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Aug.

25 June,

Conference at Nuremberg relative to a general code Treaty of alliance between Prussia and the northern
of commerce
15 Jan. 1857 states ; ratified

8 Sept. 1866 Great excitement in Germany at the French suc- Continued disputes between the diet and Austria cesses in Lombardy: warlike preparations in

and Prussia respecting Schleswig-Holstein, Bavaria, &c. May and June, 1859

Oct, and Nov. Meetings of new liberal party in Eisenach, Saxe Draft of new constitution for North Germany Weimar, 17 July : seven resolutions put forth

settled

9 Feb. 1867 recommending that the imperfect federal consti- Elections commence

12 Feb. tution be changed ; that the German diet be re- North German parliament opened at Berlin by the placed by a strong central government ; that a king of Prussia, 24 Feb.; Dr. Simson elected national assembly be summoned ; and that Prus

president

2 March, sia be invited to take the initiative

14 Aug.

The federal constitution adopted (printed in This proposal not accepted by Prussia, and warmly Almanach de Gotha, 1868); the parliament closed, opposed by Hanover

Sept. The Austrian minister, Rechberg, severely censur

17 April, The constitution put in action .

1 July, ing the duke of Saxe Gotha, for a liberal speech, Meeting of 50 deputies from parliaments of Bavaria, 4 Sept. ; and accusing the Prussian government Würtemberg, Baden, and Hesse Darmstadt, of favouring the liberals, meets with cutting

declare necessity of union with North Germany, retorts.

Sept. Death of Ernst Moritz Arndt, patriot and poet, Luxemburg evacuated. by the Prussian garrison, 29 Jan, 1860

9 Sept. The federal diet maintains the Hesse-Cassel consti- New North German parliament meets, 10 Sept. ; tution of 1852 against Prussia

24 March,
closed

26 Oct Meeting of the French emperor and the German Opened by king of Prussia, 23 March; closed, sovereigns at Baden, 16, 17 June; and of the czar

20 June, 1868 and the emperor of Austria and the regent of Delegates from the Zollverein meet, April ; close Prussia at Toplitz : 26 July, &c.

23 May, Meeting at Coburg in favour of German unity Inauguration of the Luther monument at Worms against French aggression

5 Sept.

by the king of Prussia Dispute with Denmark respecting the rights of German rifle association meeting at Vienna, 26 Holstein and Schleswig.

Nov.

July ; addressed by Von Beust at the close, giving First meeting of a German national shooting match

as toast, “ Peace and Reconciliation”

6 Aug at Gotha

8-11 July, 1861 After negotiations between Bavaria, Würtemberg, Meeting of German national association at Heide)

and Baden, July, a South German military comberg: decides to form a fleet

23 Aug.
mission appointed

Oct.
Subscriptions received for fleet Sept. and Oct. Wilhelmshaven, at Hippens, bay of Jahde, Olden-
The national association meet at Berlin ; they re-

burg, the first German military port, inaugurated commend the formation of a united federal

by the king of Prussia government with a central executive, under the Centenary of the birth of Alexander von Humbolat

:,17 June, 1869 leadership of Prussia

13 March, 1862
celebrated

14 Sept. Meetings of plenipotentiaries from German states Count Arnim, German representative at Rome, on federal reform

8 July-10 Aug:

protests against the doctrine of papal infallibility Deputies from German states meet at Weimar, and

May, 1870 declare that Germany wants forination into one German parliament opened by the king, 14 Feb. ; federal state

28, 29 Sept.
closed

26 May, Congress of deputies from German states declare Count Bismarck announces the declaration of war in favour of unity

21 Aug. 1863 by France, and terms it groundless and presumpThe emperor of Austria invites the German

tuous sovereigns to a congress at Frankfort, 31 July : Bavaria, Würtemberg, · Hesse Darmstadt, and king of Prussia declines, 4 Aug: ; nearly all the Baden, support Prussia in the war declared by sovereigns meet, 16, 17 Aug. ; they approve the

France

15 July, Austrian plan of federal reforin, i. Sept. ; which

See Franco-Prussian War. is rejected by Prussia

. 22 Sept. 5, Munich, Stuttgart, and other cities, declare for The diet determines to have recourse to federal exe

union with North Germany

about 6 Sept. cution in Holstein if Denmark does not fultil her Socialists declare against annexation of Alsace, &c. obligations 1 Oct

Sept.-Nov. Soth anniversary of the battle of Leipsic celebrated Baden and Hesse Darmstadt join the North German

18 Oct.

Confederation by treaty, about 15 Nov. ; also Death of Frederick VII. of Denmark

Würtemberg, 25 Nov. ; and Bavaria, 23 Nov. ; reGerman troops enter Holstein for "federal execu

taining certain powers in military and diplomatic tion" (see Denmark for events)

affairs

Nov. Death of Maximilian II. of Bavaria 10 March, 1864 The North German parliament opened at Berlin by Prussia retains the duchies; discussion between

Dr. Simson on behalf of the king Austria and Prussia; the diet adopt the resolu- The parliament vote 100,000,000 thalers to continue tion of Bavaria and Saxony requesting Austria

the war

28 Nov. and Prussia to give up Holstein to the duke of The king of Bavaria, in a letter to the king of Augustenburg : rejected

6 April, 1865 Saxony, proposes the king of Prussia to be soth anniversary of the establishment of the Ger- nominated emperor of Germany about 4 Dec. manic confederation

8 June, The parliament in an address request the king The Gastein convention (which see)

to become emperor (votes for, 188; against, 6), Condemned by the diet at Frankfort 1 Oct.

1o Dec. The diet calls on Austria and Prussia to disarm, The address solemnly presented to the king in an

19 May, 1866 assembly of princes by Dr. Simson . 18 Dec. Meeting of deputies from smaller German states Re-establishment of the German empire, 1 Jan.; condemn the impending war .

20 May,

William I. of Prussia proclaimed emperor at VerAustria declares that Prussia has broken the treaty

sailles

18 Jan. 1871 by invading Holstein, 11 June ; the diet adopts Several German bankers condemned to imprisonthis, by 9 votes ; the Prussian representative de

ment for subscribing to the French loan clares the Germanic confederation at an end, and Preliminaries of peace with France signed at Verinvites the members to form a new one, excluding

sailles

26 Feb. Austria

14 June, The emperor reviews part of his army at LongThe Prussians enter Saxony, and the war begins, champs, near Paris

1 Mar. 15 June,

First Reichstag or imperial council opened at The diet determines for war, 16 June ; proclaims

Berlin by the emperor. prince Charles of Bavaria general of the confedera- The new constitution of the empire comes into tion troops

27 June,

force. (For the war and its consequences, see Prussia, The treaty of peace ratified

16 May, and German Confederation, North.)

Dr. Döllinger, of Munich, excoinmunicated for

15 Nov.

23 Dec,

24 Nov.

9

14 Aug

3 Jan.

21 Mar.

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4 May,

29 July,

9

7 Dec.

ور

opposing the dogma of papal infallibility, 18

HOUSE OF FRANCONIA. April ; made D.C.L. of Oxford

June, 1871 Triumphal entry of the German armies into Berlin;

1024. Conrad II., surnamed the Salique. statue of Frederick William IV. inaugurated,

1039. Henry III., the Black, son. 16 June,

1056. Henry IV., son; a minor; Agnes, regent; deposed Dr. Döllinger elected rector of the university of

by his son and successor, Rudolph (1077) and Munich

Herman (1082) nominated by the pope; and The emperors of Austria and Germany meet at

Conrad (1087). Salzburg, Bismarck and Beust present 6-8 Sept.

1106. Henry V.; married Maud or Matilda, daughter of The Bavarian minister of public worship declares

Henry I. of England. against the dogma of papal infallibility in a letter

1125. Lothaire II., surnamed the Saxon. to the archbishop of Munich The German parliament opened by

27 Sept. the

HOUSE OF HOHENSTAUFEN, OR OF SUABIA.

emperor; who expresses his conviction that the new Ger- 1138. Conrad III., duke of Franconia. man empire will be a reliable shield of peace," 1152. Frederick I. Barbarossa; drowned by his horse

16 Oct.

throwing him into the river Saleph, 10 June, Reform in the coinage: introduction of a gold coin

1190. approved by the federal council about 6 Nov. 1190. Henry VI., son, surnamed Asper, or the Sharp: Law forbidding the clergy to meddle with politics

detained Richard I. of England a prisoner; died in the pulpit

about 26 Nov.

1197 Triennial war-budget voted

1 Dec.

[Interregnum and contest for the throne between Sharp despatch from count Bismarck to the Ger

Philip of Suabia and Otho of Brunswick.) man ambassador at Paris respecting the acquittal 1198. Philip, brother to Henry; assassinated at Bam. of murderers of Gerinans at Melun and Paris,

berg by Otto of Wittelsbach.

1208. Otho IV., surnamed the Superb; excommunicated Ultramontane agitation against the government;

and deposed; died 1218. excitement amongst the Polish Romanists; count 1215. Frederick II., king of Sicily, son of Henry VI. ; Bismarck (arries his school inspection bill against

deposed by his subjects, who elected Henry, the Roman catholic clergy.

Mar. 1872

landgrave of Thuringia, 1246; Frederick died in The empress-queen visits England

May,

1250, naming his son Conrad his successor; but Bismarck reports to the parliament the pope's

the pope gave the imperial title to refusal to receive cardinal Hohenlohe as ambas- 1247. William, earl of Holland (nominal). sador

14 May,

1250. Conrad IV., son of Frederick. Bill for the expulsion of the Jesuits passed in the (His son Conradin was proclaimed king of Sicily, German parliament (131-93); end of session,

which was, however, surrendered to his uncle 19 June,

Manfred, 1254 ; on whose death it was given by the Inauguration of a memorial to Von Stein, the patri

pope to Charles of Anjou in 1263. Conradlin, on the otic statesman (see Tugendband) at Nassau, by

invitation of the Ghibeline party, entered Italy with the emperor

9 July,

a large army, was defeated at Tagliacozzo, 23 Aug. Imperial congress: the czar arrives at Berlin,

1268, and beheaded at Naples 29 Oct., thus ending 5 Sept. ; the einperor of Austria, 6 Sept. ; both

the Hohenstaufen family.) leave; prince Bismarck declares the meeting to 1256. (Interregnum.] be merely an act of friendship; “prince Gortscha- 1257. Richard, earl of Cornwall, and Alphonso, of Castile, koff thankful that nothing was written," about

merely nominated.

6 Sept. Great emigration of young men to America to avoid

HOUSES OF HAPSBURG, LUXEMBURG, BAVARIA, ETC. the conscription; forbidden by government,

Sept.

1273. Rudolph, count of Hapsburg. The German parliament opened

12 Mar. 1873

1291. [Interregnum.] Treaty with France settling the total evacuation of

1292. Adolphus, count of Nassau, to the exclusion of the departments held by German troops on pay

Albert, son of Rodolph: deposed; slain at the ment of the indemnity in Sept. signed

battle of Gelheim, 2 July, 1298, by The emperor William warmly received at St. Peters

1298. Albert I., duke of Austria, Rodolph's son; killed burg 27 April--11 May,

by his nephew at Rheinfels, 1 May, 1308.

1308. Henry VII. of Luxemburg. KINGS AND EMPERORS OF GERMANY,

1313. (Interregnum.]

1314. Louis IV. of Bavaria, and Frederick III. of Austria, CARLOVINGIAN RACE.

son of Albert, rival emperors ; Frederick died in 800. Charles I. the Great, or Charlemagne.

1330. 814. Louis I. le Debon naire, king of France.

1330. Louis reigns alone. 840. Lothaire I., or Lother, son of Louis; died in a

1347. Charles IV. of Luxemburg. (At Nuremberg, in monastery at Treves, Sept. 855.

1356, the Golden Bull became the fundamental 855. Louis II., son of Lothaire.

law of the German empire.) 875. Charles II., the Bald, king of France.

1378. Wenceslas, king of Bohemia, son, twice impri881. Charles III., the Fat, crowned king of Italy; de

sonel ; forced to resign ; but continued to reigu posed; succeeded by

in Bohemia. 887. Arnulf, or Arnoul; crowned emperor at Rome in 1400. Frederick III. duke of Brunswick; assassinated 896.

immediately after his election, and seldom placed 899. Louis III., the Blind.

in the list of emperors. 899. Louis IV., the Child, son of Arnulf; the last of the Rupert, count palatine of the Rhine; crowned at Carlovingian race in Germany.

Cologne; died 1410.

1410. Jossus, marquess of Moravia ; chosen by a party of SAXON DYNASTY.

the electors; died next year. 911. Otho, duke of Saxony; refuses the dignity on Sigismund, king of Hungary; elected by another account of his age.

party, on the death of Jossus recognised by all ; Conrad I., duke of Franconia, king.

king of Bohemnia in 1419. 918. Henry I., the Fowler, son of Otho, duke of Saxony, king.

HOUSE OF AUSTRIA. 936. Otho I., the Great, son of Henry, crowned by pope 1438. Albert II. the Great, duke of Austria, and king of John XII., 2 Feb. 962, the beginning of the holy

Hungary and Bohemia; died 27 Oct. 1439. Roman empire.

1439. (Interregnum.] 973. Otho II., the Bloody: massacred his chief nobility 1440. Frederick IV. (or III.) surnamed the Pacific; at an entertainment, 981; wounded by a poisoned

elected emperor 2 Feb., but not crowned until 983. Otho III., the Red, his son, yet in his minority, 1493. Maximilian I., son; died in 1519. In poisoned.

married Mary of Burgundy. 1002. Henry II., duke of Bavaria, surnamed the Holy Francis I. of France and Charles I. of Spain beand the Lame.

came competitors for the empire.

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15 Mar.

arrow.

June, 1442.

1477 he

1519. Charles V. (I. of Spain) son of Joan of Castile and translation, by the Rev. C. Swan (from an edition

Philip of Austria, elected; resigned both crowns; printed at Hagenau, 1508), appeared 1824.
1556; retired to a monastery, where he died
21 Sept. 1558.

GETTYSBURG (Philadelphia). Here severe 1556. Ferdinand I., brother; succeeded by his son fighting took place 1-3 July, 1803, between the in1564. Maximilian II, king of Hungary and Buhemia.

vading confederate army under generals Lee, Long1576. Rodolph II., son. 1612. Matthias, brother.

street, and Ewell, and the federals under general 1619. Ferdinand II., cousin, king of Hungary.

George Meade. The confederates were long suc1637. Ferdinand III., son.

cessful, but eventually were compelled to retire 1658. Leopold I., son.

from Pennsylvania and Maryland. The killed and 1705. Joseph I., son.

wounded on each side were estimated at about 1711. Charles VI., brother. 1740. Maria-Theresa, daughter, queen of Hungary and

15,000. Bohemia ; her right sustained by England. GHENT (Belgium), an ancient city, built about 1742. Charles VII. elector of Bavaria, rival emperor, the 7th century, during the middle-ages became whose claim was supported by France.

very rich. John, third son of Edward III. of Eng[This competition gave rise to a general war. Charles VII. died Jan. 1745.)

land, is said to have been born here in 1340 (hence 1745. Francis I. of Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany, named John of Gaunt) during the revolt under consort of Maria-Theresa.

Jacob Van Artevelde, á brewer, whose son Philip 1765. Joseph II., son.

revived the insurrection against the carl Louis, 1790. Leopold II., brother.

1379-83. 1792. Francis II., son, became emperor of Austria only, as Francis I., 1804.

Ghent rebelled against Philip of Burgundy, 145!; against See Austria,

the emperor Charles V., 1539; severely punished, 1540.

Pacification of Ghent" (when the north and south proHOUSE OF HOHENZOLLERN,

vinces of the Netherlands united against Spain) pro1871. William I. king of Prussia, 1 Jan.

claimed 8 Nov. 1576, broken up 1579.

Ghent taken by Louis XIV. of France, 9 March, 1678; and GERMAN LANGUAGE has two great by the duke of Marlborough, 1706. branches : hoch and platt Deutsch, high and low Ghent seized by the French, 1793; annexed to the German. The former became the literary language, Netherlands, 1814 ; made part of Belgiun, 1830. principally through its use by Luther in his trans Peace of Ghent, between Great Britain and America, lation of the Bible and in other works, 1522-34.

signed 24 Dec, 1814.
The latter is that spoken by the lower classes. GHIBELINES, see Guelphs.
There are many dialects: the satirical epic in low
German, “Reineke Fuchs," appeared in 1498 ; see

GHIZNEE, or GIUZNEE (East Persia), the Reynard.

seat of the Gaznevides, who founded the city, 969. PRINCIPAL GERMAN AUTHORS.

They were expelled by the Seljuk Tartars in 1038.

Born Died The British under sir John Keane attacked the Ulfilas (Gothie bible) about A. D. 360

strong citadel of Ghiznee at 2 A.M. 23 July, 1839. Martin Luther (German bible, &c. 1522-34). 1483

1546

At 3 o'clock the gates were blown in by the artillery, Hans Sachs

and under cover of a heavy tire, the infantry forced Godf. Leibnitz

1646 G. F. Gellert

1746 their way into the place and at 5 fixed the British

1715 1769 G. E. Lessing

1781

colours on its towers. 1729

- It capitulated to the G. A. Bürger

1748 1794

Afghans, i March, 1842, who were defeated 6 Sept. J. G. von Herder

1744 1803 and general Nott re-entered Ghiznee 7 Sept. same Fred. T. Klopstock

1724 Im. Kant

1724 1804 J. C. Fred von Schiller

1805

GHOSTS, produced by optical science. Mr. Ch. M. Wieland

1733

1813 | Dircks described his method at the British AssociaC. T. Körner

1791 Jean Paul Richter

1813 tion meeting in 1858. Dr. John Taylor produced

1763 1825 ghosts scientifically in March; and Mr. Pepper exJ. H. Voss

1751 1826 F. Schlegel

hibited the ghost illusion at the Royal Polytechnic 1772

1829 B. G. Niebuhr

1776 1831

Institution, July, 1863. Sce Cock-lane Ghost. J. W. von Goethe

1749

1832 Wm. von Humboldt

GIANTS are mentioned in Gen. vi. 4. The

1767 A. Wm. Schlegel

1767 1845

bones of reputed giants, 17, 18, 20, and 30 feet high, L. Tieck

· 1773

1853

have been proved to be remains of animals.-Thé H. Heine

• 1797 1856 battle of Marignano (1515) has been termed the Alex. von Humboldt

1769

" battle of the Giants.' Chr. Carl J. Bunsen

1791 F. C. Schlosser

1776 1861 Og, king of Bashan, of the remnant of the giants: his Ernst M. Arndt

1769

bedstead was y cubits long (about 16 feet). 1451 B.C. G. G. Gervinus

1805 1871

(Deut. iii. 11.) Theod. Mommsen

1817

Goliath of Gath's “height was 6 cubits and a span."

Killed by David about 1063 B.C. (1 Sam. xvii. 4.) GERMINAL INSURRECTION, in the Four giants, sous of Goliathi, killed (2 Sam. xxi. 15-22) faubourgs of Paris, suppressed on 12th Germinal, about 1018. year III. (1 April, 1795).

The emperor Maximin (A. D. 235) was 8! feet in height, GERONA (N. E. Spain), an ancient city, fre

and of great bulk. Some say between 7 and 8 feet;

others above 8. quently besieged and taken. In June, 1808, it

"The tallest man that hath been seen in our age was successfully resisted the French; but after suffer one named Gabara, who in the days of Claudius, the ing much by famine, surrendered 12 Dec. 1809. late emperor, was brought out of Arabia.

He was

9 feet 9 inches high." Pliny. GESTA ROMANORUM; a collection of John Middleton (born 1578), commonly called the child popular tales derived from Oriental and classical of Hale (Lancashire), whose hand, from the carpus to sources, written in Latin by an unknown author, the end of his middle finger, was 17 inches long: his

palm 8 inches broad; his whole height 9 feet about the middle of the 14th century, and one of

inches.

3

Plot, Nat. Hist. of Stafordshire, p. 295. the first books printed in the 15th. These tales

Patrick Cotter, Irish giant, born in 1761, was 8 feet have been largely used by our early poets and 7 inches in height; his hand, from the commencement dramatists, including Shakspeare. The English of the palm to the extremity of the middle finger,

1494

1578

1803 year.

• 1759

1835

1859

1860

1860

measured 12 inches, and his shoe was 17 inches long; Again: courts of justice and places of worship died Sept. 1806.

closed by proclamation

5 Sept. 1828 Charles Byrne, called O'Brien, 8 feet 4 inches high ; died The fatal epidemic ceased

12 Jan. 1829 1783; his skeleton is in the Museum, Royal College of Bishopric of Gibraltar established

1842 Surgeons.

Gen. sir Richard Airey appointed governor Sept. 1865 Big Sam, porter of the prince of Wales, at Carlton-palace, Popular discussion respecting its exchange for near 8 feet high, performed as a giant in “Cymon," Ceuta

Dec. 1803-Jan. 1869 at the Opera-house, 1809.

Gen. sir Fenwick Williams of Kars appointed M. Brice, a native of the Vosges, 7 feet 6 inches high. governor

Aug. 1870 He exhibited himself in London, Sept. 1862, and Nov. 1863.

GILBERTINES, an order of canons and Robert Hales, the Norfolk giant, died at Great Yarmouth, nuns established at Sempringham, Lincolnshire,

22 Nov. 1863 (aged 43). He was 7 feet 6 inches high, by Gilbert of that place, 1131-1148. At the dissoand weighed 452 lbs.

lution there were 25 houses of the order in England Chang-Woo-Gow, a Chinese, aged 19, 7 feet 8 inches

and Wales. high, exhibited himself in London in Sept., &c., 1865.

GILDING on wood formed part of the decoraCapt. Martin Van Buren Bates, of Kentucky, and Miss tions of the Jewish tabernacle, 1490 B.C. (Exod.

Ann Hanen Swann, of Nova Scotia, both about 7 feet high; exhibited themselves in London, in May; and

xxv. II); was practised at Rome, about 145 B.C. married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 17 June, 1871.

The capitol was the first building on which this

enrichment was bestowed. Pliny. Of gold leaf for GIAOUR, Turkish for intidel, a term applied gilding the Romans made but 150 leaves, four to all who do not believe in Mahomedanísın.- fingers square, out of a whole ounce. Pliny. GildByron's poem, “ The Giaour,” was published in ing with leat gold on bole ammoniac was first intro1813

duced by Margaritone in 1273. See Electrotype. GIBRALTAR. The ancient Calpe (which,

GIN, ardent spirit, flavoured with the essential with Abyla, on the opposite shore of Africa, ob- oil of the juniper berry. The “gin act," 1735, tained the name of the Pillars of Hercules), a town laving an excise of 58. per gallon upon it, passed on a rock in South Spain, on which is placed a British fortress, considered impregnable. The 14 July, 1736. In London alone 2014 houses sold height of the rock, according to Cuvier, is 1437 for one penny. Salmon. About 1700 gin-shops

gin by retail; and a man could intoxicate himself English feet. It was taken by the Saracens under

were suppressed in London in 1750. Clarke. Tarik, whence its present name (derived from Gibelel-Tarik), in 711.

GINS, machines for separating cotton wool from Taken from the Moors, 1309; surrendered to them,

the seed; see under Cotton. 1333: finally taken from them by Henry IV., of

GINGER, the root of the Amomum Zinziber, Castile, 1462; strengthened by Charles V.

1552 a native of the East Indies and China, now cultiAttacked by the British under sir George Rooke,

vated in the West Indies. In 1842 the duty was the prince of Hesse-Darmstadt, sir John Leake, and admiral Byng, 21 July; taken 24 July, 1704

reduced from 538. to 1os. per cwt. of foreign ginger, Besieged by the Spanish and French; they lose and from 118. to 58. per cwt. of that from British 10,000 men; the victorious English but 400, colonies.

1 Oct. Sir John Leake captured several ships, and raised

GIPSIES, see Gypsies. the siege

10 March, 1705 Ceded to England by treaty of Utrecht

GIRAFFE or CAMELOPARD, a native of the

1. April, 1713 interior of Africa, was well known to the ancients. The Spaniards repulsed in an attack with great

In 1827 one was brought to England for the first They again attack it with a force of 20,000 men, time as a present to George IV. It died in 1829. and lose 5000; English loss, 300 .

22 Feb. 1727

On 25 May, 1835, four giraffes, obtained by M. Siege by the Spaniaris and French, whose arma- Thibaut, were introduced into the Zoological gar

ments (the greatest brought against a fortress) wholly overthrown

16 July, 1779

dens, Regent's park, where a young one was born In one night their floating batteries were destroyed

in 1839. with red-hot balls, and their whole line of works GIRONDISTS, an important party during the annihilated by a sortie cominanded by general

French revolution, principally composed of deputies Eliott; the enemy's loss in munitions of war, on

from the Gironde. They were ardent republicans, this night, was estimated at upwards of 2,000,000l. sterling; the army amounted to 40,000 inen,

but afterthe cruelties of Aug: and Sept.1792, laboured

27 Nov. 1781 in vain to restrain the cruelties of Robespierre and Grand defeat by a garrison of only 7000 British, the Mountain party, and their leaders, Brissot,

13 Sept. 1782 Vergniaud, and many others, were guillotined The duke of Crillon commanded 12,000 of the best troops of France. 1000 pieces of artillery were

31 Oct. 1793. Lamartine's “ Histoire des Gironbrought to bear against the fortress, besides

dins," published in 1847, tended to hasten the which there were 47 sail of the line, all three

revolution of 1848. deckers; 10 great floating batteries, esteemed

GISORS, BATTLE OF (France), on 20 Sept. invincible, carrying 212 guns; innumerable frigates, xeberques, bomb-ketches, cutters, and gun and

or 10 Oct. 1198, when Richard I. of England defeated mortar-boats; while small craft for disembarking

the French His parole for the day,

Dicut et the forces covereri the bay. For weeks together mon droit—“God and my right”-afterwards 6000 shells were daily thrown into the town.

became the motto to the arms of England. Blockade ceased

5 Feb. 1783 Royal battery destroyed by fire

Nov. 1800 GITSCHIN (Bohemia), was captured by the Engagement between the French and English tlects

Prussians after a severe conflict with the Austrians, in the bay; H.M.S. Hannibal, 74 guns, lost,

29 June, 1866. Near Gitschin, the same evening,

6 July, 1801 The Royal Carlos and St. Jermenigildo Spanish ships,

the crown prince of Prussia was victor in another each of 112 gius, blew up, with their crews, at

engagement. night-time, in the straits here, and all on board

GIURGEVO (Wallachia). Here the Russians

12 July, A muliguant disease caused great mortality Sept. 1804 officers, 9 July, and repulsed in an attack, 23 July,

were defeated by the Turks aided by some English A dreadful plague rayed A malignant fever raged

Aug. 1814 1854.

1720

1811

GLADIATORS were originally malefactors, Charter was obtained from James II.

1450 who fought for their lives, or captives who fought University founded by bishop Turnbull, about for freedom. They were first exhibited at the

Made a royal burgh by James VI.

161 Town wasted by a great fire

1652 funeral ceremonies of the Romans, 263 B.C., and

Charter of William and Mary

1690 afterwards at festivals, about 215 B.C. Their revolt Glasgow Courant, the first newspaper published 1715 under Spartacus, 73 B.C., was quelled by Crassus, First vessel sailed to America for its still great 71. When Dacia was reduced by Trajan, 1000 import, tobacco

1718 gladiators fought at Rome in celebration of his Great Shawfield riot .

1725 triumph, for 123 days, A.D. 103. These combats

Calico printing begun, about

1742 Plundered by rebels .

1745 were suppressed in the East by Constantine the

Theatre opened

1764 Great, 325, and in the West by Theodoric in 500. Power-loom introduced

1773 Lenglet.

Theatre burnt; Glusgou jierald published .

1782 Chamber of commerce formed .

1783 GLADSTONE ADMINISTRATION. * Trades' hall built .

1791 Mr. Disraeli resigned 2 Dec. and was succeeded by Spinning machinery by steam introduced

1795 Mr. Gladstone, whose ministry received the seals Anderson's university founded

7 May, 1795 9 Dec. 1868. In consequence of a majority of three

New College buildings erected against the Irish University bill, early on 12 March, Trials for treason followed

Great popular commotion

April,

July, 1873, Mr. Gladstone tendered his resignation, but Theatre again burnt

Jan. 1829 withdrew it a few days after, as Mr. Disraeli de- The royal exchange opened .

3 Sept. clined office with the existing house of commons.

Great fire, loss 150,00ol.

14 Jan. 1832

The Glasgow loiteries, the last drawn in Britain, First lord of the treasury, Wm. Ewart Gladstone.

were granted by licence of parliament to the Lord chancellor, sir Wm. Page Wood; baron Hatherley : commissioners for the improvement of Glasgow.

resigned; sir Roundell Palmer, baron Selbourne, The third and final Glasgow lottery was drawn Oct. 1872.

in London, at Coopers' Hall, 28 Aug. 1834. Lord president of the council, Geo. Fred. Samuel Robinson, Their repetition was forbidden by 4 Will. IV.,

1834 Lord privy seal, John Wolehouse, earl" of Kimberley: British Association meet here. 24 Sept. 1840 succeeded by viscount Halifax, July, 1870.

Wellington's statue erected .

8 Oct. 1844 Chancellor of the erchequer, Robert Lowe.

False aların of fire at the theatre, when 70 persons Secretaries-home, Henry Austin Bruce; foreign, Geo. are crushed to death

17 Feb. 1849 Wm. Fred. Villiers, earl of Clarendon (died 27 June, British Association meet (and time)

12 Sept. 1855 1870); succeeded by earl Granville; colonies, Granville Failure of Western Bank of Scotland, and City of Geo. Leveson-Gower, earl Granville; succeeded by earl of Glasgow banks, and other firms

Nov. 1857 of Kimberley, July, 1870; war, Edward Cardwell; In which great frauds were discovered

Oct. 1858 India, George Douglas Campbell, duke of Argyil. New water-works at Loch Katrine opened by the Chancellor of duchy of Lancaster, Frederick lord Dufferin,

14 Oct. 1859 appointed governor-general of Canada ; succeded by [supplies 25,000,000 gallons daily, can supply H, E. Childers, Aug. (?) 1872.

50,000,000; engineer, J. F. Bateman; cost about First lord of admiralty, Hugh Culling Eardley Childers; 918,000l. independent of price paid for old succeeded hy G. Joachim Göschen, 9 March, 1871.

works.) Chief secretary for Ireland, Chichester 8. Fortescue ; Self-supporting cooking establishments for work

succeeded by the marquis of Hartington, 1 Jan. 1871. ing classes begun by Mr. Thos. Corbett, 21 Sept. 1860 President of board of trade, John Bright; succeeded by Glasgow visited by the empress of the French,

Chichester S. Fortescue, Dec. 1870.
President of poor low (now local government) board, Theatre burnt again

31 Jan. 1863 George Joachim Göschen; succeeded by James Stans Visited by lord Palmerston ; installed lord rector,

feld, 9 March, 1871. Wm. Edward Forster, vice-president of the committee

Industrial exhibition opened

12 Dec. 1865 of council on education; admitted to the cabinet, Fine stained glass windows, by German artists, put July, 1870.

up in the cathedral by private munificence 1859-66 The above for the cabinet.

Site of the old university sold to railway company; Lord-lieutenant of Ireland, George earl Spencer.

new buildings to be erected near Western-park . 1866 Office of works, Austen Layard; succeeded by Acton S. Great reform demonstration ; visit of John Bright,

Ayrton, Nov. 1869. Postmaster-general, Spencer C. Cavendish, marquis of The duke of Edinburgh inaugurates the statue of

Hartington; succeeded by Wm. Monsell (not in the the prince consort, in George's-square 18 Oct. cabinet), Jan. 1871.

Glasgow and Aberdeen universities to elect one This ministry carried--the disestablishment of the

M.P., and Glasgow to elect three instead of two Irish church in 1869: the Irish tenant act in 1870; was

M.P.'s, by the Scotch reform act, passed 13 July, 1868 censured in the house of lords for advising the royal

Foundation of the new university buildings laid by warrant abolishing, purchase in the army (162—82),

the prince of Wales

8 Oct. 1 Aug. 1871; carried the ballot in 1872.

Foundation of Albert bridge laid

3 June, 1870

The new university buildings opened GLASGOW (Lanarkshire), the largest city in

Scott centenary celebrated

9 Aug. 1871

Fraser and Maclaren's warehouse, Buchanan-street, Scotland. Its prosperity greatly increased after the burnt; about 100,000l, lost

27 March, 1872 union in 1707, in consequence of its obtaining some Explosion at Tradeston flour mills; about 14 killed ; of the American trade. Population in 1707 about loss, 70,00ol.

9 July, 1872 12,000; in 1861, 394,857 ; in 1871, 477,144.

GLASGOW, BISHOPRIC OF. Kennet, in his The cathedral or high church, dedicated to St. Antiquities, says it was founded by St. Kentigern, Kentigern or Mungo, began about

1181 alias Mungo, in 560; Dr. Heylin, speaking of the Erected into a burgh

see of St. Asaph, in Wales, says that that see was

founded by St. Kentigern, a Scot, then bishop of * William Ewart Gladstone, born 29 Dec. 1809: master Glasgow in 583. This prelacy became archiepiscopal of the mint, Sept. 1841; president of the board of trade, in 1491, ceased at the Revolution, and is now a May, 1843-- Feb. 1845; secretary for colonies, Dec. 1845 post-revolution bishopric. The cathedral, com--July, 1846 ; chancellor of the exchequer, Jan. 1853– Feb. 1855, June, 1859-June, 1866; lord high com

menced in 1121, has a noble crypt; see Bishops. missioner extraordinary to the Ionian Isles, Nov. 1858; M.P. for Newark, 1832–46; for Oxford, 1847-65; for

GLASITES (in Scotland) and SANDEMANIANS South Lancashire, 1865–8; for Greenwich, Nov. 1868. | (in England). În 1727, John Glas, a minister of

27 Nov.

29 March,

16 Oct.

7 Nov

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