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The wolves, driven by the cold, entered Vienna, Fuchsia fulgens, the most beautiful variety, was

and attacked cattle and men Three months' frost, with heavy snow, from Dec.

1691 introduced from Mexico, about 1830. to March 1709

FUENTES DE ONORO (central Spain). A fair held on the Thames, and oxen roasted; frost continued.

: 24 Nov. to 9

On 2 May, 1811, Massena crossed the Agueda with

Feb. 1716 One lasted 9 weeks, when coaches plied upon the

40,000 infantry, 5000 horse, and about 30 pieces of Thames, and festivities and diversions of all

artillery, to relieve Almeida. He expected every kinds were enjoyed upon the ice. (The “hard day to be superseded in his command, and wished

winter ') From 25 Dec. to 16 Jan. and from 18 to 22 Jan. ;

• 1740

to make a last effort for his own military character.

Wellington could muster no more than 32,000 men, most terrible One general throughout Europe; the Thames

1766 of which only 1200 were cavalry. He however de

passable opposite the Custom House Nov, to Jan. 1789

termined to fight rather than give up the blockade One from 24 Dec. 1794, to 14 Feb. 1795, with the

of Almeida. After much tighting, on 3 May, night intermission of one day's thaw

23 Jan. 1795

came on and stopped the conflict. Next day MasIntense frosts

all Dec. 1796 Severe frost in Russia

sena was joined by Bessières with a body of the

1812 Very destructive to the French army in its retreat

Imperial guard; and on 5 May, made his grand

attack. In all the war there was not a more danfrom Moscow. Napoleon cominenced his retreat on the gth Nov. The men perished in battalions,

gerous hour for England. The fight lasted until F. and the horses fell by hundreds on the roads.

evening, when the lower part of the town was France lost in the campaign of this year more abandoned by both parties—the British maintaining than 400,000 inen.

the chapel and crags, and the French retiring a Booths erected on the Thames; the winter very cannon-shot from the stream. Napier. severe in Ireland

Jan. 1814 The frosts so intense in parts of Norway, that FÜESSEN, Bavaria. By a treaty signed here,

quicksilver freezes, and persons exposed to the atinosphere lose their breath

22 April, 1745, peace was made between Maria Very severe frost in London, 14 Jan. to 24 Feb. ;

2 Jan. 1849 Theresa, queen of Hungary, and the elector of and very cold weather up to 26 June

1855

Bavaria, the latter renouncing his claim to the On 22 Feb. tires were made on the Serpentine, imperial crown and recovering his lost territories.

Hyde Park, A tratie on the ice of miles lous, was established in Lincolnshire

FUGGER, an illustrious German family (the Very severe frost, 20 Dec. 1860; to

5 Jan. 1861 present bead, prince Leopold Fugger Babenhausen,

since 28 May, 1836), derives its origin from John FROST'S INSURRECTION, see Ncu port. Fugger, a master weaver in Augsburg, in 1370; FRUCTIDOR CONSTITUTION; that

and its wealth by trade, and by money-lending to promulgated in France on the 5th Fructidor, year 3,

monarchs, especially the emperors. or 22 Aug. 1795. See Directory.

FUGITIVE SLAVE BILL passed by the FRUITS. Several varieties introduced into American legislature in 1850. It imposed a fine of Italy, 70 B.C. et seq. Many exotic fruits and towers; person harbouring fugitive slaves or aiding in their

1000 dollars and six months' imprisonment on any previously unknown in England, were brought escape. This law was declared to be unconstituthither between 1500 and 1578, and very many in tional by the judges of the superior court on 3 Feb. the present century. See Gardening, and Flowers. 1855, was carried into etlect with great diffiAlmond-tree, Barbary, about

1548 culty, and was not received by Massachusetts. Apples, Syria

1522 Apple, custard, N. America

It was repealed 13 June, 1864; see Slavery in

1736 | America. Apple, osage, ditto Apricots, Epirus .

1540 FULDA (W. Germany), the seat of an abbey, Cherry-trees, Pontus

founded by St. Boniface, the apostle of Germany, Cherries, Flanders Cornelian cherry, Austria.

1818

100

1540 in 744. It was made a bishopric in 1752, and a Currant, the hawthorn, Canada

principality in 1803. Napoleon incorporated it with

1705 Fig-tree, S. Europe, before

Frankfort in 1810; but in 1815 it was ceded to Gooseberries, Flanders, before

Hesse-Cassel.
Grapes, Portugal
Lemons, Spain

1554

FULFORD, Yorkshire. Here Harold HarLimes, Portugal, about

drada of Norway, and Tostig, brother of Harold of Limes, American, before

1752 | England, defeated the earls Edwin and Morcar, Melons, before

1540 Mulberry, Italy

20 Sept. 1066; and the people near York submitted Mulberry, white, China, about

to them; see Stanford-bridge.

1596 Mulberry, the re, N. America, before

1629 FUMIGATION. Acron, a physician of AgriMulberry, putper, Japan, before Nectarine, Persia .

gentum, is said to have first caused great fires to

1652 Olive, Cape

be lighted and aromaties to be thrown into them

1730 Olive, the sweet-scented China

to purify the air, and thus to have stopped the

1771 Oranges

1595 plague at Athens and other places in Greece, about Peaches, Persia

1502 473 B.C. Pears, uncertain Pine-apple, Brazils

1568

FUNDS, see Stocks, and Sinking Fund. Pippins, Netherlands

1525 Plums, Italy

FUNERALS. David lamented over Saul and Pomegranate, Spain, before

1548 Jonathan, 1056 B.C., and over Abner, 1048 B.C. Quince, Austria

1573 2 Sam. i. and iii. In Greece, Solon was the first Quince, Japan Raspberry, the Virginian, before.

1796 who pronounced a funeral oration, according to

1696 Herodotus, 580 B.C. The Romans pronounced Strawberry, Flanders Strawberry, the Oriental, Levant

harangucs over their illustrious dead. Theopompus

1724 Walnut, the black, N. America, before

1629

obtained (a prize for the best Funeral Oration in

praise of Mausolus, 353 B.C. Popilia was the first FUCHSIA, an American plant named after the Roman lady who had an oration pronounced at her German botanist Leonard Fuchs, about 1542. The funeral, which was done by her son, Crassus; and

1548

1540

1528

1554

1520

1754

1522

1530

it is observed by Cicero that Julius Cæsar did the lord Lake defeated the Maharatta chief Ilolkar, and like for his aunt Julia and his wife Cornelia.- about 60,000 cavalry, himself losing 2 killed and Funeral Games, among the Greeks and Romans about 20 wounded. included horse-races, dramatic representations, processions, and mortal combats of gladiators. These FURS were worn by Henry I. about 1125. games were abolished by the emperor Claudius, Edward III. enacted that all persons who could not A.D. 47•

A tax was laid on funerals in England, spend 100l. a year should be prohibited this species 1793

of finery, 28 March, 1336-7. PUBLIC FUNERALS voted by parliament :Duke of Rutland, in Ireland

FUSILIERS. Foot soldiers, formerly armed Lord Nelson (see Nelson)

17 Nov: 1787 with fusees with slings to sling them. The 5th

9 Jan, 1806 Wm. Pitt

22 Feb.

regiment (or Royal English Fusiliers) was raised, Chas. Jas. Fox

10 Oct.

II June, 1685; the 21st for Royal North British), Richard Brinsley Sheridan

13 July, 1816 23 Sept. 1679; the 23rd (or Royal Welsh), 17 March, George Cauning

16 Aug. 1827 1688. Grose. Duke of Wellington

18 Nov. 1852 Viscount Palmerston (at her inajesty's request), FUTTEHGHUR (India). Here Nana Sahib

27 Oct. 1865

massacred both the English defenders of the fort and FURRUCKABAD (N. India), a province ac their Sepoy assailants, July, 1857; and here the quired by the East India company, in June, 1802. Sepoy rebels were defeated by sir Colin Campbell, Near the capital of the same name, 17 Nov. 1804, 2 Jan. 1858.

G.

GABELLE (from Gabe, a gift), a term applied GALATZ (Moravia). The preliminaries of to various taxes, but afterwards restricted to the peace between Russia and Turkey signed here, duty upon salt, first imposed by Philip the Fair on II Aug. 1791, led to the treaty of Jassy, 9 Jan. the French in 1286. Duruy: Our Edward III., 1792. The site of several conflicts, in which the Rustermed Philip of Valois, who exacted the tax sians defcated the Turks, Nov. 1769; 10 May, rigorously, the author of the Salic law (from sal, 1828. salt), 1310. The assessments were unequal, being very heavy in some provinces and light in others; GALAPAGOS, islands ceded to the United owing to exemptions purchased from the sovereigns. States by Ecuador, 3 Nov. 1854, the British, French, The tax produced 38 millions of francs in the reign and other powers protesting against it. of Louis XVI. It was a grievous burden, and tended to hasten the revolution, during which it

GALATIA, a province of Asia Minor. In the was abolished (1790).

3rd century B.c. the Gauls under Brennus invaded

Greece, crossed the Hellespont, and conquered the GAELIC, the northern branch of the Celtic Troas, 278; were checked' by Attalus I. in a battle languages, Irish, Erse or Highland Scottish, and about 241; and then settled in what was called Manx. The “ Dean of Lismore's book” written afterwards Gallogræcia and Galatia. The country 1511-51) contains Gaelic poetry; specimens were was ravaged by Cneius Manlius, 189 B.C., and was published, with translations, in 1862, by rev. T. finally annexed to the Romar empire, 25 B.C., on M.Lachlan.

the death of the king Amyntas. Paul's Epistle to GAETA (the ancient Cajeta), a fortified Nea

the Galatians was probably written A.D. 58. politan seaport, has undergone several remarkable sieges. It was taken by the French, 4 Jan. 1799; quered by D. 'Junius Brutus, 136 B.c. and by the

GALICIA, a province, N.W. Spain, was conby the English, 31 Oct. 1799; by the French, Vandals A.D. 419; and was subdued by successive 18 July, 1806; and by the Austrians in 1815, and invaders. In 1065, on the death of Ferdinand I. 1821. Here pope Píus IX. took refuge, 24 Nov. king of Castile and Leon, when his dominions were 1848, and resided more than a year. Here also divided, his son Garcia became king of Galicia. Francis II. of Naples, with his queen and court, Ruling tyranically, he was expelled by his brother Aed, when Garibaldi entered Naples, 7 Sept. 1860; Sancho; returned at his death in 1072; was again and here he remained till the city was taken by expelled by his brother Alfonso, 1073; and died in the Sardinian general Cialdini, 13 Feb. 1861, after prison in 1091. Alfonso, son of Urraca, queen of a severe siege, uselessly prolonged by a French tleet Castile, was made king of Galicia by her in 1109. remaining in the harbour. Cialdini was created

He defended his mother, a dissolute woman, against duke of Gaeta.

her husband, Alfonso VII., and at her death in GAGGING BILL, properly so called, meant 1126, acquired Castile, and once more re-united the to protect the king and government from the kingdoms.- GALICIA, Poland. East Galicia was harangues of seditious meetings, was enacted 8 Dec. acquired by the emperor of Germany at the parti1795, when the popular mind was much excited. tion in 1772; and West Galicia at that of 1795. In Dec. 1819, soon after the Manchester affray, an The latter was ceded to the grand duchy of Warsaw act was passed for restraining public meetings and in 1809; but recovered by Austria in 1815. The cheap periodical publications; it was popularly called appointment of count Goluchowski, a Pole, as "a gagging bill.". Statutes coercing popular as governor, in Oct. 1866, gave much satisfaction to semblies, particularly in Ireland, have been also so the Poles, about 2,000,000 in this province; see designated.

Poland, note. GAIETY THEATRE, Strand, opened 21 Dec. GALLERIES, see National, Louvre, and 1868, Mr. John Hollingshead, manager.

Tersailles.

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1710

9

GALL, ST. (in Switzerland). The abbey, GAMES. Candidates for athletic games in founded in the 7th century, was surrounded by a Greece were dieted on new cheese, dried figs, and town in the roth, St. Gall became a canton of the boiled grain, with warm water, and no meat. The confederation in 1815.

sports were leaping, foot-races, quoits, wrestling,

and boxing; see Capitoline, Isthmian, Olympic, GALLEYS with three rows of rowers, tri- Pythian, Secular Games, &c. remes, were invented by the Corinthians, 786 B.C. Blair. The terms “galley slave,” and “condemned GAMING was introduced into England by the Saxons;

the loser was often inade a slave to the winner, to the galleys,” arose from these sea vessels having

and sold in traffic like other merchandise. from 25 to 30 benches on each side, manned by four

Camden. or tive slaves to each bench. In France they had

Act prohibiting gaming to all gentlemen (and intera general of galleys, of whom the baron de la Garde dicting tennis, caris, dice, bowls, &c., to inferior was the first, 1544. The punishment of the galleys people, except at Christmas time)

. 1620 (galères) has been superseded by the “traranx Gaming-houses licensed in London forcés,” forced labour, regulated by a law of 1854, Any person losing, by betting or pilaving, more than

100l. at any one time, not compellable to pay the the men being called "forçats.

same, 16 Chas. II. .

1663

Bonds or other securities given for money won at GALLICAN CHURCH, see Church of

play not recoverable; and any person losing noore France.

than rol. may sue the winner to recover it back,

9 Anne, c. 14 GALLIPOLI, the ancient Callipolis, a sca- Act to prevent excessive and fraudulent gaming, port in Turkey in Europe, 128 miles west of Con- when all private lotteries and the games of faro, stantinople. It was taken by the Turks in 1357, basset, and hazard were suppressed

1739 and fortified by Bajazet I. The first division of the The profits of a guning-house in London for on French and English armies proceeding against the

season have been estimated at 150,000l. In one Russians landed here in March and April, 1854.

night a million of money is said to have changed hands at this place. Leigh. A bankrupt was

refused his certificate because he had lost 51. at GALOCHES, French for overshoes, formerly

one time in gaming

17 July, 1788 of leather; but since 1843 made of vulcanised India Three ladies of quality convicted in penalties of rubber. The importation of Galoshes was prohibited 501. each for playing at faro

March ii, 1797 by 3 Edw. IV. c. 4 (1463).

Gaming-houses were licensed in Paris until

1833

Amended laws respecting games and wagers, 8 & GALVANISM AND GALVANO-PLAS- Vict. c. 109 (1845); by 3 Geo. IV. C. 114 (1822), a TICS, see under Electricity, p. 232.

gaming-house keeper is to be imprisoned with

Hard labour ; and by 2 & 3 Vict., gaining-houses GALWAY (W. Ireland). The ancient settlers

may be entered by the police and all persons present taken into custody

1839 here were divided into thirteen tribes, a distinetion

Betting-houses suppressed

1853 not yet forgotten. It was conquered by Richard de Publie gaming-tables totally suppressed at WiesBurgo in 1232. In 1690 Galway city declared for baden, Homburg, &c.

31 Dec. 1872 king James, but was taken by general Ginckel soon after the decisive battle of Aughrim, 12 July, 1691. GAMUT. The scale of musical intervals (comHere is one of the new colleges, endowed by monly termed do or ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, to which government, pursuant to act 8 & 9 Viet. c. 66 si was added afterwards), for which the first seven (1845), inaugurated, 30 Oct. 1849, see Colleges and letters of the alphabet are now employed, is menIreland, 1872-3.

tioned by Guido Aretino, a Tuscan monk, about

1025 In 1858 the sailing of mail steam packets from Galway to

America began; but the subsidy ceased in May, 1861, GANGES CANAL, for irrigating the country through the company's breach of contract, which between the Ganges and the Jumna. The main occasioned much discussion in parliament. In July, I line (525 miles long) was opened 8 April, 18541863, the contract for the conveyance of mails from

The immense difficuities in its execution were overGalway to America was renewed, and 75,000l. voted for the purpose. The scheme was not successful.

come by the skill and perseverance of its engineer, Nov. the steamer Anglia struck on the Black rock, and

sir Proby Cautley. In Oct. 1864, sir Arthur Cotton the mails were taken to Dublin. The last packet sailed asserted that the work was badly done, and the inin Feb. 1864.

vestment only paid 3 per cent. GAMBOGE, a medicine and pigment, brought

GANGS, see Agricultural Gangs. from India by the Dutch, about 1600. Hermann in 1677 announced that it was derived from two GAOL DISTEMPER, see Old Bailey. trees of Ceylon, since ascertained to belong to the order Guttifera.

GARDENING. The first garden, Eden GAME LAWS are a remnant of the forest with allusions to gardens, particularly the Song of

planied by God. Gen. ii. The Scriptures abound laws imposed by William the Conqueror, who, to

Solomon and the prophets; and Christ's agony took preserve his game, made it forfeiture of property place in a garden. Xenophon describes the gardens to disable a wild beast, and loss of eyes, for a stag,

at Sardis; and Epicurus and Plato taught in gardens. buck or boar. The clergy protested against amelio- Theophrastus’s History of Plants

was written about rations of these laws, under Henry II!. The first 322 B.C. Horace, Virgil, and Ovid derive many game act passed in 1496. Game certificates were

images from the garden (50 B.C. to A.D. 50); and first granted with a duty in 1784. The Game act Pliny's Tusculan villa is circumstantially described (1 & 2 Will. IV. c. 32), greatly inodifying all pre: (about A.1). 100). The Romans introduced gardenvious laws, was passed in 1831. By it the sale of ing into Britain, the religious orders maintained it

, game is legalised at certain seasons. By the Game l'oaching Preventive act, passed in 1862, greatly when many Flemings came here to escape the per

and its cultivation increased in the 16th century, increased powers were given to the county police. secutions of Philip II. Miller's dictionary was pubLicences to kill game granted for the year 1856-7, lished in 1724; the Horticultural Society (uchich 28,950 ; for 1865-6, 43,231; for 1869, 54,203. Con- sce) was established in 1804; Loudon's Encyclovictions under the game laws in 1864), 10,345.

pæ lia of Gardening was first published in 1822, and

On 9

ORIGINAL KNIGHTS.

1823

bis Encyclopædia of Plants in 1829; an act for the
protection of gardens and ornamental grounds in King Edward III. sovereign.
cities was passed in 1863. See Botany, Flowers, Henry, duke of Lancaster.

Edward, prince of Wales (called the Black Prince). Fruits.

Thomas, earl of Warwick. GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 2 weekly Ralph, earl of Stafford.

John, captal de Buch. paper, long edited by Dr. John Lindley, first ap- William, earl of Salisbury. peared, 2 Jan. 1841.

Roger, earl of Mortimer.

Sir John Lisle. GARIGLIANO, a river (S. W. Italy). After Bartholomew, lord Burghershe. long waiting and refusing to recede a step, the great John, lord Beauchamp. captain Gonsalvo de Cordova made a bridge over

John, lord Mohun, of Dunster. this river, 27 Dec. 1503, and surprised and totally Sir Hugh Courtenay: defeated the French army. Gaëta surrendered a

Thomas, earl of Kent.

John, lord Grey, of Rotherfield. few days after.

Sir Richard Fitz-Simon.

Sir Miles Stapleton. GAROTTE, a machine for strangling criminals, Sir Thomas Wale. used in Spain. Mony attempts to strangle made Sir Hugh Wrottesley. by thieves (termed “garrotters,") in the winter of Sir Nele Loryng 1862-3, led to the passing of an act in July, 1863, Sir John Chandos.

Sir James Audeley. to punish these acts by flogging.

Sir Otho Holand.

Sir Henry Ean. GARTER, ORDER OF THE. Edward III., Sir Sanchet d'Abrichecourt. when at war with France and eager to draw the

Sir Walter Paveley. best soldiers of Europe into his interest, projected the revival of king Arthur's round table, proclaimed GAS, in chemistry, a permanently elastic aëria solemn tilting. On New Year's day 1343-4, he form fluid ; see Oxygen, TỈydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlopublished letters of protection for the safe coming rine, &c. and returning of such foreign knights as would Faraday determined a gas to be the vapour of a venture their reputation at the jousts and tourna volatile liquid existing at a temperature considerments about to be held. These took place 23rd ably above the boiling point of the liquid ; and April, 1344. A table was erected in Windsor castle that the condensing points of different gases are of 200 feet diameter, and the knights were enter

merely the boiling points of the liquids producing

them ; he by pressure condensed chlorine gas into tained at the king's expense. In 1346 Edward gave

a liquid. bis garter for the signal of a battle that had been Prof. Thos. Graham's paper on the law of the crowned with success (supposed to be Cressy), and diffusion of gases appeared, 1834; he showed that being victorious on sea and land, and having David, platinum and other metals can absorli gases 1866 king of Scotland, a prisoner, he, in memory of these

Furnaces in which gases are used as fuelinvented by exploits, is said to have instituted this order, 23 Lenoir's gas-engine, in which the motive power is

C. W. Siemens, and employed in glass works, &c. 1861 April, 1349.

obtained by the ignition of combined gases by

electricity, patented by hiin Edward III, gave the garter pre-eminence among 143 of these engines had been working in Paris; the ensigns of the order; it is of blue velvet bor

and introduced into England

Dec. 1864 dered with gold, with the inscription in old

Pierre Hugon's gas-engine (said to be superior to French-"Honi soit qui mal y pense" (Evil be to him who evil thinks). The knights are installed

Lenoir's, 1871) exhibited .

1867 at Windsor, and styleil Equites aureer Periscelidis, GASCONY (S. W. France), a duchy, part of

knights of the golden garter. Beatson. The order until king Elward VI.'s time was called

Aquitaine (which see). the order of St. George, the patron saint of GAS-LIGHTS; the inflammable aëriform fluid, England. His figure on horseback, presented as carburetted hydrogen, evolved by the combustion of holding a spear, and killing the dragon, was first

coal, was described by Dr. Clayton in 1739. Phil. worn by the knights of the institution. It is sus

Trans. pended by a blue ribbon across the body from the shoulder.

Application of coal gas to the purposes of illumination tried by Mr. Murdoch, in Cornwall .

1792 Instituted, according to Selden, 23 April, 1344 : Gaslight introduced at Boulton and Watt's foundry according to Nicolas, 1347; to Ashmole 1349 in Birmingham

1798 The office of Garter king of arms of Englishmen' Lyceum Theatre lit with gas is an experiment by instituted between May and July, 1417 Mr. Winsor

1803 Additions to the statutes decreed

1421, 1423 Permanently used at the cotton-mills of Phillips Collar and George of the order instituted by

and Lee, Manchester (1000 burners lighted) 1805 Henry VII.

Introduced in London, at Golden-lane, 16 Ang. The statutes reformed by order, 28 May, 1519 ; 1807; Pall Mall, 1809; generally through Lonissued 23 April, 1522 don

1814-20 The ceremonies altered in consequence of the Mr. Davia Pollock, father of the late chief baron, reformation

20 April, 1548 was governor of the first “chartered" gas comRevision of the statutes

pany

1812 The annual feast of St. George discontinued

1567 Gas first used in Dublin, 1818; the streets generally The Escocheon converted into a star 1629 lighted

Oct. 1825 The number of knights increased by seven 1786 Gas-lighting introduced in Paris, 1819; ten gas The order reconstituted ; to consist of the sovereign,

companies in Paris

July, 1865 the prince of Wales, 25 knights companions, and Sydney, in Australia, was lit with gas

25 May, 1841 lineal descendants of George III., when elected, The sale of gas is regulated by acts passed in 1860

17 Jan. 1805 | The gas-pipes in and round London extend upwards Several European sovereigns elected

1813-14 of 2000 miles, and are daily increasing. It was Ablul-Aziz, sultan of Turkey, invested with the

said in 1860, that of the gas supply of London a garter by the queen on board her yacht at the

leakage of 9 per cent. took place through the naval review

17 July, 1867 faulty joints of the pipes. Order of the Garter in Ireland instituted by Processes to obtain illuminating gas from water Edward IV.

1466

have been patented by Cruickshanks (1839), White Abolished

1494

(1849), and others.

99

.

about 1497

1560

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283

222

118

AD.

I 20

Gas-metors patented by John Malam (1820), sir W. GAUGING, measuring the contents of any

Congreve (1824), Samuel Clege (1830), Nathan vessel of capacity, with respect to wine and other Defries (1838), and others

liquids, was established by a law, 27 Edw. III. 1352. Explosion of a large gasometer at the London Gaslight Company's works at Nine-elms; 10 persons

GAUL AND GAULS. Gallia the ancient killed, and many injured (first accident of the

name of France and Belgium. The Gauls termed kind)

31 Oct. 1865 by the Greeks Galatae, by the Romans, Galli or Moscow first lit with gas

27 Dec. 1866 An economical gas produced from bitumen at

Celtæ, came originally from Asia, and invading Woolwich arsenal

Jan. 1868 Eastern Europe, were driven westward, and settled Central Gas Company, London, established

1849 in Spain (in Galicia), North Italy (Gallia Cisalpina), Gas successfully tried as fuel for the generation of France and Belgium (Gallia Transalpina), and the steam by Jackson's patent

April, 1868

British isles (the lands of the Cymry or Gaels). The Central Gas company robbed of about 70,000l.

B.C. by Benjamin Higgs, a clerk; discovered, April, 1869

The Phocæans found Massilia, now Marseilles 600 Gas-light tried at Howth lighthouse, near Dublin,

The Galli Senones under Brennus defeat the Romans July,

at the river Allia, and sack Rome; are defeated Gasworks clauses act passed

13 July, 1871 By the London gas act, passed iz July, 1868, orů and expelled by Camillus

13 July, 390

Again defeated nary gas charged 38. od. the 1000 cubic feet, after

367

The Gauls defeated by the Romans at Sentinum 1 Jan. 1870.

295

The Senones defeat the Romans at Arretium ; Strike of London gas-stokers, 2400 out, 2 Dec.; the

nearly exterminated by Dolabella inconvenience met by great exertion, 2-6 Dec. ; several tried and imprisoned

Dec. 1872

The Gauls overrun Northern Greece, 280 B.C. ; are

beaten at Delphi, 279; and by Antigonus, king of

Macedon.
GASTEIN (Salzburg, Austria). The long dis The Gauls defcated with great slaughter near

278

Pisa: cussion between Austria and Prussia respecting the The Insubres totally overthrown by Marcellus, and

225 disposal of the duchies conquered from Denmark, their king Viridomarus slain. was closed by a provisional convention signed here They assist Hannibal

218, &c. by their ministers (Blum for Austria and Bismarck The Romans conquer Gallia Cisalpina, 220; invade for Prussia) 14 Aug. 1865. This convention was

Gallia Transalpina, with varied success.

121-58 severely censured by the other powers and abrogated Julius Cæsar sublues Gaul in 8 campaigns

They colonise Aix, 123 B.C.; and Narbonne

· 58-50 in 1866.

Lyons (Lugdunum) founded

41 Austria was to have the temporary government of Hol

Druids' religion proscribed by Claudius stein, and Prussia that of Sleswig; the establishment

43

Adrian visits and favours Gaul, hence called Re. of a Gerinan fleet was proposed, with Kiel as a Federal

storer of the Gauls harbour, held by Prussia ; Lauenburg was absolutely Introduction of Christianity

160 ceded to Prussia, and the king was to pay Austria as a

Christians persecuted compensation 2,500,000 Danish dollars.

177, 202, 257, 286, 283 The Franks and others defeated by Aurelian

241

And by Probus, 275, 277 ; who introduces the cul. GATES, see London Gates.

ture of the vine.

280

Maximian defeats the Franks GATESHEAD, a borough in Durham, on the

281 Tyne, opposite Newcastle. At Gateshead-fell, Julian arrives to relieve Gaul, desolated by bar

Constantine proclaimed emperor of Gaui

306 William I. defeated Edgar Atheling and his Scotch barians ; defeats the Alemanni at Strasburg

357 auxiliaries in 1068. Gateshead was made a par Julian proclaimed emperor at Paris, 360; dies 363 liamentary borough by the reform act in 1832. Gaul harassed by the Alemanni

365-377

Invasion and settlement of the Burgundians, Between twelve and one o'clock, 5, 6 Oct. 1854, a fire Franks, Visigoths, &c.

378-450 broke out in a worsted manufactory here, which set Clodion, chief of the Salian Franks, invades Gaul; fire to a bond warehouse containing a great quantity of is defeated by Aétius nitre, sulphur, &c., causing a terrific explosion, felt at The Huns under Attila defeated by Aëtius near

447 nearly twenty miles' distance, and totally destroying Chalons. many buildings, and burying many persons in the Ægidius, the Roman commander, murdered

404 ruins. At the moment of the explosion, large masses Childeric the Frank takes Paris of blazing materials flew over the Tyne and set fire to All Gaul, west of the Rhone, ceded to the Visi: many warehouses in Newcastle. About fifty lives were goths :

475 lost, and very many persons were seriously wounded. End of the Roman empire of the West, and estabThe damage was estiinated at about a million pounds. lishment of the kingdom of the Franks

451

476

(See France.) GATLING GUN OR BATTERY. An American invention exhibited at Paris in 1867. It

GAUNTLET, an iron glove, first introduced in is intended to discharge at once a number of pro

the 13th century, perhaps about 1225. jectiles smaller than the shells of field guns, and it commonly thrown down as a challenge to an has as many locks as barrels, It was tried at Shoe

adversary. buryness and rejected as inferior to a tield gun firing GAUZE, a fabric much prized among the shrapnel. A powder to be used in the Gatling, in

Roman people. “ Brocades and damasks and tabvented by M. Pertuiset, was tried in London, bies and gauzes have been lately brought over" (to Aug. 1870.

Ireland). Dean Swift, in 1698. The manufacture

of gauze and articles of a light fabric at Paisley, in GAUGAMELA, see Arbela.

Scotland, began about 1759. GAUGES (in railways). Much discussion GAVEL-KIND (derived from the Saxon gif (termed “the battle of the gauges”) began among eal cyn, "give ail suitably;” or from gafolcynd, engineers about 1833., Mr. I. M. Brunel approved land yielding rent), the custom in Kent of dividing of the broad gauge, adopted on the Great Western paternal estates in land, the wives to have half, the Railway; and Mr. R. Stephenson, Joseph Locke, rest equally among male children, without any disand others, chose the narrow, now almost uni tinction, 550. By the Irish law of gavel-kind, even versally adopted even by the Great Western. A bastards inherited. Daries. Not only the lands of 2-foot gauge was recommended in Feb. 1870, having the father were equally divided among all his sons, been successful on the Festiniog railway, Wales, but the lands of the brother also among all his with Fairlie's engine.

brethren, if he had no issue of his own. Law Dict.

It was

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