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GALL, ST. (in Switzerland). The abbey, founded in the 7th century, was surrounded by a town in the 10th. St. Gall became a canton of the confederation in 1815.

France.

GALLEYS with three rows of rowers, triremes, were invented by the Corinthians, 786 B.C. Blair. The terms " galley slave," and "condemned to the galleys," arose from these sea vessels having from 25 to 30 benches on each side, manned by four or five slaves to each bench. In France they had a general of galleys, of whom the baron de la Garde was the first, 1544. The punishment of the galleys (galeres) has been superseded by the "travaux forces," forced labour, regulated by a law of 1854, the men being called "forçats."

GALLICAN CHURCH, see Church of

GALLIPOLI, the ancient Callipolis, a seaport in Turkey in Europe, 128 miles west of Constantinople. It was taken by the Turks in 1357, and fortified by Bajazet I. The first division of the French and English armies proceeding against the Russians landed here in March and April, 1854.

GALOCHES, French for overshoes, formerly of leather; but since 1843 made of vulcanised India rubber. The importation of Galoshes was prohibited by 3 Edw. IV. c. 4 (1463).

GALVANISM AND GALVANO-PLASTICS, see under Electricity, p. 232.

GALWAY (W. Ireland). The ancient settlers here were divided into thirteen tribes, a distinction not yet forgotten. It was conquered by Richard de Burgo in 1232. In 1690 Galway city declared for king James, but was taken by general Ginckel soon after the decisive battle of Aughrim, 12 July, 1691. Here is one of the new colleges, endowed by government, pursuant to act 8 & 9 Vict. c. 66 (1845), inaugurated, 30 Oct. 1849, see Colleges and Ireland, 1872-3.

In 1858 the sailing of mail steam packets from Galway to America began; but the subsidy ceased in May, 1861, through the company's breach of contract, which occasioned much discussion in parliament. In July, 1863, the contract for the conveyance of mails from Galway to America was renewed, and 75,000l. voted for the purpose. The scheme was not successful. On 9 Nov. the steamer Anglia struck on the Black rock, and the mails were taken to Dublin. The last packet sailed in Feb. 1864.

GAMBOGE, a medicine and pigment, brought from India by the Dutch, about 1600. Hermann in 1677 announced that it was derived from two trees of Ceylon, since ascertained to belong to the order Guttifera.

GAMES. Candidates for athletic games in Greece were dieted on new cheese, dried figs, and boiled grain, with warm water, and no meat. The sports were leaping, foot-races, quoits, wrestling, and boxing; see Capitoline, Isthmian, Olympic, Pythian, Secular Games, &c.

GAME LAWS are a remnant of the forest laws imposed by William the Conqueror, who, to preserve his game, made it forfeiture of property to disable a wild beast, and loss of eyes, for a stag, buck or boar. The clergy protested against ameliorations of these laws, under Henry Ill. The first game act passed in 1496. Game certificates were first granted with a duty in 1784. The Game act (1 & 2 Will. IV. c. 32), greatly modifying all previous laws, was passed in 1831. By it the sale of game is legalised at certain seasons. By the Game Poaching Preventive act, passed in 1862, greatly increased powers were given to the county police. Licences to kill game granted for the year 1856-7, 28,950; for 1865-6, 43,231; for 1869, 54,203. Convictions under the game laws in 1869, 10,345.

GAMING was introduced into England by the Saxons; the loser was often made a slave to the winner, and sold in traffic like other merchandise. Camden.

Act prohibiting gaming to all gentlemen (and interdicting tennis, cards, dice, bowls, &c., to inferior people, except at Christmas time)

Gaming-houses licensed in London
Any person losing, by betting or playing, more than

100l. at any one time, not compellable to pay the same, 16 Chas. II. .

. 1541 .. 1620

1663

Bonds or other securities given for money won at play not recoverable; and any person losing more than rol. may sue the winner to recover it back, 9 Anne, c. 14

Act to prevent excessive and fraudulent gaming, when all private lotteries and the games of faro, basset, and hazard were suppressed The profits of a gaming-house in London for one season have been estimated at 150,000l. In one night a million of money is said to have changed hands at this place. Leigh. A bankrupt was refused his certificate because he had lost 51. at one time in gaming 17 July, 1788 Three ladies of quality convicted in penalties of 5ol. each for playing at faro March 11, 1797 Gaming-houses were licensed in Paris until 1838 Amended laws respecting games and wagers, 8 & 9 Viet. c. 109 (1845); by 3 Geo. IV. c. 114 (1822), a gaming-house keeper is to be imprisoned with hard labour; and by 2 & 3 Vict., gaming-houses may be entered by the police and all persons present taken into custody Betting-houses suppressed Public gaming-tables totally suppressed at Wiesbaden, Homburg, &c. 31 Dec. 1872

1710

1739

1839 1853

GAMUT. The scale of musical intervals (commonly termed do or ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, to which si was added afterwards), for which the first seven letters of the alphabet are now employed, is mentioned by Guido Aretino, a Tuscan monk, about 1025.

GANGES CANAL, for irrigating the country between the Ganges and the Jumna. The main line (525 miles fong) was opened 8 April, 1854The immense difficulties in its execution were overcome by the skill and perseverance of its engineer, sir Proby Cautley. In Oct. 1864, sir Arthur Cotton asserted that the work was badly done, and the investment only paid 3 per cent.

GANGS, see Agricultural Gangs.

GAOL DISTEMPER, see Old Bailey. GARDENING. The first garden, Eden planted by God. Gen. ii. The Scriptures abound with allusions to gardens, particularly the Song of Solomon and the prophets; and Christ's agony took place in a garden. Xenophon describes the gardens Theophrastus's History of Plants was written about at Sardis; and Epicurus and Plato taught in gardens. 322 B.C. Horace, Virgil, and Ovid derive many images from the garden (50 B.C. to A.D. 50); and Pliny's Tusculan villa is circumstantially described (about A.D. 100). The Romans introduced gardening into Britain, the religious orders maintained it, and its cultivation increased in the 16th century, when many Flemings came here to escape the persecutions of Philip II. Miller's dictionary was published in 1724; the Horticultural Society (which see) was established in 1804; Loudon's Encyclopædia of Gardening was first published in 1822, and

his Encyclopædia of Plants in 1829; an act for the protection of gardens and ornamental grounds in cities was passed in 1863. See Botany, Flowers,

Fruits.

GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, a weekly paper, long edited by Dr. John Lindley, first appeared, 2 Jan. 1841.

GARIGLIANO, a river (S. W. Italy). After long waiting and refusing to recede a step, the great captain Gonsalvo de Cordova made a bridge over this river, 127 Dec. 1503, and surprised and totally defeated the French army. Gaëta surrendered a few days after.

GAROTTE, a machine for strangling criminals, used in Spain. Many attempts to strangle made by thieves (termed "garrotters,") in the winter of 1862-3, led to the passing of an act in July, 1863, to punish these acts by flogging.

GARTER, ORDER OF THE. Edward III., when at war with France and eager to draw the best soldiers of Europe into his interest, projected the revival of king Arthur's round table, proclaimed a solemn tilting. On New Year's day 1343-4, he published letters of protection for the safe coming and returning of such foreign knights as would venture their reputation at the jousts and tournaments about to be held. These took place 23rd April, 1344. A table was erected in Windsor castle of 200 feet diameter, and the knights were entertained at the king's expense. In 1346 Edward gave his garter for the signal of a battle that had been crowned with success (supposed to be Cressy), and being victorious on sea and land, and having David, king of Scotland, a prisoner, he, in memory of these exploits, is said to have instituted this order, 23 April, 1349.

Edward III. gave the garter pre-eminence among

the ensigns of the order; it is of blue velvet bordered with gold, with the inscription in old French-"Honi soit qui mal y pense" (Evil be to him who evil thinks). The knights are installed at Windsor, and styled Equites aurer Periscelidis, knights of the golden garter. Beatson. The order until king Edward VI.'s time was called the order of St. George, the patron saint of England. His figure on horseback, presented as holding a spear, and killing the dragon, was first worn by the knights of the institution. It is suspended by a blue ribbon across the body from the shoulder.

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GAS, in chemistry, a permanently elastic aëriform fluid; see Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Chlorine, &c.

Faraday determined a gas to be the vapour of a volatile liquid existing at a temperature considerably above the boiling point of the liquid; and that the condensing points of different gases are merely the boiling points of the liquids producing them; he by pressure condensed chlorine gas into a liquid

1823

Prof. Thos. Graham's paper on the law of the diffusion of gases appeared, 1834; he showed that platinum and other metals can absorb gases Furnaces in which gases are used as fuel invented by C. W. Siemens, and employed in glass works, &c. 1861

1866

Lenoir's gas-engine, in which the motive power is obtained by the ignition of combined gases by electricity, patented by him

143 of these engines had been working in Paris; and introduced into England . Dec. 1864 Pierre Hugon's gas-engine (said to be superior to Lenoir's, 1871) exhibited

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1867

GASCONY (S. W. France), a duchy, part of Aquitaine (which see).

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GAS-LIGHTS; the inflammable aëriform fluid, carburetted hydrogen, evolved by the combustion of coal, was described by Dr. Clayton in 1739. Phil. Trans.

Application of coal gas to the purposes of illumination tried by Mr. Murdoch, in Cornwall. Gaslight introduced at Boulton and Watt's foundry in Birmingham Lyceum Theatre lit with gas as an experiment by Mr. Winsor

Permanently used at the cotton-mills of Phillips and Lee, Manchester (1000 burners lighted) Introduced in London, at Golden-lane, 16 Aug. 1807; Pall Mall, 1809; generally through London

1792

1798

1803

1805

1814-20

Mr. David Pollock, father of the late chief baron, was governor of the first "chartered" gas comGas first used in Dublin, 1818; the streets generally lighted

1812

Oct. 1825

July, 1865

.

. 1860

Gas-lighting introduced in Paris, 1819; ten gas companies in Paris Sydney, in Australia, was lit with gas 25 May, 1841 The sale of gas is regulated by acts passed in The gas-pipes in and round London extend upwards of 2000 miles, and are daily increasing. It was said in 1860, that of the gas supply of London a leakage of 9 per cent. took place through the faulty joints of the pipes. Processes to obtain illuminating gas from water have been patented by Cruickshanks (1839), White (1849), and others.

Gas-meters patented by John Malam (1820), sir W.
Congreve (1824), Samuel Clegg (1830), Nathan
Defries (1838), and others

Explosion of a large gasometer at the London Gas-
light Company's works at Nine-elms; 10 persons
killed, and many injured (first accident of the
kind)
31 Oct. 1865
Moscow first lit with gas
27 Dec. 1866
An economical gas produced from bitumen at
Woolwich arsenal

Central Gas Company, London, established
Gas successfully tried as fuel for the generation of
steam by Jackson's patent
April, 1868

The Central Gas company robbed of about 70,000l.
by Benjamin Higgs, a clerk; discovered, April, 1869
Gas-light tried at Howth lighthouse, near Dublin,
July,
Gasworks clauses act passed
13 July, 1871
By the London gas act, passed 13 July, 1868, ordi-
nary gas charged 38. 9. the 1000 cubic feet, after
1 Jan. 1870.

""

.

Strike of London gas-stokers, 2400 out, 2 Dec.; the inconvenience met by great exertion, 2-6 Dec.; several tried and imprisoned

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Jan. 1868

1849

Dec. 1872

GASTEIN (Salzburg, Austria). The long discussion between Austria and Prussia respecting the disposal of the duchies conquered from Denmark, was closed by a provisional convention signed here by their ministers (Blum for Austria and Bismarck for Prussia) 14 Aug. 1865. This convention was severely censured by the other powers and abrogated

in 1866.

Austria was to have the temporary government of Holstein, and Prussia that of Sleswig; the establishment of a Gerinan fleet was proposed, with Kiel as a Federal harbour, held by Prussia; Lauenburg was absolutely ceded to Prussia, and the king was to pay Austria as a compensation 2,500,000 Danish dollars.

GATES, see London Gates.

GATESHEAD, a borough in Durham, on the Tyne, opposite Newcastle. At Gateshead-fell, William I. defeated Edgar Atheling and his Scotch auxiliaries in 1068. Gateshead was made a parliamentary borough by the reform act in 1832. Between twelve and one o'clock, 5, 6 Oct. 1854, a fire broke out in a worsted manufactory here, which set fire to a bond warehouse containing a great quantity of nitre, sulphur, &c., causing a terrific explosion, felt at nearly twenty miles' distance, and totally destroying many buildings, and burying many persons in the ruins. At the moment of the explosion, large masses of blazing materials flew over the Tyne and set fire to many warehouses in Newcastle. About fifty lives were lost, and very many persons were seriously wounded. The damage was estimated at about a million pounds.

GATLING GUN OR BATTERY. An American invention exhibited at Paris in 1867. It is intended to discharge at once a number of projectiles smaller than the shells of field guns, and it has as many locks as barrels, It was tried at Shoe buryness and rejected as inferior to a field gun firing shrapnel. A powder to be used in the Gatling, invented by M. Pertuiset, was tried in London, Aug. 1870.

GAUGING, measuring the contents of any vessel of capacity, with respect to wine and other liquids, was established by a law, 27 Edw. III. 1352. GAUL AND GAULS. Gallia the ancient name of France and Belgium. The Gauls termed by the Greeks Galatæ, by the Romans, Galli or Celta, came originally from Asia, and invading Eastern Europe, were driven westward, and settled in Spain (in Galicia), North Italy (Gallia Cisalpina), France and Belgium (Gallia Transalpina), and the British isles (the lands of the Cymry or Gaels).

GAUGAMELA, see Arbela.

GAUGES (in railways). Much discussion (termed "the battle of the gauges") began among engineers about 1833. Mr. I. M. Brunel approved of the broad gauge, adopted on the Great Western Railway; and Mr. R. Stephenson, Joseph Locke, and others, chose the narrow, now almost universally adopted even by the Great Western. A 2-foot gauge was recommended in Feb. 1870, having been successful on the Festiniog railway, Wales, with Fairlie's engine.

The Phocæans found Massilia, now Marseilles

The Galli Senones under Brennus defeat the Romans at the river Allia, and sack Rome; are defeated and expelled by Camillus 13 July,

Again defeated

The Gauls defeated by the Romans at Sentinum
The Senones defeat the Romans at Arretium ;
nearly exterminated by Dolabella
The Gauls overrun Northern Greece, 280 B.C.; are
beaten at Delphi, 279; and by Antigonus, king of
Macedon.

The Gauls defeated with great slaughter near Pisa.
The Insubres totally overthrown by Marcellus, and
their king Viridomarus slain.
They assist Hannibal

The Romans conquer Gallia Cisalpina, 220; invade
Gallia Transalpina, with varied success.
They colonise Aix, 123 B.C.; and Narbonne

Julius Caesar subdues Gaul in 8 campaigns

Lyons (Lugdunum) founded

Introduction of Christianity Christians, persecuted

Druids' religion proscribed by Claudius
Adrian visits and favours Gaul, hence called Re-

storer of the Gauls

177, 202, 257, 286, The Franks and others defeated by Aurelian And by Probus, 275, 277; who introduces the culture of the vine.

Maximian defeats the Franks
Constantine proclaimed emperor of Gaul
Julian arrives to relieve Gaul, desolated by bar-
barians; defeats the Alemanni at Strasburg
Julian proclaimed emperor at Paris, 360; dies
Gaul harassed by the Alemanni
Invasion and settlement of the Burgundians,
Franks, Visigoths, &c.

Clodion, chief of the Salian Franks, invades Gaul; is defeated by Aëtius

The Huns under Attila defeated by Aëtius near

Chalons.

222 218, &c.

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B. C.

600

121-58 118 ·58-50

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Ægidius, the Roman commander, murdered
Childeric the Frank takes Paris

.

All Gaul, west of the Rhone, ceded to the Visigoths End of the Roman empire of the West, and establishment of the kingdom of the Franks (See France.)

390 367

295

283

278 225

41 A. D. 43

120

160 288

241

357

363

365-377

378-450

447

45T 464

""

280

281

306

475 476

GAUNTLET, an iron glove, first introduced in the 13th century, perhaps about 1225. It was a challenge to an commonly thrown down as adversary.

GAUZE, a fabric much prized among the Roman people. "Brocades and damasks and tabbies and gauzes have been lately brought over" (to Ireland). Dean Swift, in 1698. The manufacture of gauze and articles of a light fabric at Paisley, in Scotland, began about 1759.

66

GAVEL-KIND (derived from the Saxon gif cal cyn, give all suitably;" or from gafoleynd, land yielding rent), the custom in Kent of dividing paternal estates in land, the wives to have half, the rest equally among male children, without any distinction, 550. By the Irish law of gavel-kind, even bastards inherited. Davies. Not only the lands of the father were equally divided among all his sons, but the lands of the brother also among all his brethren, if he had no issue of his own. Law Dict.

GAZA, a city of the Philistines, of which Samson carried off the gates about 1120 B.C. (Judges xvi.) It was taken by Alexander after a long siege, A revolution; executions and imprisonments, 332; and near to it Ptolemy defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes, 312 B.C. It was taken by Saladin A.D. 1170; by Bonaparte, March, 1799; and by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pacha in 1831.

GELHEIM, near Worms, central Germany. Here the emperor Adolphus of Na was defeated and slain by his rival Albert I. of Austria, 2 July, 1298.

GAZETTES, see Newspapers.

GEMS. The Greeks excelled in cutting precious stones, and many ancient specimens remain. The art was revived in Italy in the 15th century. In Feb. 1860, Herz's collection of gems was sold for 10,000l. Rev. C. King's "Antique Gems" peared in 1860, and his "Natural History of Precious Stones and Gems" in 1865. Dr. A. Billing's "Science of Gems," 1868. Artificial gems have been recently produced by chemists (Ebelmen, Deville, Wöhler, and others), 1858-65.

ap

GENEALOGY, from the Greek genea, birth, descent. The earliest pedigrees are contained in the 5th, 10th, and 11th chapters of Genesis. The first book of Chronicles contains many genealogies. The pedigree of Christ is given in Matt. i. and Luke iii. Many books on the subject have been published in all European countries; one at Magdeburg, Theatrum Genealogicum, by Henninges, in 1598. Anderson, Royal Genealogies, London, 1732. Sims' Manual for the Genealogist, &c., 1856, will be found a useful guide. The works of Collins (1756 et seq.), Edmondson (1764-84), and Nicolas (1825 and 1857), on the British peerage, are highly esteemed. The Genealogical society, London, established in 1853.

GENERAL COUNCILS, WARRANTS, see Councils, Warrants.

GENERALS. Matthew de Montmorency was the first general of the French armies, 1203. Hénault. Balzac states that cardinal Richelieu coined the word Generalissimo, upon his taking the supreme command of the French armies in Italy, in 1629. Ulysses Grant was the first general of the army of the United States of America, so styled in 1866; see Commanders-in-Chief.

GENERATION (in Chronology), the interval of time between the birth of a father and the birth of his child: 33 years are allowed for the average length of a generation. See Spontaneous.

GENEVA CONVENTION, for the succour of the wounded in time of active warfare. Having been a witness of the horrors of the battle-field of Solferino, 24 June, 1859, M. Henri Dunant, a Swiss, published his experiences, which induced the Société Génévoise d'Utilité Publique in Feb. 1863 to discuss the question whether relief societies might not be formed in time of peace to help the wounded in time of war by means of qualified volunteers. At an international conference held 26 Oct.

1863, fourteen governments, including Great Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Russia, were represented by delegates. The propositions then drawn up were accepted as an international code by

GENERAL ASSEMBLY, see Church of a congress which met at Geneva, 8 Aug. 1864, and Scotland. on 22 Aug. a convention was signed by twelve of civilised powers except the United States. Interthe delegates, and it was eventually adopted by all national conferences were held at Paris in 1867 and at Berlin in 1869 for further developing in a practical manner the objects of the Geneva conference. The International Society (termed "the Red Cross Society "), established in consequence of these proceedings was very energetic in relieving the wounded and sick during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, its flag being recognised as neutral. See Aid to Sick and Wounded Above 13,000 volunteers said to be employed in attending the sick and wounded, Sept.-Dec., 1870. At a meeting in London, 6 Aug., 1872, M. Dunant proposed a plan for the uniform treatment of prisoners of war.

GENEVA, a town of the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe, 58 B.C.; became part of the empire of Charlemagne, about A.D. 800; and capital of the kingdom of Burgundy, 426.

Many of the fugitives came to Ireland in July,
1783; but they soon after abandoned it; many
Genevese settled in England.

The Republic founded in.
Emancipated from Savoy
Calvin settled here, and obtaining much influence,
Geneva was termed the "Rome of Calvinism"
about 1536
Through him Servetus burnt for heresy, 27 Oct. 1553
Geneva allied to the Swiss Cantons
1584
Insurrection, Feb. 1781; about 1000 Genevese, in
consequence, applied, in 1782, to earl Temple,
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, for permission to settle
in that country: the Irish parliament voted
50,000l. to defray the expenses of their journey,
and to purchase them lands near Waterford.

1512
1526

1784

July, 1794 26 April, 1798 30 Dec. 1813 1846

7 Oct. 1848

Geneva incorporated with France
Admitted into the Swiss Confederation,
The constitution made more democratic
Revolution, through an endeavour of the Catholic
cantons to introduce Jesuits as teachers; a pro-
visional government set up.
[The scheme was withdrawn.]
About 50 persons from Geneva land at Thonon and
Evian, to set up the Swiss flag; but are brought
back by Swiss troops.
Election riots, with loss of life, through the indis-
cretion of M. Fazy.
49th annual meeting of the Helvetic Society of
22 Aug. 1864
21-23 Aug. 1865
Garibaldi present,

30 Mar. 1860

National Sciences held
Violent peace congress

12 Sept. 1867
The Alabama arbitration commission met; received
the cases and adjourned to 15 June, 1872, 18 Dec. 1871
Formal meeting of the commission (see Alabama),
Monsignor Mermillod, nominated bishop of Geneva
15 June, 1872
(in the diocese of the bishop of Lausanne), and
vicar apostolie; his arrest proposed, 2
Feb.;
ordered to quit, if he will not submit to the civil
government by 15 Feb.; he is expelled

17 Feb.

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Gas-meters patented by John Malam (1820), sir W.
Congreve (1824), Samuel Clegg (1830), Nathan
Defries (1838), and others

Explosion of a large gasometer at the London Gas-
light Company's works at Nine-elms; to persons
killed, and many injured (first accident of the
kind)
31 Oct. 1865

27 Dec. 1866

Moscow first lit with gas
An economical gas produced from bitumen at
Woolwich arsenal

Central Gas Company, London, established
Gas successfully tried as fuel for the generation of
steam by Jackson's patent
April, 1868
The Central Gas company robbed of about 70,000l.
by Benjamin Higgs, a clerk; discovered, April, 1869
Gas-light tried at Howth lighthouse, near Dublin,
July,
Gasworks clauses act passed
13 July, 1871
By the London gas act, passed 13 July, 1868, ordi-
nary gas charged 38. 9d. the 1000 cubic feet, after
I Jan. 1870.

33

Strike of London gas-stokers, 2400 out, 2 Dec.; the inconvenience met by great exertion, 2-6 Dec.; several tried and imprisoned

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Jan. 1868
1849

The Phocæans found Massilia, now Marseilles

The Galli Senones under Brennus defeat the Romans
at the river Allia, and sack Rome; are defeated
and expelled by Camillus
13 July,

Again defeated

The Gauls defeated by the Romans at Sentinum
The Senones defeat the Romans at Arretium ;
nearly exterminated by Dolabella
The Gauls overrun Northern Greece, 280 B.C.; are
beaten at Delphi, 279; and by Antigonus, king of
Macedon.
The Gauls defeated with great slaughter near
Pisa.
The Insubres totally overthrown by Marcellus, and
their king Viridomarus slain.

GASTEIN (Salzburg, Austria). The long dis-
cussion between Austria and Prussia respecting the
disposal of the duchies conquered from Denmark,
was closed by a provisional convention signed here
by their ministers (Blum for Austria and Bismarck
for Prussia) 14 Aug. 1865. This convention was
severely censured by the other powers and abrogated Julius Caesar subdues Gaul in 8 campaigns

They assist Hannibal
The Romans conquer Gallia Cisalpina, 220; invade
Gallia Transalpina, with varied success.
They colonise Aix, 123 B.C.; and Narbonne

in 1866.

Lyons (Lugdunum) founded

Dec. 1872

Austria was to have the temporary government of Holstein, and Prussia that of Sleswig; the establishment of a German fleet was proposed, with Kiel as a Federal harbour, held by Prussia; Lauenburg was absolutely ceded to Prussia, and the king was to pay Austria as a compensation 2,500,000 Danish dollars.

GATES, see London Gates.

GATESHEAD, a borough in Durham, on the Tyne, opposite Newcastle. At Gateshead-fell, William I. defeated Edgar Atheling and his Scotch auxiliaries in 1068. Gateshead was made a parliamentary borough by the reform act in 1832.

Between twelve and one o'clock, 5, 6 Oct. 1854, a fire broke out in a worsted manufactory here, which set fire to a bond warehouse containing a great quantity of nitre, sulphur, &c., causing a terrific explosion, felt at nearly twenty miles' distance, and totally destroying many buildings, and burying many persons in the ruins. At the moment of the explosion, large masses of blazing materials flew over the Tyne and set fire to many warehouses in Newcastle. About fifty lives were lost, and very many persons were seriously wounded. The damage was estimated at about a million pounds.

GAUGING, measuring the contents of any vessel of capacity, with respect to wine and other liquids, was established by a law, 27 Edw. III. 1352.

GATLING GUN OR BATTERY. An American invention exhibited at Paris in 1867. It is intended to discharge at once a number of projectiles smaller than the shells of field guns, and it has as many locks as barrels, It was tried at Shoeburyness and rejected as inferior to a field gun firing shrapnel. A powder to be used in the Gatling, invented by M. Pertuiset, was tried in London, Aug. 1870.

GAUGAMELA, see Arbela.

GAUGES (in railways). Much discussion (termed "the battle of the gauges") began among engineers about 1833. Mr. I. M. Brunel approved of the broad gauge, adopted on the Great Western Railway; and Mr. R. Stephenson, Joseph Locke, and others, chose the narrow, now almost universally adopted even by the Great Western. A 2-foot gauge was recommended in Feb. 1870, having been successful on the Festiniog railway, Wales, with Fairlie's engine.

GAUL AND GAULS. Gallia the ancient name of France and Belgium. The Gauls termed by the Greeks Galatæ, by the Romans, Galli or Celta, came originally from Asia, and invading Eastern Europe, were driven westward, and settled in Spain (in Galicia), North Italy (Gallia Cisalpina), France and Belgium (Gallia Transalpina), and the British isles (the lands of the Cymry or Gaels).

Druids' religion proscribed by Claudius
Adrian visits and favours Gaul, hence called Re-
storer of the Gauls
Introduction of Christianity

Christians, persecuted

B. C.

600

390 367

295

283

222

218, &c.

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278 225

121-58 118 58-50

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120 160 177, 202, 257, 286, 288 The Franks and others defeated by Aurelian. And by Probus, 275, 277; who introduces the culture of the vine.

241

Maximian defeats the Franks
Constantine proclaimed emperor of Gaul
Julian arrives to relieve Gaul, desolated by bar-
barians; defeats the Alemanni at Strasburg
Julian proclaimed emperor at Paris, 360; dies
Gaul harassed by the Alemanni
Invasion and settlement of the Burgundians,
Franks, Visigoths, &c.

Clodion, chief of the Salian Franks, invades Gaul
is defeated by Aëtius

The Huns under Attila defeated by Aetius near

Chalons

4I A. D. 43

280

281 306

357 363 365-377

378-450

Egidius, the Roman commander, murdered.
Childeric the Frank takes Paris

All Gaul, west of the Rhone, ceded to the Visi-
goths.

475

End of the Roman empire of the West, and estab
lishment of the kingdom of the Franks

476
(See France.)
GAUNTLET, an iron glove, first introduced in
the 13th century, perhaps about 1225. It was
commonly thrown down as a challenge to an
adversary.

447

451 464

99

GAUZE, a fabric much prized among the Roman people. "Brocades and damasks and tabbies and gauzes have been lately brought over" (to Ireland). Dean Swift, in 1698. The manufacture of gauze and articles of a light fabric at Paisley, in Scotland, began about 1759.

GAVEL-KIND (derived from the Saxon gif cal cyn, "give all suitably;' land yielding rent), the custom in Kent of dividing or from gafoleynd, paternal estates in land, the wives to have half, the rest equally among male children, without any distinction, 550. By the Irish law of gavel-kind, even bastards inherited. Davies. Not only the lands of the father were equally divided among all his sons, but the lands of the brother also among all his brethren, if he had no issue of his own. Law Dict.

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