a prize for the best Funeral Oration in Roman lady who had an oration pronounced at her praise of Mausolus, 353 B.C. Popilia was the first funeral, which was done by her son, Crassus; and

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FULDA (W. Germany), the seat of an abbey, founded by St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, in 744. It was made a bishopric in 1752, and a principality in 1803. Napoleon incorporated it with Frankfort in 1810; but in 1815 it was ceded to Hesse-Cassel.

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GAELIC, the northern branch of the Celtic languages, Irish, Erse or Highland Scottish, and Manx. The "Dean of Lismore's book" written 1511-51) contains Gaelic poetry; specimens were published, with translations, in 1862, by rev. T. M'Lachlan.

GAETA (the ancient Cajeta), a fortified Neapolitan seaport, has undergone several remarkable sieges. It was taken by the French, 4 Jan. 1799; by the English, 31 Oct. 1799; by the French, 18 July, 1806; and by the Austrians in 1815 and 1821. Here pope Pius IX. took refuge, 24 Nov. 1848, and resided more than a year. Here also Francis II. of Naples, with his queen and court, fled, when Garibaldi entered Naples, 7 Sept. 1860; and here he remained till the city was taken by the Sardinian general Cialdini, 13 Feb. 1861, after a severe siege, uselessly prolonged by a French fleet remaining in the harbour. Cialdini was created duke of Gaeta.

GAGGING BILL, properly so called, meant to protect the king and government from the harangues of seditious meetings, was enacted 8 Dec. 1795, when the popular mind was much excited. In Dec. 1819, soon after the Manchester affray, an act was passed for restraining public meetings and cheap periodical publications; it was popularly called "a gagging bill." Statutes coercing popular assemblies, particularly in Ireland, have been also so designated.

lord Lake defeated the Maharatta chief Holkar, and about 60,000 cavalry, himself losing 2 killed and about 20 wounded.

GAIETY THEATRE, Strand, opened 21 Dec. 1868, Mr. John Hollingshead, manager.

G.

GABELLE (from Gabe, a gift), a term applied to various taxes, but afterwards restricted to the duty upon salt. first imposed by Philip the Fair on the French in 1286. Duruy. Our Edward III., termed Philip of Valois, who exacted the tax rigorously, the author of the Salic law (from sal, salt), 1340. The assessments were unequal, being very heavy in some provinces and light in others; owing to exemptions purchased from the sovereigns. The tax produced 38 millions of francs in the reign of Louis XVI. It was a grievous burden, and tended to hasten the revolution, during which it was abolished (1790).

FURS were worn by Henry I. about 1125. Edward III. enacted that all persons who could not spend 100l. a year should be prohibited this species of finery, 28 March, 1336-7.

FUSILIERS. Foot soldiers, formerly armed with fusees with slings to sling them. The 7th regiment (or Royal English Fusiliers) was raised, II June, 1685; the 21st (or Royal North British), 23 Sept. 1679; the 23rd (or Royal Welsh), 17 March,

1688. Grose.

FUTTEHGHUR (India). Here Nana Sahib massacred both the English defenders of the fort and their Sepoy assailants, July, 1857; and here the Sepoy rebels were defeated by sir Colin Campbell, 2 Jan. 1858.

GALATZ (Moravia). The preliminaries of peace between Russia and Turkey signed here, II Aug. 1791, led to the treaty of Jassy, 9 Jan. 1792. The site of several conflicts, in which the Russians defeated the Turks, Nov. 1769; 10 May, 1828.

GALAPAGOS, islands ceded to the United States by Ecuador, 3 Nov. 1854, the British, French, and other powers protesting against it.

GALATIA, a province of Asia Minor. In the 3rd century B.c. the Gauls under Brennus invaded Greece, crossed the Hellespont, and conquered the Troas, 278; were checked by Attalus I. in a battle about 241; and then settled in what was called afterwards Gallogræcia and Galatia. The country was ravaged by Cneius Manlius, 189 B.C., and was finally annexed to the Roman empire, 25 B.C., on the death of the king Amyntas. Paul's Epistle to the Galatians was probably written A.D. 58.

quered by D. Junius Brutus, 136 B.C. and by the GALICIA, a province, N.W. Spain, was conVandals A.D. 419; and was subdued by successive invaders. In 1065, on the death of Ferdinand I. king of Castile and Leon, when his dominions were divided, his son Garcia became king of Galicia. Ruling tyranically, he was expelled by his brother Sancho; returned at his death in 1072; was again expelled by his brother Alfonso, 1073; and died in Castile, was made king of Galicia by her in 1109. prison in 1091. Alfonso, son of Urraca, queen of He defended his mother, a dissolute woman, against her husband, Alfonso VII., and at her death in 1126, acquired Castile, and once more re-united the kingdoms.-GALICIA, Poland. East Galicia was acquired by the emperor of Germany at the partition in 1772; and West Galicia at that of 1795. The latter was ceded to the grand duchy of Warsaw in 1809; but recovered by Austria in 1815. The appointment of count Goluchowski, a Pole, as governor, in Oct. 1866, gave much satisfaction to the Poles, about 2,000,000 in this province; sce Poland, note.

GALLERIES, see National, Louvre, and

Versailles.

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