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GAZA, a city of the Philistines, of which Sam Many of the fugitives came to Ireland in July, son carried off the gates about 1120 B.C. (Judges
1783; but they soon after abandoned it; many avi.) It was taken by Alexander after a long siege, A revolution ; executions and imprisonnents,
Genevese settled in England .
1784 332; and near to it Ptolemy defeated Demetrius
July, 1794 Poliorcetes, 312 B.C. It was taken by Saladin A.D.
Geneva incorporated with France 26 April, 1798 1170; by Bonaparte, March, 1799 ; and by the Armitted into the Swiss Confederation, 30 Dec. 1813 Egyptians under Ibrahim Pacha in 1831.
The constitution made more democratic
Revolution, through an endeavour of the Catholic GELHEIM, near Worms, central Germany.
cantons to introduce Jesuits as teachers; a pro
visional government set up . Here the emperor Adolphus of Nassau was de
7 Oct. 1848 feated and slain by his rival Albert I. of Austria, About 50 persons from Geneva land at Thonon and
[The scheme was withdrawn.) 2 July, 1298.
Evian, to set up the Swiss flag; but are brought
back by Swiss troops . GAZETTES, see Newspapers.
30 Mar. 1860
Election riots, with loss of life, through the indisGEMS. The Greeks excelled in cutting precious 49th annual meeting of the Helvetic Society of
22 Aug. 1864 stones, and many ancient specimens remain. The
National Sciences hell
21-23 Aug. 1865 art was revived in Italy in the 15th century. In Violent peace congress Feb. 1860, Herz's collection of gems was sold for
12 Sept. 1867 10,000l. Rev. C. King's “Antique Gems” ap
The Alabama arbitration commission met; received peared in 1860, and his “Natural History of Pre
the cases and adjourned to 15 June, 1872, 18 Dec. 1871 cious Stones and Gems” in 1865. Dr. A. Billing's Formal meeting of the commission (see Alabama), ** Science of Gems," 1868. Artificial gems have
15 June, 1872
Monsignor Mermillod, nominated bishop of Geneva been recently produced by chemists (Ebelmen, De (in the diocese of the bishop of Lausanne), and ville, Wöhler, and others), 1858-65.
vicar apostolic; his arrest proposed, 2
ordered to quit, if he will not submit to the civil GENEALOGY, from the Greek genea, birth, government by 15 Feb. ; he is expelled descent. The earliest pedigrees are contained in the 5th, ioth, and 11th chapters of Genesis. The
GENEVA CONVENTION, for the succour first book of Chronicles contains many genealogies of the wounded in time of active warfare. Having The pedigree of Christ is given in Matt. i. and been a witness of the horrors of the battle-field
of Luke ii. Many books on the subject have been Solferino, 24, June, 1859, M. Henri Dunant, a published in all European countries, one at Magde-Swiss, published his experiences, which induced burg, Theatrum Genealogicum, by Henninges, in the Société Génévoise d'Utilité Publique in Feb. 1598, Anderson, Royal Genealogies, London, 1732. 1863 to discuss the question whether relief societies Sims' Manual for the Genealogist, &c., 1856, wíli might not be formed in time of peace to help the be found a useful guide. The works of Collins wounded in time of war by means of qualified volun
teers. (1756 et seq.), Edmondson (1764-84), and Nicolas
At an international conference held 26 Oct. (1825 and 1857), on the British peerage, are highly 1863, fourteen governments, including Great Britain, esteemed. The Genealogical society, London, France, Austria, Prussia, Italy, and Russia, were established in 1853.
represented by delegates. The propositions then
drawn up were accepted as an international code by GENERAL ASSEMBLY, see Church of a congress which met at Geneva, 8 Aug. 1864, and Scotland.
on 22 Aug. a convention was signed by twelve of GENERAL COUNCILS, WARRANTS, civilised powers except the United States. Inter
the delegates, and it was eventually adopted by all see Councils, Warrants.
national conferences were held at Paris in 1867 and GENERALS. Matthew de Montmorency at Berlin in 1869 for further developing in a practiwas the first general of the French armies, 1203. cal manner the objects of the Geneva conference. Hénault. Balzac states that cardinal Richelieu The International Society (termed “the Red Cross coined the word Generalissimo, upon his taking the Society”), established in consequence of these prosupreme command of the French armies in Italy, ceedings was very energetic in relieving the wounded in 1629. Ulysses Grant was the first general of tre and sick during the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, army of the United States of America, so styled in its flag being recognised as neutral. See Aid' to 1866; see Commanders-in-Chief.
Sick and Wounded Above 13,000 volunteers said
to be employed in attending the sick and wounded, GENERATION (in Chronology), the interval Sept.- Dec., 1870. At a meeting in London, 6 Aug., of time between the birth of a father and the birth 1872, M. Dunant proposed a plan for the uniform of his child: 33 years are allowed for the average treatment of prisoners of war. length of a generation. Sce Spontaneous.
GENOA, the ancient Genua (N. Italy). Its GENEVA, a town of the Allobroges, a Gallic inhabitants were the Ligures, who submitted to the tribe, 58 B.C.; became part of the empire of Charle- Romans, 115 B.C. It partook of the revolutions of magne, about A.D. 800; and capital of the kingdom the Roman empire. of Burgundy, 426.
Genoa becomes a free commercial state about 1000 The Republic founded in .
Frequent wars with Pisa.
1070-1284 Emancipated from Savoy
Frederick II. captures 22 galleys, and vainly beCalvin settled here, and obtaining much influence, sieges Genoa
1241 Geneva was termed the “Roine of Calvinism The families of Doria and Spinola obtain ascendancy,
about 1536 Through him Servetus burnt for heresy, 27 Oct. 1553 The Genoese destroy the naval power of Pisa at Genevii allied to the Swiss Cantons 1584 Melora (which see)
6 Aug. 1284 Insurrection, Feb. 1781 ; about 1000 Genevese, in Frequent wars with Venice
1218-32 ; 1293-99 consequence, applierl, in 1782, to earl Temple, Rafaele Doria and Galeotto Spinola, appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland, for permission to settle
captains. in that country: the Irish parliament voted Simon Boccanegra made the first doge, 1339: set 50,000l, to defray the expenses of their journey, aside by the nobles, 1344; re-appointed .
1356 and to purchase them lands near Waterford. Great discord ; many doges appointed
Genoa successively under protection of France, flourished about 139 A.D. The science was brought
1396; of Naples, 1410; of Milan, 1419; losing and to Europe by the Moors of Barbary and Spain, regaining freedom
1421-1512 Sacked by the Spaniards and Italians under Prosper about 1240. Lenglet. Maps and charts were intro
duced into England by Bartholomew Columbus to Colonna
1522 Andrew Doria deserts the French service, and illustrate his brother's theory respecting a western restores the independence of his country
continent, 1489. Geography is now divided into Genoa bombarded by the French
May, 1684 mathematical, physical, and political, and its study By the British
Sept. 1745 has been greatly promoted during the present Taken by the imperialists, who are soon after ex
century by expeditions at the expense of various pelled
Sept. 1746 Another siege raised
10 June, 1747
governments and societies. The Royal Geographical The celebrated bank failed
Society of London was established in 1830; that of Genoa made the Ligurian republic
Paris in 1821. See Africa, North West PasThe city, blockaded by a British fleet and Austrian
sage, gc. army, until literally starved, was evacuated by capitulation, 5 June; but it was surrendered to
GEOLOGY, the science of the earth, is said the French soon after their victory at Marengo,
to have been cultivated in China before the Chris
14 June, 1800 Genoa annexed to the French empire, 4 June, tian era, and occupied the attention of Theophrastus, 1805 ; surrenders to the English and Sicilians, Pliny, Avicenna, and the Arabian writers.
18 April, 1814 United to the kingdom of Sardinia .
Dec. In 1574 Mercati wrote concerning the fossils in the pope's The city seized by insurgents, who, after a murder
museum : Cesalpino Majoli, and others (1597), Steno ous struggle, drove out the garrison and pro (1669), Scilla (1670), Quirini (1676), Plot and Lister claimed the Ligurian republic, 3 April; but sur
(1678), Leibnitz (1680) recorded observations, and put rendered to general La Marmora. 11 April, 1849 forth theories on the various changes in the crust of
the earth. GENS-D'ARMES were anciently the king's Hooke (1668), in his work on Earthquakes, said that horse-guards only, but afterwards the king's gardes fossils," as monuments of nature, were more certain du-corps, the musqueteers and light horse were
tokens of antiquity than coins or inedals, and thouylı reckoned among them. There was also a company
difficult, it would not be impossible to raise a chrono.
logy out of them." of gentlemen (whose number was about 250) bearing Burnet's “ Theory of the Earth” appeared in 1690, this name. Scots guards were about the persons of Whiston's in 1696. the kings of France from the time of St. Louis, Buffon's geological views (1749) were censured by the who reigned in 1226. They were organised as a Sorbonne in 1751, and recanted in consequence. The royal corps by Charles VII. about 1441; the younger
principle he renounced was that the present condition sons of Scottish nobles being usually the captains.
of the earth is due to secondary causes, and that these
same causes will produce further changes. His more The name gens-d'armes was afterwards given to the eminent fellow-labourers and successors were Gesner police; but becoming obnoxious, was changed to (1758), Michell (1760), Raspe (1762-73), Pallas and * municipal guard” in 1830.
Werner (1775) ascribed all rocks to an aqueous origin, GENTLEMAN (from gentilis, of a gens, a race and even denied the existence of volcanoes in primitive or clan). The Gauls observing that during the geological times, and had many followers, Kirwan, De empire of the Romans, the scutarii and gentiles had Luc, &c. -Hutton (1788) supported by Playfair (1801) the best appointments of all the soldiers, applied to
warmly opposed Werner's views, and asserted that the them the ierms écuyers and gentilshommes. This
principal changes in the earth's crust are due to the
energy of fire. The rival parties were hence termed distinction of gentlemen was much in use in Eng
Neptunists and Vulcanists. land, and was given to the well-descended about William Smith, the father of British gcology (who had 1430. Sidney. Gentlemen by blood were those walked over a large part of England) drew up a Tabular who could show four descents from a gentleman
View of British Strata, in 1799, and published it and who had been created by the king by letters patent.
his Geological Map of England and Wales, 1812-15;
died 28 Aug. 1839. The Rev. Adam Sedgwick, another GENTLEMEN-AT-ARMS (formerly styled father, died 27 Jan. 1873, aged 87. the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners) is the oldest In 1803 the Royal Institution possessed the best geologi.
cal collection in London, collected by H. Davy, C. corps in England, with the exception of the Yeomen of the Guard. The band was instituted by Henry
Hatchett, and others; the proposal of sir John St.
Aubyn, sir Abraham Hume, and the right hon, C. F. VIII. in 1509, and was originally composed entirely Greville, to aid the government in establishing a of gentlemen of noble blood, whom he named his school of mines there in 1804-7, was declined, pensioners or spears.
William IV. commanded In 1807 the Geological Society of London was established. that it should be called his majesty's honour
By collecting a great mass of new facts, it greatly able corps of gentlemen-at-arms, 7 March, 1834.
tended to check the disposition to theorise, and led to
the introduction of views midway between those of Curling.
Werner and Hutton. GENTLEWOMEN'S SELF-HELP IN
The Geological Society of Dublin, 1832 ; of Edinburgh,
1834; of France, 1830. STITUTION, London, established by the earl of
In 1835 Mr. (afterwards sir Henry) De la Beche suggested Shaftesbury, duchess of Sutherland, and others, the establishment of the present Museum of Geology, May 1870.
which began at Craig's-court, and which was removed GEOGRAPHY. The first geographical re
to its present position in Jermyn-street. To him is
also due the valuable geological maps formed on the cords are in the Pentateuch, and in the book of
The building was erected by Mr. Joshua. Homer describes the shield of Achilles as Pennethorne, and formally opened by the prince conrepresenting the earth surrounded by the sea, and
sort, 14 May, 1851. Attached to the Museum are the also the countries of Greece, islands of the Archi
Mining Records oflice, a lecture theatre, laboratories,
&c. Sir H. De la Beche, the first director, died 13 pelago, and site of Troy. lliad. The priests taught
April, 1855 ; succeeded by sir Roderick Murchison, that the temple of Apollo at Delphos was the centre who died 22 Oct. 1871; succeeded by professor A. C. of the world. Anaximander of Miletus was the in Ramsay, March, 1872. ventor of geographical maps, about 568 B.C. Hip- A similar institution was established at Calcutta by the parchus attempted to reduce geography to a mathe
E. I. Company in 1840. matical basis, about 135 B.C. Strabo, the great
The English standard works on Geology at the present
time are those of Lyell, Murchison, Phillips, De la Greek geographer, lived 71-14 B.C. Ptolemy Beche, Mantell, and Ansted.
The strata composing the earth's crust may be divided K.
20, 21. Carboni ferous, Upper and Lower: Coal into two great classes :
Measures, Millstone Grit, Mountain LimeI. Those generally attributed to the agency of water:
stone. (Ferns, Calamites, Coal.) 11. To the action of fire : which may be subdivided as L, 22, 23, 24. Devonian, Upper, Middle, and Lower: follows :
Tilestones, Cornstones, and Marls, QuartAqueous forinations, stratified, rarely crystalline :
zose, Conglomerates. (Shells, Fish, Tri. Sedimentary or fossiliferous rocks.
lobites.) Metamorphic or unfossiliferous.
25, 26, 27. Silurian, Upper, Middle, and Lower: Igneous formations, unstratified, crystalline :
Ludlow Shales, Aymestry Limestone, Wenanic, as basalt, &c.
lock Limestone, Wenlock Shale, Caradoc Plutonie, as granite, &c.
Sandstone, Llandeilo Flags; Niagara LimeFossiliferous, or Sedimentary, rocks are divided into three
stone. [Sponges, Corals, Trilobites, great series :
Shells.) The Palæozoic (most ancient forms of life), or N.
28, 29. Cambrian, Upper and Lower: Bala Primary.
Limestone, Festiniog Slates, Bangor Slates The Mesozoic (middle life period), or Secondary.
and Grits, Wicklow Rock, Hasleets Grits, The Neozoic or Cainozoic (more recent forins of life),
Huronian Series of Canada. (Zoophytes, or Tertiary.
Lingula, Ferns, Sigillaria, Stig
maria, Calamites, and Cryptogamia.] TABLE OF STRATA (chiefly from Lyell).
30. Laurentium, Upper Gneiss of the Heb. NEOZOIC:
rides (?): Labradorite Series, N. of the St. I. Post-TERTIARY :
Lawrence; Adirondack Mountains, New
York. A Post-Pliocene : 1. Recent: Marine strata ; with human re
31. Lower: Gneiss and Quartzites, with Inter
stratified Limestones, in one of which, 1000 mains; Danish peat; kitchen middens;
feet thick, occurs a foraminifer, Eozoon bronze and stone implements ; Swiss lake
Canadense, the oldest known fossil. dwellings; temple of Serapis at Puzzuoli. 2. Post- Pliocene : Brixham
cave, with flint knives, and bones of living and extinct
GEOMETRY, so termed from its original apquadrupeds ; ancient valley gravels : glacial plication to measuring the earth, is ascribed to the drift ; ancient Nile mud; post glacial N. Egyptians; the annual inundations of the Nile American deposits ; remains of mastodon; having given rise to it by carrying away the landAustralian breccias.
marks and boundaries. II. TERTIARY OR CAINOZOIC SERIES :
Thales introduced geometry into Greece, about 600 B.C. B. Pliocene :
Pythagoras cultivated the science about 580. 3. Newer Pliocene (or Pleistocene) Mammalian The doctrine of curves originally attracted the attention
beds, Norwich Crag. (Murine Shells.) of geometricians from the conic sections, which were 4. Older Pliocene: Red and Coralline Crag introduced by Plato, about 390 B.C. (Suffolk, Antwerp).
Euclid's Elements compiled about 300 B.C. C. 5, 6. Miocene: Upper and Lower; Bordeaux ; Archimedes, a discoverer in geometry, 287-212 B.C.
Virginia san is and Touraine beds ; Pikerme The conchoid curve invented by Nicomedes, 220 B.C.
Ptolemy, the astronomer, 2nd century A.D.
England as infected with magic, 7 Edw. VI., 1552. D. 7, 8, 9. Eocene : Upper, Middle, and Lower ; Store.
Freshwater and Marine beds; Barton Clays; Descartes published his Analytical Geometry, 1627:
Simson's edition of Euclid, first appeared, 1756.
La Place's Mécanique Céleste, 1799-1805.
beds. - Chalk with and without Flints, the reign of Henry VIII. Leake.
and adopted as patron of the order of the garter by rag; Weall Clay; Hastings Sand. (Iguano Edward III. His day is 23 April; see Garter, don, Hylæ08aurus, &c.)
and Knighthood. F. 12. Oolite: Upper; Purbeck beds, Portland Stone and Sand, Kimmeridge Clay ; Lithographic
St. George was a tribune in the reign of Diocletian, and Stone of Solenhofen with Archwopteryx.
being a man of great courage, was a favourite; but
complaining to the emperor of his severities towards [Fish.)
the Christians, and arruing in their defence, he was 13. Middle : Calcareous Grit, Coral Rag, Oxford
put in prison, and beheaded, 23 April, 290.-On that Clay, Kelloway Rock (Belemnites and Ammonites.)
day, in 1192, Richard I. defeated Saladin.
GEORGES' CONSPIRACY, in France.
General Moreau, general Pichegru, Georges Cadou-
dal, who was commonly known by the name of G. 15. Lias: Lias Clay and Marl Stone. (Ammo- Georges, and others, were arrested at Paris, charged
nites, Equisetum, Amphibia, Lavy. with a conspiracy agaiost the life of Bonaparte, and rinthodon.)
for the restoration of Louis XVIII., Feb. 1804. H.
16. Trios : Upper; White Lias, Red Clay, with
Pichegru was found strangled in prison, 6 April.
was exiled, and went to America. In 1813 he was 18. Lower : New Red Sandstone of Lancashire killed before Dresden (which see).
and Cheshire. (Labyrinthodon, Foot.
GEORGIA, the ancient Iberia now a province IV. PRIMARY OR PALEOZOIC SERIES :
of S. Russia, near the Caucasus, submitted to AlexL 19. Permian: Magnesian Limestone, Marl Slates,
ander about 331 B.C., but threw off the yoke of his Red Sandstone and Shale, Dolomite : kup
successors. It was subjugated to Rome by Pompey, ferschiefer. (Firs, fishes, Amphibia.]! (5 B.C., but retained its own sovereigns. Chris
tianity was introduced into it in the 3rd century. The confederation renoụnced by Austria at NikolsIn the 8th century, after a severe struggle, Georgia
26 July, 1866
The diet holds its last sitting was subdued by the Arab caliphs; by the Turkish
24 Aug. sultan Alp-Arslan, 1068; and by the Tartar hordes, 1235. From the 14th to the 18th centuries, Georgia established in room of the Germanic Confederation
GERMAN CONFEDERATION, NORTII, was successively held by the Persian and Turkish (which see) : population 1867, estimated 29,906,092. monarchs. In 1740 Nadir Shah established part of The confederation ceased on the re-establishment Georgia as a principality, of which the last ruler, of the German empire, 1 Jan. 1871. Heraclius, surrendered his territories to the czar in 1799; and in 1802 Georgia was declared to be a The king of Prussia invites the states of North Russian province.-GEORGIA, IN NORTH AMERICA,
Gerinany to form a new confederation 16 July, 1866 was settled by gen. Oglethorpe, in 1732. Separating Treaty of alliance offensive and defensive between
Prussia and the following states : Saxe-Weimar, from the congress of America, it surrendered to the
Oldenburg, Brunswick, Saxe-Altenburg, SaxeBritish, Dec. 1778; and its possession was of vast Coburg-Gotha, Anhalt, two Schwarzburgs, Walimportance to the royalists in the war. Count deck, the younger Reuss, two Lippes, Lubeck, d'Estaing joined the American general Lincoln, and
Bremen, and Hamburg, signed
18 Aug. made a desperate attack on Georgia, which failed,
And two Mecklenburgs .
21 Aug and the French fleet returned home; the colony And Hesse (for country north of the Maine), 3 Sept.
And the elder Reuss
26 Sept. was given up to the Union by the British in 1783. And Saxe-Meiningen.
8 Oct. It seceded from the Union, by ordinance, 18 Jan. And Saxony 1861, and was conquered by Sherman in 1864-5, and Meeting of North German Parliament (295 deputies readmitted as a state Jan. 1868. See United States. from the 22 states) at Berlin .
24 Feb. 1867 -GEORGIA, in the Pacific, was visited by captain
See Germany. Cook in 1775.
GERMANITES, a name given to a sect, of GEORGIUM SIDUS, the first name of the which members appeared in the British Mediterplanet Uranus (which sce), discovered 13 March, ranean fleet in 1867. They called themselves "non1781.
fighting men," and hold no communion with other GERBEROI (Normandy, N. France). Here religious bodies. William the Conqueror was wounded in battle by his son Robert, who had joined the French king bishopric of Cornwall for a short time, about 905.
GERMANS, ST., was made the seat of the Philip I., 1078.
GERMAIN, ST., near Paris. The palace GERMANY (Gormania, Alemania), anciently, here was begun by Louis the Fat, 1124, and en as now, divided into independent states. The Gerlarged and embellished by his successors, especially | mans long withstood the attempts of the Romans to by Francis I., Henry IV., and Louis XIV. Here subdne them; and although that people conquered James II. of England resided in state after his some parts of the country, they were expelled before abdication, in 1689, and here he died, 16 Sept. 1701 ; the close of the 3rd century. In the 5th century see Treaties.
the Huns and other tribes prevailed over the greater GERMANIC CONFEDERATION,
portion of Germany. In the latter part of the 8th superseding the confederation of the Rhine (which other tribes, and was crowned emperor at Rome,
century, Charlemagne subdued the Saxons and sce), was constituted 8 June, 1815; held its first diet at Frankfort, 16 Nov. 1816, and its last, 24 Aug. 25 Dec. 800. At the extinction of his family, the 1866. See next article. It comprised
empire became elective, 911, and was generally
obtained by a member of the house of Hapsburg 1. Austria ; 2. Prussia ; 3. Bavaria ; 4. Saxony ; from 1437 till 1804. Germany was divided into 5. Hanover ; 6. Würtemberg :
circles, 1501-12. The confederation of the Rhine 7. Baden; 8, 9. Hesse (electorate and grand
was formed 12 July, 1806; the Germanic confededuchy); 10. Denmark (for Holstein and Lauenburg);
ration, 8 June, 1815; and the North German con11. Netherlands (for Luxemburg);
federation, 18 Aug. 1866; the treaty ratified, 8 Sept. 12. Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Cobury, Saxe-Meiningen, 1866. See Franco-Prussian War, 1870-71.
and Saxe-Altenburg : 13. Brunswick and Nassau ;
The re-established empire of Germany (Jan. 1, 1871), 14. Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and Mecklenburg
founded upon treaties concluded between the North Strelitzi
German confederation (which see) and, 1. the grand 15. Oldenburg, three Anhalts, and two Schwarz
duchies of Baden and Hesse, 15 Nov. 1870; 2. the burgs;
kingdom of Bavaria, 23 Nov. 1870: 3. the kingdom of 16. Two liohenzollerns, Liechtenstein, two Reuss,
Würtemburg, 25 Nov. 1870 ; ratified, 29 Jan. 1871. Schaumburg-Lippe, Lippe, and Waldeck;
William I., king of Prussia, was proclaimed emperor 17. Free cities :--Lubeck, Frankfurt, Bremen, and
at Versailles, 18 Jan. 1871. The first chancellor of the Hamburg
Population The diet declares for a constituent assembly, 30
emperor, prince Otho von Bismarck,
(including Alsace - Lorraine, conquered, 1870), March, which met
18 May, 1848
40,107,428. The diet remits its functions to the archduke John,
The parliament is elected by manhood suffrage and vicar of the empire (see Germany). 12 July,
ballot. The diet re-established, meets
30 May, 1851 The emperor of Austria proposes a reform of the The Teutones imited with the Cymry, defeat the confederation, 17 Aug. ; accepted by the diet,
Romans in Illyria
I13 i Sept.; rejected by Prussia 22 Sept. 1863 After varying success are
Marius The diet celebrates the fiftieth anniversary of its Hermann aussassinated establishment.
8 June, 1865 Drusus invaded Germany Vote of the inajority of the diet supports Anstria in Battle of Teutoburg; flermann or Arminius dethe dispute respecting Schleswig and Holstein ;
stroys the Romans under Varus Prussia announces her withdrawal from the con
The Franks invade Gaul
238 federation, and its dissolution; the diet declares Great irruption of Germanic tribes into Gaul
450 et seq. itself indissoluble, continues his functions, and Charlemagne after a long contest subdues the protests 14 June, 1866 Saxons, who become Christians
772-785 The diet removes to Augsburg during the war, He is crowned einperor of the West at Rome by the
He adds a second head to the eagle, to denote that He dies Jan. 20; Francis I., duke of Lorraine, the empires of Rome and Germany are united
15 Sept. 1745 in him
802 The Seven years' war between Austria and Prussia Louis (le vibonnnire) separates Germany from and their respective allies begins Aug. 1756: ends France 839-840 with the peace of Hubertsbury .
15 Feb. 1763 The Germans under Arnold take Rome 896 Lorraine ceded to France.
1766 The Gerinan princes assert their independence, and Joseph II. extends his dominions by the dismemConrad I. of Franconia reigns
911 berment of Poland, 1772 ; many civil reforms and [The electorate began about this time. See Electors.) liberal changes.
1782 Reign of Henry I. (king), surnamed the Fowler: War with Turkey
he vanquishes the Huns, Danes, Vandals, and Victory of the Austrians and Russians at Riinnik, Bohemians 918-934
22 Sept. 1789 Otho I. extends his dominions, and is crowned The Rhenish provinces revolt
• 1793 emperor by the pope
962 Francis I. joins in the second partition of Poland, 1795 Otho Il. conquers Lorraine.
In the ruinous wars between Germany and France, Henry III. conquers Bohemia
1042 the emperor loses the Netherlands, all his terriContest between Henry IV. and Gregory VII. (Hilde- tories west of the Rhine, and his states in Italy, brand) 1075
1793-1803 llenry's humiliation at Canossa (which see)
Cessions of territory to France by the treaty of He takes Rome 1084 ; and Gregory dies in exile at
9 Feb. 1801 Salerno
1085 Francis II. assumes the title of Francis I., emperor Disputes with the pope relating to ecclesiastical of Austria.
11 Aug. 1804 investitures
1073-1123 Napoleon establishes the kingdoms of Bavaria and The Guelph and the Ghibeline feids begin
1140 Würtemberg, 1805 ; and of Westphalia, 1807; Conrad III, leads an army to the holy wars; it was
dissolution of the German empire ; formation of destroyed by Greek treachery
12 July, 1806 Frederick Barbarossa emperor, 1152 ; wars in Italy, North Germany annexed to France 13 Dec. 1810-11
Commencement of the war of independence: the He destroys Milan
1162 order of the iron cross instituted
March, 1813 Ruins Henry the Lion (see Bararia)
1180 Final defeat of the French at Leipsic 16-19 Oct. Is drowned during the crusade in Syria, 10 June, 1190 Congress of Vienna . i Nov. 1814 & 25 May, 1815 Teutonic order of knighthood
The Germanic confederation (which see) formed Hanseatie league established
8 June, Reign of Rodolph, count of Hapsburg, chosen by The Zollverein (rhich sre) formed
1818 the electors 1273 General depression in trade.
1824 The clict, called the Golden Bull, by Charles iv.
1356 Death of J. H. Voss, poet, &c.
29 March, 1826 The Tyrol acquired
1363 Revolution at Brunswick (flight of the duke) 7 Sept. 1830 Sigismund, king of Bohemia, elected emperor. Te In Saxony (abdication of the king)
13 Sept. Ktrays John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who Death of Goethe, poet, novelist, and philosopher, are bumed alive (see Bohemia) 1414-16
22 March, 1832 Sigismund driven from the throne, Albert 11., duke
Becker's song about the free German Rhine; and of Austria, succeeds.
Alfred de Musset's song in reply, “Le Rhin The Pragmatic Sanction contining the empire to the Allemandl" (see Rhine) appear
1841 house of Austria
Excitement about Ronge, the Catholic reformer, Peasants' wars
1502, 1514, 1524 and the holy coat of Treves Era of the Reformation (see Lutheranism)
1517 Insurrection at Vienna and throughout Germany German bible and liturgy published by Luther, 1522-46 (see Austria, Hungary, &c.).
1848 Luther exconnnunicated by the diet at Worms, Revolt in Schleswig and Holstein (see Denmark) 17 April, 1521
March, War with the pope--the Germans storm Rome
1527 The king of Prussia takes the lead as an agitator, to Diet at Spires ; Protestants condemned, 13 March, 1529 promote the reconsolidation of the German emConfession of Augsburg published
25 Jan. 1530
27 March, Protestant League of Smalcalde.
31 Dec. 1531
German national assembly meet at Frankfort (sce The anabaptists seize Munster, 24 June, 1535; de- Germanic con feileration)
18 May, feated, and John of Leyden slain
Archduke John of Austria elected vicar of the emDeath of Luther
18 Feb, 1546
12 July, War with the Protestants
26 June The national assembly elects the king of Prussia Who are helj.ed by Henry II. of France-Peace of emperor, 28 March; he declines
3 April, 1849 Religion at Passau
31 July, 1552
He recalls the Prussian members of the assembly, Abdication of Charles V. announced 25 Oct. 1555
14 May, Hungary joined to the empire
The Frankfort assembly transfers its sittings to The Thirty years' war begins between the Evangelie
30 May, union under the elector palatine, and the Catholic Treaty of Vienna between Austria and Prussia for league under the duke of Bavaria .
1618 the formation of a new central power for a Battle of Prague, which ruined the elector palatine, limited time ; appeal to be made to the govern8 Nov. 1620 inents of Germany
30 Sept. Gustavus-Adolphus of Sweden invades Germany, Protest of Austria against the alliance of Prussia
12 Nov. Gustavus-Adolphus, victor, killed at Lutzen,
Treaty of Munich between Bavaria, Saxony, and
16 Nov. 1632 Wurtemberg, for a revision of the German con. Treason of Wallenstein ; he is assassinated, 25 Feb. 1634 federation
27 Feb. 1850 End of the Thirty years' war: treaty of Westphalia, Parliament meets at Erfurt
March, establishing religious toleration . 24 Oct. 1648 The king of Würtemberg denounces the insidious War with France
ambition of the king of Prussian
15 March, John Sobieski, king of Poland, after defeating the German diet meets at Frankfort
10 May, Turks, obliges them to raise the siege of Vienna, Hesse-Cassel sends no representative to Erfurt, ;
12 Sept. 1683 June; Hesse-Darmstadt withdraws from the Peace of Ryswick (with France) 20 Sept. 1697 Prussian league
20 June, The peace of Carlowitz (with the Turks)
26 Jan. 1699
Austria calls an assembly of the German confederaWar with France, &c., 6 Oct. 1702 ; Marlborough's
tion, 19 July; which meets at Frankfort, 2 Sept. victory at Blenheim
13 Aug. 1704 Austrian, Bavarian, and Prussian forces enter Peace of Utrecht
11 April, 1713
12 Nov. The Pragmatic Sanction (which see)
Conferences on German atfairs at Dresden, Prancis I., duke of Lorraine, marries the heiress of
23 Dec. 1850, to 15 May, 1851 Austria, Maria-Theresa (1736); she succeeds her Max Schneckenburger, author of the song
father, and becomes queen of Hungary, 20 Oct. 1740 Wacht am Rhein," died The elector of Bavaria elected emperor as Charles Re-establishment of the diet of the Germanic conVII.
22 Jan. 1742