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Conference at Nuremberg relative to a general code of commerce 15 Jan. 1857

Great excitement in Germany at the French successes in Lombardy: warlike preparations in Bavaria, &c. May and June, 1859 Meetings of new liberal party in Eisenach, Saxe Weimar, 17 July; seven resolutions put forth recommending that the imperfect federal constitution be changed; that the German diet be replaced by a strong central government; that a national assembly be summoned; and that Prussia be invited to take the initiative 14 Aug. This proposal not accepted by Prussia, and warmly opposed by Hanover Sept. The Austrian minister, Rechberg, severely censuring the duke of Saxe Gotha, for a liberal speech, 4 Sept.; and accusing the Prussian government of favouring the liberals, meets with cutting retorts. Sept. Death of Ernst Moritz Arndt, patriot and poet,

29 Jan, 1860

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Nov.

The federal diet maintains the Hesse-Cassel constitution of 1852 against Prussia 24 March, Meeting of the French emperor and the German sovereigns at Baden, 16, 17 June; and of the czar and the emperor of Austria and the regent of Prussia at Toplitz 26 July, &c. Meeting at Coburg in favour of German unity against French aggression. 5 Sept. Dispute with Denmark respecting the rights of Holstein and Schleswig. First meeting of a German national shooting match at Gotha 8-11 July, 1861 Meeting of German national association at Heidelberg; decides to form a fleet 23 Aug. Subscriptions received for fleet Sept. and Oct. The national association meet at Berlin; they recommend the formation of a united federal government with a central executive, under the leadership of Prussia 13 March, 1862 Meetings of plenipotentiaries from German states on federal reform 8 July-10 Aug. Deputies from German states meet at Weimar, and declare that Germany wants formation into one federal state 28, 29 Sept. Congress of deputies from German states declare in favour of unity 21 Aug. 1863 The emperor of Austria invites the German sovereigns to a congress at Frankfort, 31 July; king of Prussia declines, 4 Aug; nearly all the sovereigns meet, 16, 17 Aug.; they approve the Austrian plan of federal reform, 1 Sept.; which is rejected by Prussia 22 Sept.,, The diet determines to have recourse to federal execution in Holstein if Denmark does not fulfil her obligations. 1 Oct

50th anniversary of the battle of Leipsic celebrated

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18 Oct. Death of Frederick VII. of Denmark 15 Nov. German troops enter Holstein for "federal execution" (see Denmark for events). 23 Dec. Death of Maximilian II. of Bavaria 10 March, 1864 Prussia retains the duchies; discussion between Austria and Prussia; the diet adopt the resolution of Bavaria and Saxony requesting Austria and Prussia to give up Holstein to the duke of Augustenburg; rejected 6 April, 1865 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Germanic confederation 8 June, The Gastein convention (which see) 14 Aug. Condemned by the diet at Frankfort 1 Oct. The diet calls on Austria and Prussia to disarm, 19 May, 1866 Meeting of deputies from smaller German states condemn the impending war. 20 May, Austria declares that Prussia has broken the treaty by invading Holstein, 11 June; the diet adopts this, by 9 votes; the Prussian representative declares the Germanic confederation at an end, and invites the members to form a new one, excluding Austria 14 June, The Prussians enter Saxony, and the war begins, 15 June, The diet determines for war, 16 June; proclaims prince Charles of Bavaria general of the confederation troops 27 June, [For the war and its consequences, see Prussia, and German Confederation, North.]

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Treaty of alliance between Prussia and the northern states; ratified 8 Sept. 1866 Continued disputes between the diet and Austria and Prussia respecting Schleswig-Holstein, Oct. and Nov. "9 Draft of new constitution for North Germany settled 9 Feb. 1867 12 Feb.

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Elections commence
North German parliament opened at Berlin by the
king of Prussia, 24 Feb.; Dr. Simson elected
president
2 March,
The federal constitution adopted (printed in
Almanach de Gotha, 1868); the parliament closed,
17 April,
The constitution put in action.
1 July,
Meeting of 50 deputies from parliaments of Bavaria,
Würtemberg, Baden, and Hesse Darmstadt,
declare necessity of union with North Germany,

Aug.
Luxemburg evacuated. by the Prussian garrison,
9 Sept.
New North German parliament meets, 10 Sept.;
closed
26 Oct.

Opened by king of Prussia, March; closed,

23 20 June, 1868 Delegates from the Zollverein meet, April; close 23 May, Inauguration of the Luther monument at Worms by the king of Prussia 25 June, German rifle association meeting at Vienna, 26 July; addressed by Von Beust at the close, giving as toast," Peace and Reconciliation" 6 Aug. After negotiations between Bavaria, Würtemberg, and Baden, July, a South German military commission appointed Oct. Wilhelmshaven, at Hippens, bay of Jahde, Oldenburg, the first German military port, inaugurated by the king of Prussia 17 June, 1869 Centenary of the birth of Alexander von Humboldt celebrated 14 Sept. Count Arnim, German representative at Rome, protests against the doctrine of papal infallibility May, 1870 German parliament opened by the king, 14 Feb. ; closed 26 May, Count Bismarck announces the declaration of war by France, and terms it groundless and presumptuous 19 July,,, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Hesse Darmstadt, and Baden, support Prussia in the war declared by France 15 July, See Franco-Prussian War. Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, declare for union with North Germany about 6 Sept. Socialists declare against annexation of Alsace, &c. Sept.-Nov. Baden and Hesse Darmstadt join the North German Confederation by treaty, about 15 Nov. also Würtemberg, 25 Nov. ; and Bavaria, 23 Nov.; retaining certain powers in military and diplomatic affairs Nov.

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The treaty of peace ratified'

Dr. Döllinger, of Munich,

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The North German parliament opened at Berlin by
Dr. Simson on behalf of the king
24 Nov.
The parliament vote 100,000,000 thalers to continue
the war
28 Nov.

The king of Bavaria, in a letter to the king of
Saxony, proposes the king of Prussia to be
nominated emperor of Germany about 4 Dec.
The parliament in an address request the king
to become emperor (votes for, 188; against, 6),
10 Dec.
The address solemnly presented to the king in an
assembly of princes by Dr. Simson. 18 Dec.
Re-establishment of the German empire, 1 Jan.;
William L. of Prussia proclaimed emperor at Ver-
sailles
18 Jan. 1871
Several German bankers condemned to imprison-
ment for subscribing to the French loan
3 Jan.
Preliminaries of peace with France signed at Ver-
26 Feb.
The emperor reviews part of his army at Long-
champs, near Paris
1 Mar.

sailles

First Reichstag or imperial council opened at
Berlin by the emperor.

21 Mar.

The new constitution of the empire comes into

force.

4 May, 16 May, excoinmunicated for

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opposing the dogma of papal infallibility, 18 April; made D.C.L. of Oxford June, 1871 Triumphal entry of the German armies into Berlin; statue of Frederick William IV. inaugurated, 16 June, Dr. Döllinger elected rector of the university of Munich 29 July, The emperors of Austria and Germany meet at Salzburg, Bismarck and Beust present 6-8 Sept. The Bavarian minister of public worship declares against the dogma of papal infallibility in a letter to the archbishop of Munich 27 Sept. The German parliament opened by the emperor; who expresses his conviction "that the new German empire will be a reliable shield of peace," 16 Oct. Reform in the coinage: introduction of a gold coin approved by the federal council about 6 Nov. Law forbidding the clergy to meddle with politics in the pulpit about 26 Nov. Triennial war-budget voted 1 Dec. Sharp despatch from count Bismarck to the German ambassador at Paris respecting the acquittal of murderers of Germans at Melun and Paris, 7 Dec. Ultramontane agitation against the government; excitement amongst the Polish Romanists; count Bismarck carries his school inspection bill against the Roman catholic clergy. Mar. 1872 The empress-queen visits England May, Bismarck reports to the parliament the pope's refusal to receive cardinal Hohenlohe as ambassador 14 May, Bill for the expulsion of the Jesuits passed in the German parliament (131-93); end of session, 19 June, Inauguration of a memorial to Von Stein, the patriotic statesman (see Tugendband) at Nassau, by the emperor . 9 July, Imperial congress: the czar arrives at Berlin, 5 Sept.: the emperor of Austria, 6 Sept.; both leave; prince Bismarck declares the meeting to be merely an act of friendship; "prince Gortschakoff thankful that nothing was written," about 6 Sept. Great emigration of young men to America to avoid the conscription; forbidden by government, Sept. The German parliament opened 12 Mar. 1873 Treaty with France settling the total evacuation of the departments held by German troops on payment of the indemnity in Sept. signed 15 Mar. The emperor William warmly received at St. Peters27 April-11 May,

39

burg

KINGS AND EMPERORS OF GERMANY.

CARLOVINGIAN RACE.

800. Charles I. the Great, or Charlemagne. 814. Louis L. le Debonnaire, king of France.

840. Lothaire I., or Lother, son of Louis; died in a monastery at Treves, Sept. 855.

855. Louis II., son of Lothaire.

875. Charles II., the Bald, king of France.

831. Charles III., the Fat, crowned king of Italy; deposed; succeeded by

887. Arnulf, or Arnoul; crowned emperor at Rome in 896.

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899. Louis III., the Blind.

899. Louis IV., the Child, son of Arnulf; the last of the Carlovingian race in Germany.

SAXON DYNASTY.

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1190.

1190. Henry VI., son, surnamed Asper, or the Sharp; detained Richard I. of England a prisoner; died 1197.

[Interregnum and contest for the throne between Philip of Suabia and Otho of Brunswick.] 1198. Philip, brother to Henry; assassinated at Bamberg by Otto of Wittelsbach.

1208. Otho IV., surnamed the Superb; excommunicated and deposed; died 1218.

1215. Frederick II., king of Sicily, son of Henry VI.; deposed by his subjects, who elected Henry, landgrave of Thuringia, 1246; Frederick died in 1250, naming his son Conrad his successor; but the pope gave the imperial title to 1247. William, earl of Holland (nominal).

1250. Conrad IV., son of Frederick.

[His son Conradin was proclaimed king of Sicily, which was, however, surrendered to his uncle Manfred, 1254; on whose death it was given by the pope to Charles of Anjou in 1263. Conradin, on the invitation of the Ghibeline party, entered Italy with a large army, was defeated at Tagliacozzo, 23 Aug. 1268, and beheaded at Naples 29 Oct., thus ending the Hohenstaufen family.]

1256. [Interregnum.]

1257. Richard, earl of Cornwall, and Alphonso, of Castile,

merely nominated.

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1400. Frederick III. duke of Brunswick; assassinated immediately after his election, and seldom placed in the list of emperors.

Rupert, count palatine of the Rhine; crowned at
Cologne; died 1410.

1410. Jossus, marquess of Moravia; chosen by a party of the electors; died next year.

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Sigismund, king of Hungary; elected by another party, on the death of Jossus recognised by all; king of Bohemia in 1419.

HOUSE OF AUSTRIA.

1438. Albert II. the Great, duke of Austria, and king of Hungary and Bohemia; died 27 Oct. 14391439. [Interregnum.]

1440. Frederick IV. (or III.) surnamed the Pacific; elected emperor 2 Feb., but not crowned until June, 1442.

1493. Maximilian I., son; died in 1519. In 1477 he married Mary of Burgundy.

Francis I. of France and Charles I. of Spain became competitors for the empire.

1519. Charles V. (I. of Spain) son of Joan of Castile and Philip of Austria, elected; resigned both crowns, 1556; retired to a monastery, where he died 21 Sept. 1558.

1556. Ferdinand I., brother; succeeded by his son 1564. Maximilian II. king of Hungary and Bohemia. 1576. Rodolph II., son.

1612. Matthias, brother.

1619. Ferdinand II., cousin, king of Hungary.

1637. Ferdinand III., son.

1658. Leopold I., son.

1705. Joseph I., son.

1711. Charles VI., brother.

1740. Maria-Theresa, daughter, queen of Hungary and Bohemia; her right sustained by England. 1742. Charles VII. elector of Bavaria, rival emperor, whose claim was supported by France.

[This competition gave rise to a general war. Charles VII. died Jan. 1745.] 1745. Francis I. of Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany,

consort of Maria-Theresa. 1765. Joseph II., son. 1790. Leopold II., brother. 1792. Francis II., son, became emperor of Austria only, as Francis I., 1804.

See Austria.

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translation, by the Rev. C. Swan (from an edition printed at Hagenau, 1508), appeared 1824.

GESTA ROMANORUM; a collection of popular tales derived from Oriental and classical sources, written in Latin by an unknown author, about the middle of the 14th century, and one of the first books printed in the 15th. These tales have been largely used by our early poets and dramatists, including Shakspeare. The English

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GHIZNEE, or GHUZNEE (East Persia), the seat of the Gaznevides, who founded the city, 969. They were expelled by the Seljuk Tartars in 1038. The British under sir John Keane attacked the strong citadel of Ghiznee at 2 A.M. 23 July, 1839. At 3 o'clock the gates were blown in by the artillery, and under cover of a heavy fire, the infantry forced their way into the place and at 5 fixed the British colours on its towers. It capitulated to the Afghans, 1 March, 1842, who were defeated 6 Sept. and general Nott re-entered Ghiznce 7 Sept. same year.

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The tallest man that hath been seen in our age was one named Gabara, who in the days of Claudius, the late emperor, was brought out of Arabia. He was 9 feet 9 inches high." Pliny. John Middleton (born 1578), commonly called the child of Hale (Lancashire), whose hand, from the carpus to the end of his middle finger, was 17 inches long; his palm 8 inches broad; his whole height 9 feet 3 inches. Plot, Nat. Hist. of Staffordshire, p. 295. Patrick Cotter, Irish giant, born in 1761, was 8 feet 7 inches in height; his hand, from the commencement of the palm to the extremity of the middle finger,

measured 12 inches, and his shoe was 17 inches long; died Sept. 1806.

Charles Byrne, called O'Brien, 8 feet 4 inches high; died 1783; his skeleton is in the Museum, Royal College of Surgeons.

Big Sam, porter of the prince of Wales, at Carlton-palace, near 8 feet high, performed as a giant in "Cymon," at the Opera-house, 1809.

M. Brice, a native of the Vosges, 7 feet 6 inches high. He exhibited himself in London, Sept. 1862, and Nov. 1863.

Robert Hales, the Norfolk giant, died at Great Yarmouth, 22 Nov. 1863 (aged 43). He was 7 feet 6 inches high, and weighed 452 lbs. Chang-Woo-Gow, a Chinese, aged 19, 7 feet 8 inches high, exhibited himself in London in Sept., &c., 1865.

Capt. Martin Van Buren Bates, of Kentucky, and Miss Ann Hanen Swann, of Nova Scotia, both about 7 feet high; exhibited themselves in London, in May; and married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 17 June, 1871.

GIAOUR, Turkish for infidel, a term applied

to all who do not believe in Mahomedanísm.Byron's poem, "The Giaour," was published in 1813.

GIBRALTAR. The ancient Calpe (which, with Abyla, on the opposite shore of Africa, obtained the name of the Pillars of Hercules), a town on a rock in South Spain, on which is placed a British fortress, considered impregnable. The height of the rock, according to Cuvier, is 1437 English feet. It was taken by the Saracens under Tarik, whence its present name (derived from Gibelel-Tarik), in 711.

Taken from the Moors, 1309; surrendered to them, 1333 finally taken from them by Henry IV., of Castile, 1462; strengthened by Charles V. Attacked by the British under sir George Rooke, the prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, sir John Leake, and admiral Byng, 21 July; taken 24 July, 1704 Besieged by the Spanish and French; they lose 10,000 men; the victorious English but 400, II Oct. and raised

Sir John Leake captured several ships, the siege

10 March, 1705 Ceded to England by treaty of Utrecht 11 April, 1713 The Spaniards repulsed in an attack with great loss

1720

They again attack it with a force of 20,000 men, and lose 5000; English loss, 300. 22 Feb. 1727 Siege by the Spaniards and French, whose armaments (the greatest brought against a fortress) wholly overthrown 16 July, 1779 In one night their floating batteries were destroyed with red-hot balls, and their whole line of works annihilated by a sortie commanded by general Eliott; the enemy's loss in munitions of war, on this night, was estimated at upwards of 2,000,000l. sterling; the army amounted to 40,000 men, 27 Nov. 1781 Grand defeat by a garrison of only 7000 British,

The duke of Crillon commanded 12,000 of the best troops of France. 1000 pieces of artillery were brought to bear against the fortress, besides which there were 47 sail of the line, all threedeckers; 10 great floating batteries, esteemed invincible, carrying 212 guns; innumerable frigates, xebeques, bomb-ketches, cutters, and gun and mortar-boats; while small craft for disembarking the forces covered the bay. For weeks together 6000 shells were daily thrown into the town. Blockade ceased

1552

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13 Sept. 1782

5 Feb. 1783 Nov. 1800

Again: courts of justice and places of worship
closed by proclamation
The fatal epidemic ceased
Bishopric of Gibraltar established

5 Sept. 1828
12 Jan. 1829
1842

Gen. sir Richard Airey appointed governor Sept. 1865
Popular discussion respecting its exchange for
Dec. 1863-Jan. 1869
Gen. sir Fenwick Williams of Kars appointed
governor
Aug. 1870

Ceuta

Royal battery destroyed by fire
Engagement between the French and English fleets

in the bay; H.M.S. Hannibal, 74 guns, lost, 6 July, 1801 The Royal Carlos and St. Hermenigildo Spanish ships, each of 112 guns, blew up, with their crews, at night-time, in the straits here, and all on board perished 12 July,

A malignant disease caused great mortality Sept. 1804

A dreadful plague raged

1805

A malignant fever raged

Aug. 1814

GILBERTINES, an order of canons and nuns established at Sempringham, Lincolnshire, by Gilbert of that place, 1131-1148. At the dissolution there were 25 houses of the order in England and Wales.

GILDING on wood formed part of the decorations of the Jewish tabernacle, 1490 B.C. (Exod. XXV. II); was practised at Rome, about 145 B.C. The capitol was the first building on which this enrichment was bestowed. Pliny. Of gold leaf for gilding the Romans made but 750 leaves, four fingers square, out of a whole ounce. Pliny. Gilding with leaf gold on bole ammoniae was first introduced by Margaritone in 1273. See Electrotype.

GIN, ardent spirit, flavoured with the essential oil of the juniper berry. The "gin act," 1735; laying an excise of 58. per gallon upon it, passed 14 July, 1736. In London alone 7044 houses sold gin by retail; and a man could intoxicate himself for one penny. Salmon. About 1700 gin-shops were suppressed in London in 1750. Clarke.

GINS, machines for separating cotton wool from the seed; see under Cotton.

GINGER, the root of the Amomum Zinziber, a native of the East Indies and China, now cultivated in the West Indies. In 1842 the duty was reduced from 538. to 108. per cwt. of foreign ginger, and from IIS. to 58. per cwt. of that from British colonies.

GIPSIES, see Gypsies.

GIRAFFE or CAMELOPARD, a native of the interior of Africa, was well known to the ancients. In 1827 one was brought to England for the first time as a present to George IV. It died in 1829. On 25 May, 1835, four giraffes, obtained by M. Thibaut, were introduced into the Zoological gardens, Regent's park, where a young one was born in 1839.

GIRONDISTS, an important party during the French revolution, principally composed of deputies from the Gironde. They were ardent republicans, but after the cruelties of Aug, and Sept. 1792, laboured in vain to restrain the cruelties of Robespierre and the Mountain party, and their leaders, Brissot, Vergniaud, and many others, were guillotined 31 Oct. 1793. Lamartine's "Histoire des Girondins," published in 1847, tended to hasten the revolution of 1848.

GISORS, BATTLE OF (France), on 20 Sept. or 10 Oct. 1198, when Richard I. of England defeated the French. His parole for the day, "Dieu et

mon droit"-___ 66 God and my right"-afterwards

became the motto to the arms of England.

GITSCHIN (Bohemia), was captured by the Prussians after a severe conflict with the Austrians, 29 June, 1866. Near Gitschin, the same evening, the crown prince of Prussia was victor in another engagement.

GIURGEVO (Wallachia). Here the Russians officers, 7 July, and repulsed in an attack, 23 July, were defeated by the Turks aided by some English 1854.

GLADIATORS were originally malefactors, who fought for their lives, or captives who fought for freedom. They were first exhibited at the funeral ceremonies of the Romans, 263 B.C., and afterwards at festivals, about 215 B.C. Their revolt under Spartacus, 73 B.C., was quelled by Crassus, 71. When Dacia was reduced by Trajan, 1000 gladiators fought at Rome in celebration of his triumph, for 123 days, A.D. 103. These combats were suppressed in the East by Constantine the Great, 325, and in the West by Theodoric in 500. Lenglet.

GLADSTONE ADMINISTRATION.* Mr. Disraeli resigned 2 Dec. and was succeeded by Mr. Gladstone, whose ministry received the seals 9 Dec. 1868. In consequence of a majority of three against the Irish University bill, early on 12 March, 1873, Mr. Gladstone tendered his resignation, but withdrew it a few days after, as Mr. Disraeli declined office with the existing house of commons.

First lord of the treasury, Wm. Ewart Gladstone.
Lord chancellor, sir Wm. Page Wood; baron Hatherley;
resign ; sir Roundell Palmer, baron Selbourne,
Oct. 1872.

Lord president of the council, Geo. Fred. Samuel Robinson,
earl de Grey and Ripon (marquis of Ripon, 1871).
Lord privy seal, John Wodehouse, earl of Kimberley;
succeeded by viscount Halifax, July, 1870.
Chancellor of the exchequer, Robert Lowe.
Secretaries-home, Henry Austin Bruce; foreign, Geo.
Wm. Fred. Villiers, earl of Clarendon (died 27 June,
1870); succeeded by earl Granville; colonies, Granville
Geo. Leveson-Gower, earl Granville; succeeded by earl
of Kimberley, July, 1870; war, Edward Cardwell;
India, George Douglas Campbell, duke of Argyll.
Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, Frederick lord Dufferin,
appointed governor-general of Canada; succeeded by
H. E. Childers, Aug. (?) 1872.

First lord of admiralty, Hugh Culling Eardley Childers;
succeeded by G. Joachim Göschen, 9 March, 1871.
Chief secretary for Ireland, Chichester S. Fortescue;
succeeded by the marquis of Hartington, 1 Jan. 1871.
President of board of trade, John Bright; succeeded by
Chichester S. Fortescue, Dec. 1870.

I

President of poor law (now local government) board, George Joachim Göschen; succeeded by James Stansfeld, 9 March, 1871.

Wm. Edward Forster, vice-president of the committee of council on education; admitted to the cabinet, July, 1870.

The above form the cabinet.
Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, George earl Spencer.
Office of works, Austen Layard; succeeded by Acton S.
Ayrton, Nov. 1869.
Postmaster-general, Spencer C. Cavendish, marquis of
Hartington; succeeded by Wm. Monsell (not in the
cabinet), Jan. 1871.

This ministry carried--the disestablishment of the Irish church in 1869; the Irish tenant act in 1870; was censured in the house of lords for advising the royal warrant abolishing purchase in the army (162-82), 1 Aug. 1871; carried the ballot in 1872.

GLASGOW (Lanarkshire), the largest city in Scotland. Its prosperity greatly increased after the union in 1707, in consequence of its obtaining some of the American trade. Population in 1707 about 12,000; in 1861, 394,857; in 1871, 477,144.

The cathedral or high church, dedicated to St.
Kentigern or Mungo, began about
Erected into a burgh

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Charter was obtained from James II.
University founded by bishop Turnbull, about
Made a royal burgh by James VI.
Town wasted by a great fire
Charter of William and Mary
Glasgow Courant, the first newspaper published
First vessel sailed to America for its still great
import, tobacco

1181 . 1190

Great Shawfield riot.

Calico printing begun, about
Plundered by rebels.
Theatre opened
Power-loom introduced

Theatre burnt; Glasgow Herald published.
Chamber of commerce formed.
Trades' hall built.

Spinning machinery by steam introduced
Anderson's university founded
New College buildings erected
Trials for treason followed
Great popular commotion

1451

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1611

1652

1690

1715

1718

1725 1742

1745

1764

1773

. 1782 1783

. 1791 1795

1811

"

7 May, 1795
April,
July, ""
Jan. 1829
3 Sept.
14 Jan. 1832

""

Theatre again burnt
The royal exchange opened.
Great fire, loss 150,000l.
The Glasgow lotteries, the last drawn in Britain,
were granted by licence of parliament to the
commissioners for the improvement of Glasgow.
The third and final Glasgow lottery was drawn
in London, at Coopers' Hall, 28 Aug. 1834.
Their repetition was forbidden by 4 Will. IV.,
1834
24 Sept. 1840
8 Oct. 1844

Explosion at Tradeston flour mills; about
loss, 70,000l.

British Association meet here.

Wellington's statue erected.
False alarm of fire at the theatre, when 70 persons
are crushed to death
17 Feb. 1849
12 Sept. 1855
City of

British Association meet (and time)
Failure of Western Bank of Scotland, and

Nov. 1857
Oct. 1858

of Glasgow banks, and other firms
In which great frauds were discovered
New water-works at Loch Katrine opened by the
14 Oct. 1859
[Supplies 25,000,000 gallons daily, can supply
50,000,000; engineer, J. F. Bateman; cost about
918,000l. independent of price paid for old
works.]
Self-supporting cooking establishments for work-
ing classes begun by Mr. Thos. Corbett, 21 Sept. 1860
Glasgow visited by the empress of the French,
27 Nov.
Theatre burnt again
31 Jan. 1863
Visited by lord Palmerston; installed lord rector,
29 March,

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Industrial exhibition opened
12 Dec. 1865
Fine stained glass windows, by German artists, put
up in the cathedral by private munificence 1859-66
Site of the old university sold to railway company;

new buildings to be erected near Western-park. 1866
Great reform demonstration; visit of John Bright,
16 Oct.
The duke of Edinburgh inaugurates the statue of
the prince consort, in George's-square 18 Oct.
Glasgow and Aberdeen universities to elect one
M.P., and Glasgow to elect three instead of two
M. P.'s, by the Scotch reform act, passed 13 July, 1868
Foundation of the new university buildings laid by
the prince of Wales
8 Oct. ""
Foundation of Albert bridge laid
The new university buildings opened
Scott centenary celebrated
Fraser and Maclaren's warehouse, Buchanan-street,

3 June, 1870

7 Nov.

""

9 Aug. 1871

burnt; about 100,000l. lost

27 March, 1872
killed;
9 July, 1872

14

*William Ewart Gladstone, born 29 Dec. 1809; master of the mint, Sept. 1841; president of the board of trade, May, 1843-Feb. 1845; secretary for colonies, Dec. 1845

GLASGOW, BISHOPRIC OF. Kennet, in his Antiquities, says it was founded by St. Kentigern, alias Mungo, in 560; Dr. Heylin, speaking of the see of St. Asaph, in Wales, says that that see was founded by St. Kentigern, a Scot, then bishop of Glasgow in 583. This prelacy became archiepiscopal in 1491, ceased at the Revolution, and is now a post-revolution bishopric. The cathedral, comJuly, 1846; chancellor of the exchequer, Jan. 1853-menced in 1121, has a noble crypt; see Bishops. Feb. 1855, June, 1859-June, 1866; lord high commissioner extraordinary to the Ionian Isles, Nov. 1858; M. P. for Newark, 1832-46; for Oxford, 1847-65; for South Lancashire, 1865-8; for Greenwich, Nov. 1868. (in England). In 1727, John Glas, a minister of

GLASITES (in Scotland) and SANDEMANIANS

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