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GAZA, a city of the Philistines, of which Samson carried off the gates about 1120 B.C. (Judges xvi.) It was taken by Alexander after a long siege, 332; and near to it Ptolemy defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes, 312 B.C. It was taken by Saladin A.D. 1170; by Bonaparte, March, 1799; and by the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pacha in 1831.
GELHEIM, near Worms, central Germany. Here the emperor Adolphus of Nassau feated and slain by his rival Albert I. of Austria, 2 July, 1298.
GAZETTES, see Newspapers.
GEMS. The Greeks excelled in cutting precious stones, and many ancient specimens remain. The art was revived in Italy in the 15th century. In Feb. 1860, Herz's collection of gems was sold for 10,000l. Rev. C. King's "Antique Gems" appeared in 1860, and his "Natural History of Precious Stones and Gems" in 1865. Dr. A. Billing's "Science of Gems," 1868. Artificial gems have been recently produced by chemists (Ebelmen, Deville, Wöhler, and others), 1858-65.
GENEALOGY, from the Greek genea, birth, descent. The earliest pedigrees are contained in the 5th, 10th, and 11th chapters of Genesis. The first book of Chronicles contains many genealogies. The pedigree of Christ is given in Matt. i. and Luke iii. Many books on the subject have been published in all European countries; one at Magdeburg, Theatrum Genealogicum, by Henninges, in 1598. Anderson, Royal Genealogies, London, 1732. Sims' Manual for the Genealogist, &c., 1856, will be found a useful guide. The works of Collins (1756 et seq.), Edmondson (1764-84), and Nicolas (1825 and 1857), on the British peerage, are highly esteemed. The Genealogical society, London, established in 1853.
GENERAL COUNCILS, WARRANTS, see Councils, Warrants.
GENERALS. Matthew de Montmorency was the first general of the French armies, 1203. Hénault. Balzac states that cardinal Richelieu coined the word Generalissimo, upon his taking the supreme command of the French armies in Italy, in 1629. Ulysses Grant was the first general of the army of the United States of America, so styled in 1866; see Commanders-in-Chief.
Many of the fugitives came to Ireland in July,
revolution; executions and imprisonments,
GENERATION (in Chronology), the interval of time between the birth of a father and the birth of his child: 33 years are allowed for the average length of a generation. See Spontaneous.
Geneva incorporated with France
The constitution made more democratic
Violent peace congress
12 Sept. 1867
Monsignor Mermillod, nominated bishop of Geneva
GENEVA CONVENTION, for the succour of the wounded in time of active warfare. Having
been a witness of the horrors of the battle-field of
Solferino, 24 June, 1859, M. Henri Dunant, a the Société Génévoise d'Utilité Publique in Feb. Swiss, published his experiences, which induced 1863 to discuss the question whether relief societies might not be formed in time of peace to help the wounded in time of war by means of qualified volunteers. At an international conference held 26 Oct. France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Russia, were 1863, fourteen governments, including Great Britain, represented by delegates. The propositions then drawn up were accepted as an international code by GENERAL ASSEMBLY, see Church of a congress which met at Geneva, 8 Aug. 1864, and Scotland. on 22 Aug. a convention was signed by twelve of the delegates, and it was eventually adopted by all civilised powers except the United States. International conferences were held at Paris in 1867 and at Berlin in 1869 for further developing in a practical manner the objects of the Geneva conference. The International Society (termed "the Red Cross Society"), established in consequence of these proceedings was very energetic in relieving the wounded and sick during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, its flag being recognised as neutral. See Aid to Sick and Wounded Above 13,000 volunteers said to be employed in attending the sick and wounded, Sept.-Dec., 1870. At a meeting in London, 6 Aug., 1872, M. Dunant proposed a plan for the uniform treatment of prisoners of war.
GENEVA, a town of the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe, 58 B.C.; became part of the empire of Charlemagne, about A.D. 800; and capital of the kingdom of Burgundy, 426.
The Republic founded in.
Calvin settled here, and obtaining much influence,
July, 1794 26 April, 1798 30 Dec. 1813 1846
GENOA, the ancient Genua (N. Italy). Its inhabitants were the Ligures, who submitted to the Romans, 115 B.C. It partook of the revolutions of the Roman empire.
GENS-D'ARMES were anciently the king's horse-guards only, but afterwards the king's gardesdu-corps; the musqueteers and light horse were reckoned among them. There was also a company of gentlemen (whose number was about 250) bearing this name. Scots guards were about the persons of the kings of France from the time of St. Louis, who reigned in 1226. They were organised as a royal corps by Charles VII. about 1441; the younger sons of Scottish nobles being usually the captains. The name gens-d'armes was afterwards given to the police; but becoming obnoxious, was changed to 76 municipal guard" in 1830.
GENTLEMAN (from gentilis, of a gens, a race or clan). The Gauls observing that during the empire of the Romans, the scutarii and gentiles had the best appointments of all the soldiers, applied to them the terms écuyers and gentilshommes. This distinction of gentlemen was much in use in England, and was given to the well-descended about 1430. Sidney. Gentlemen by blood were those who could show four descents from a gentleman who had been created by the king by letters patent.
GENTLEMEN-AT-ARMS (formerly styled the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners) is the oldest corps in England, with the exception of the Yeomen of the Guard. The band was instituted by Henry VIII. in 1509, and was originally composed entirely of gentlemen of noble blood, whom he named his pensioners or spears. William IV. commanded that it should be called his majesty's honourable corps of gentlemen-at-arms, 7 March, 1834. Curling.
GENTLEWOMEN'S SELF-HELP INSTITUTION, London, established by the earl of Shaftesbury, duchess of Sutherland, and others, May 1870.
flourished about 139 A.D. The science was brought to Europe by the Moors of Barbary and Spain, about 1240. Lenglet. Maps and charts were introduced into England by Bartholomew Columbus to illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western continent, 1489. Geography is now divided into mathematical, physical, and political, and its study has been greatly promoted during the present century by expeditions at the expense of various governments and societies. The Royal Geographical Society of London was established in 1830; that of Paris in 1821. See Africa, North West Passage, &c.
GEOGRAPHY. The first geographical records are in the Pentateuch, and in the book of Joshua. Homer describes the shield of Achilles as representing the earth surrounded by the sea, and also the countries of Greece, islands of the Archipelago, and site of Troy. Iliad. The priests taught that the temple of Apollo at Delphos was the centre of the world. Anaximander of Miletus was the inventor of geographical maps, about 568 B.C. Hipparchus attempted to reduce geography to a mathematical basis, about 135 B.C. Strabo, the great Greek geographer, lived 71-14 B.C. Ptolemy
Whiston's in 1696.
Buffon's geological views (1749) were censured by the Sorbonne in 1751, and recanted in consequence. The principle he renounced was that the present condition of the earth is due to secondary causes, and that these same causes will produce further changes. His more eminent fellow-labourers and successors were Gesner (1758), Michell (1760), Raspe (1762-73), Pallas and Saussure (1793-1800).
Werner (1775) ascribed all rocks to an aqueous origin, and even denied the existence of volcanoes in primitive geological times, and had many followers, Kirwan, De Luc, &c.-Hutton (1788) supported by Playfair (1801) warmly opposed Werner's views, and asserted that the principal changes in the earth's crust are due to the energy of fire. The rival parties were hence termed Neptunists and Vulcanists.
William Smith, the father of British geology (who had walked over a large part of England) drew up a Tabular View of British Strata, in 1799, and published it and his Geological Map of England and Wales, 1812-15: died 28 Aug. 1839. The Rev. Adam Sedgwick, another father, died 27 Jan. 1873, aged 87.
In 1803 the Royal Institution possessed the best geological collection in London, collected by H. Davy, C. Hatchett, and others; the proposal of sir John St. Aubyn, sir Abraham Hume, and the right hon. C. F. Greville, to aid the government in establishing a school of mines there in 1804-7, was declined.
In 1807 the Geological Society of London was established. By collecting a great mass of new facts, it greatly tended to check the disposition to theorise, and led to the introduction of views midway between those of Werner and Hutton.
The Geological Society of Dublin, 1832; of Edinburgh, 1834; of France, 1830.
In 1835 Mr. (afterwards sir Henry) De la Beche suggested the establishment of the present Museum of Geology, which began at Craig's-court, and which was removed to its present position in Jermyn-street. To him is also due the valuable geological maps formed on the ordnance survey. The building was erected by Mr. Pennethorne, and formally opened by the prince consort, 14 May, 1851. Attached to the Museum are the Mining Records office, a lecture theatre, laboratories, &c. Sir H. De la Beche, the first director, died 13 April, 1855; succeeded by sir Roderick Murchison, who died 22 Oct. 1871; succeeded by professor A. C. Ramsay, March, 1872.
A similar institution was established at Calcutta by the E. I. Company in 1840.
The English standard works on Geology at the present time are those of Lyell, Murchison, Phillips, De la Beche, Mantell, and Ansted.
Plutonic, as granite, &c.
Fossiliferous, or Sedimentary, rocks are divided into three great series:
The Paleozoic (most ancient forms of life), or
The Mesozoic (middle life period), or Secondary.
II. TERTIARY OR CAINOZOIC SERIES:
3. Newer Pliocene (or Pleistocene) Mammalian
5, 6. Miocene: Upper and Lower; Bordeaux ;
7, 8, 9. Eocene: Upper, Middle, and Lower; Freshwater and Marine beds; Barton Clays; Bracklesham Sands; Paris Gypsum; London Plastic, and Thanet Clays. [Palms, Birds, &c.]
TABLE OF STRATA (chiefly from Lyell). NEOZOIC :
III. SECONDARY OR MESOZOIC SERIES:
1. Recent: Marine strata; with human re-
quadrupeds; ancient valley gravels; glacial
10. Cretaceous: Upper; British Chalk; Maestricht beds. -Chalk with and without Flints, Chalk Marl, Upper Green Sand, Gault, Lower Green Sand. [Mesosaurus; Fish, Mollusks, &c.]
11. Lower (or Neocomian or Wealden); Kentish rag: Weald Clay; Hastings Sand. [Iguanodon, Hylaosaurus, &c.]
12. Oolite: Upper; Purbeck beds, Portland Stone and Sand, Kimmeridge Clay; Lithographic Stone of Solenhofen with Archeopteryx. [Fish.]
13. Middle: Calcareous Grit, Coral Rag, Oxford Clay, Kelloway Rock. [Belemnites and Ammonites.]
14. Lower: Cornbrash, Forest Marble, Bradford Clay, Great Oolite, Stonesfield Slate, Fuller's Earth, Inferior Oolite. [Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Pterodactyl.]
15. Lias: Lias Clay and Marl Stone. [Ammonites, Equisetum, Amphibia, Labyrinthodon.]
16. Trios: Upper; White Lias, Red Clay, with Salt in Cheshire, Coal Fields in Virginia,
N.A. [Fish, Dromatherium.]
17. Middle or Muschelkalk (wanting in England). [Encrinus; Placodus gigas.]
18. Lower: New Red Sandstone of Lancashire and Cheshire. [Labyrinthodon, Footprints of Birds and Reptiles.]
IV. PRIMARY OR PALEOZOIC SERIES:
19. Permian: Magnesian Limestone, Marl Slates, Red Sandstone and Shale, Dolomite kupferschiefer. [Firs, Fishes, Amphibia.]
GEOMETRY, so termed from its original application to measuring the earth, is ascribed to the Egyptians; the annual inundations of the Nile having given rise to it by carrying away the landmarks and boundaries.
Thales introduced geometry into Greece, about 600 B. C.
Descartes published his Analytical Geometry, 1627.
Simson's edition of Euclid, first appeared, 1756. La Place's Mécanique Céleste, 1799-1805.
GEORGE. A gold coin current at 6s. 8d. in the reign of Henry VIII. Leake.
GEORGE, ST., the tutelary saint of England, and adopted as patron of the order of the garter by Edward III. His day is 23 April; see Garter, and Knighthood.
St. George was a tribune in the reign of Diocletian, and being a man of great courage, was a favourite; but complaining to the emperor of his severities towards the Christians, and arguing in their defence, he was put in prison, and beheaded, 23 April, 290.-On that day, in 1192, Richard I. defeated Saladin.
GEORGES' CONSPIRACY, in France. General Moreau, general Pichegru, Georges Cadoudal, who was commonly known by the name of Georges, and others, were arrested at Paris, charged with a conspiracy against the life of Bonaparte, and for the restoration of Louis XVIII., Feb. 1804. Twelve of the conspirators, including Georges, were Pichegru was found strangled in prison, 6 April. executed 25 June, and others imprisoned. Moreau was exiled, and went to America. In 1813 he was killed before Dresden (which see).
GEORGIA, the ancient Iberia now a province of S. Russia, near the Caucasus, submitted to Alexander about 331 B.C., but threw off the yoke of his successors. It was subjugated to Rome by Pompey, 65 B.C., but retained its own sovereigns. Chris
tianity was introduced into it in the 3rd century. In the 8th century, after a severe struggle, Georgia was subdued by the Arab caliphs; by the Turkish sultan Alp-Arslan, 1068; and by the Tartar hordes, 1235. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, Georgia was successively held by the Persian and Turkish monarchs. In 1740 Nadir Shah established part of Georgia as a principality, of which the last ruler,
Heraclius, surrendered his territories to the czar in 1799; and in 1802 Georgia was declared to be a Russian province.-GEORGIA, IN NORTH AMERICA, was settled by gen. Oglethorpe, in 1732. Separating from the congress of America, it surrendered to the British, Dec. 1778; and its possession was of vast importance to the royalists in the war. Count d'Estaing joined the American general Lincoln, and made a desperate attack on Georgia, which failed, and the French fleet returned home; the colony was given up to the Union by the British in 1783. It seceded from the Union, by ordinance, 18 Jan. 1861, and was conquered by Sherman in 1864-5, and readmitted as a state Jan. 1868. See United States. -GEORGIA, in the Pacific, was visited by captain Cook in 1775.
15. Oldenburg, three Anhalts, and two Schwarzburgs;
16. Two Hohenzollerns, Liechtenstein, two Reuss,
March, which met
The diet declares for a constituent assembly, 30 18 May, 1848 The diet remits its functions to the archduke John, vicar of the empire (see Germany). . 12 July, The diet re-established, meets 30 May, 1851 The emperor of Austria proposes a reform of the confederation, 17 Aug.; accepted by the diet, 1 Sept.; rejected by Prussia 22 Sept. 1863 The diet celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of its establishment. 8 June, 1865 Vote of the majority of the diet supports Austria in the dispute respecting Schleswig and Holstein; Prussia announces her withdrawal from the confederation, and its dissolution; the diet declares itself indissoluble, continues his functions, and protests 14 June, 1866 The diet removes to Augsburg during the war, 14 July,
The confederation renounced by Austria at Nikolsburg 26 July, 1866 The diet holds its last sitting 24 Aug.
established in room of the Germanic Confederation GERMAN CONFEDERATION, NORTH, (which see): population 1867, estimated 29.906,092. The confederation ceased on the re-establishment of the German empire, 1 Jan. 1871.
The king of Prussia invites the states of North Germany to form a new confederation 16 July, 1866
Treaty of alliance offensive and defensive between
Prussia and the following states:-Saxe-Weimar,
Meeting of North German Parliament (295 deputies from the 22 states) at Berlin. 24 Feb. 1867 See Germany.
GERMANITES, a name given to a sect, of which members appeared in the British Mediterranean fleet in 1867. They called themselves "nonfighting men," and hold no communion with other religious bodies.
Drusus invaded Germany Battle of Teutoburg; Hermann or Arminius destroys the Romans under Varus
bishopric of Cornwall for a short time, about 905. GERMANS, ST., was made the seat of the
GERMANY (Germania, Alemania), anciently, as now, divided into independent states. The Germans long withstood the attempts of the Romans to subdue them; and although that people conquered some parts of the country, they were expelled before the close of the 3rd century. In the 5th century the Huns and other tribes prevailed over the greater In the latter part of the 8th portion of Germany. other tribes, and was crowned emperor at Rome, century, Charlemagne subdued the Saxons and empire became elective, 911, and was generally 25 Dec. 800. At the extinction of his family, the obtained by a member of the house of Hapsburg from 1437 till 1804. Germany was divided into circles, 1501-12. The confederation of the Rhine was formed 12 July, 1806; the Germanic confederation, 8 June, 1815; and the North German confederation, 18 Aug. 1866; the treaty ratified, 8 Sept. 1866. See Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71.
The re-established empire of Germany (Jan. 1, 1871), founded upon treaties concluded between the North German confederation (which see) and, 1. the grand duchies of Baden and Hesse, 15 Nov. 1870; 2. the kingdom of Bavaria, 23 Nov. 1870; 3. the kingdom of Würtemburg, 25 Nov. 1870; ratified, 29 Jan. 1871. William I., king of Prussia, was proclaimed emperor at Versailles, 18 Jan. 1871. The first chancellor of the emperor, prince Otho von Bismarck. Population (including Alsace Lorraine, conquered, 1870),
40,107,428. The parliament is elected by manhood suffrage and ballot.
He is crowned emperor of the West at Rome by the 25 Dec.
The Teutones united with the Cymry, defeat the
After varying success are defeated by Marius
The Franks invade Gaul
Great irruption of Germanic tribes into Gaul 450 et seq. Charlemagne after a long contest subdues the Saxons, who become Christians
Peace of Ryswick (with France)
He destroys Milan
1154-77 . 1162 Ruins Henry the Lion (see Bavaria) 1180 Is drowned during the crusade in Syria, 10 June, 1190 Teutonic order of knighthood
He dies Jan. 20; Francis I., duke of Lorraine, elected emperor 15 Sept. 1745 The Seven years' war between Austria and Prussia and their respective allies begins Aug. 1756; ends with the peace of Hubertsburg. 15 Feb. 1763 Lorraine ceded to France. Joseph II. extends his dominions by the dismem berment of Poland, 1772; many civil reforms and liberal changes War with Turkey
Victory of the Austrians and Russians at Riinik, 22 Sept. 1789 1793
The Rhenish provinces revolt Francis I. joins in the second partition of Poland, 1795 In the ruinous wars between Germany and France, the emperor loses the Netherlands, all his territories west of the Rhine, and his states in Italy,
Hanseatic league established about 1245 Reign of Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, chosen by the electors
The edict, called the Golden Bull, by Charles IV. 1356 The Tyrol acquired
Sigismund, king of Bohemia, elected emperor. He
betrays John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who are burned alive (see Bohemia) Sigismund driven from the throne, Albert II., duke of Austria, succeeds.
1439 1502, 1514, 1524
The Pragmatic Sanction confining the empire the house of Austria Peasants' wars Era of the Reformation (see Lutheranism) German bible and liturgy published by Luther, 1522-46 Luther excommunicated by the diet at Worms, 17 April, 1521 War with the pope--the Germans storm Rome 1527 Diet at Spires; Protestants condemned, 13 March, 1529 Confession of Augsburg published 25 Jan. 1530 Protestant League of Smalcalde. 31 Dec. 1531 The anabaptists seize Munster, 24 June, 1535; de
feated, and John of Leyden slain Death of Luther
War with the Protestants
Who are helped by Henry II. of France-Peace of Religion at Passau . 31 July, 1552 25 Oct. 1555 1570
Abdication of Charles V. announced Hungary joined to the empire The Thirty years' war begins between the Evangelic union under the elector palatine, and the Catholic league under the duke of Bavaria. 1618 Battle of Prague, which ruined the elector palatine, 8 Nov. 1620 Gustavus-Adolphus of Sweden invades Germany, Gustavus-Adolphus, victor, killed at Lutzen,
June, 1630 16 Nov. 1632 Treason of Wallenstein; he is assassinated, 25 Feb. 1634 End of the Thirty years' war: treaty of Westphalia, establishing religious toleration. 24 Oct. 1648 1674
War with France John Sobieski, king of Poland, after defeating the Turks, obliges them to raise the siege of Vienna, 12 Sept. 1683 20 Sept. 1697 26 Jan. 1699 Marlborough's 13 Aug. 1704 11 April, 1713
Peace of Utrecht
The Pragmatic Sanction (which see)
Austria, Maria-Theresa (1736); she succeeds her father, and becomes queen of Hungary, 20 Oct. 1740 The elector of Bavaria elected emperor as Charles
22 Jan. 1742
Cessions of territory to France by the treaty of Luneville 9 Feb. 1801
Francis II. assumes the title of Francis I., emperor 11 Aug. 1804 Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of Bavaria and Würtemberg, 1805; and of Westphalia, 1807; dissolution of the German empire; formation of the confederation of the Rhine 12 July, 1806 North Germany annexed to France 13 Dec. 1810-11 Commencement of the war of independence: the order of the iron cross instituted March, 1813 Final defeat of the French at Leipsic 16-19 Oct. Congress of Vienna. 1 Nov. 1814 & 25 May, 1815 The Germanic confederation (which see) formed 8 June,
The Zollverein (which see) formed 1818 General depression in trade 1824 Death of J. H. Voss, poet, &c. 29 March, 1826 Revolution at Brunswick (flight of the duke) 7 Sept. 1830 In Saxony (abdication of the king) 13 Sept. Death of Goethe, poet, novelist, and philosopher, 22 March, 1832 Becker's song about the free German Rhine; and Alfred de Musset's song in reply, "Le Rhin Allemand" (see Rhine) appear Excitement about Ronge, the Catholic reformer, and the holy coat of Treves Insurrection at Vienna and throughout Germany (see Austria, Hungary, &c.). Revolt in Schleswig and Holstein (see Denmark) March, "" The king of Prussia takes the lead as an agitator, to promote the reconsolidation of the German empire, by a proclamation 27 March, German national assembly meet at Frankfort (see Germanic confederation)
18 May, Archduke John of Austria elected vicar of the em pire 12 July, The national assembly elects the king of Prussia emperor, 28 March; he declines 3 April, 1849 He recalls the Prussian members of the assembly,
14 May, The Frankfort assembly transfers its sittings to Stuttgardt. 30 May, Treaty of Vienna between Austria and Prussia for the formation of a new central power for a limited time; appeal to be made to the governments of Germany 30 Sept. Protest of Austria against the alliance of Prussia with the smaller German states 12 Nov. Treaty of Munich between Bavaria, Saxony, and Würtemberg, for a revision of the German con federation. 27 Feb. 1850 Parliament meets at Erfurt March, The king of Würtemberg denounces the insidious ambition of the king of Prussian 15 March, German diet meets at Frankfort 10 May, Hesse-Cassel sends no representative to Erfurt, 7 June; Hesse-Darmstadt withdraws from the Prussian league 20 June, Austria calls an assembly of the German confedera tion, 19 July; which meets at Frankfort, 2 Sept. Austrian, Bavarian, and Prussian forces enter Hesse-Cassel (see Hesse-Cassel) 12 Nov. Conferences on German affairs at Dresden,
23 Dec. 1850, to 15 May, 1851 Max Schneckenburger, author of the song "Die Wacht am Rhein," died Re-establishment of the diet of the Germanic confederation at Frankfort