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the church of Scotland, published "The Testimony GLENDALOUGH, or“ Seven Churches," an of the King of Martyrs, concerning his Kingdom ancient Irish bishopric, said to have been founded (John xviii. 36),” in which he opposed national by St. Keven in 498; united with Dublin, 1214. churches, and described the original constitution of the Christian church, its doctrines, ordinances,

GLOBE. The globular form of the earth, the officers, and discipline, as given in the New Testa: five zones, some of the principal circles of the ment. Having been deposed in 1728, he and others sphere, the opacity of the moon, and the true causes established several churches formed upon the pri- of lunar eclipses, were taught, and an eclipse premitive models. The publication of a series of letters dicted, by Thales of Miletus, about 640 B.C. Pythaon Hervey's “ Theron and Aspasio,” by Robert soras demonstrated, from the varying altitudes of Sandeman, in 1755, led to the establishment of the stars by change of place, that the earth must churches in London and other places in England, be round; that there might be antipodes on the and also in North America. The meeting-house at opposite part of the globe; that Venus was the

morning and evening star; that the universe conBarnsbury, London, N., was erected in 1862.

sisted of twelve spheres—the sphere of the earth, GLASS. The Egyptians are said to have been the sphere of the water, the sphere of the air, the taught the art of making glass by Hermes. The sphere of fire, the spheres of the moon, the sun; discovery of glass took place in Syria. Pliny. Venus, Mercury, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Glass-houses were erected in Tyre. It was in use

spheres of the stars; about 506 B.C. -Aristarchus,

of Samos, maintained that the earth turned on its among the Romans in the time of Tiberius; and we know, from the ruins of Pompeii, that windows trine was held by his contemporaries as so absurd,

own axis, and revolved about the sun, which docwere formed of glass before 79.

that the philosopher nearly lost his life, 280 B.C.; Glass is said to have been brought to England by see Circumnavigators.

Benedict Biscop, abbot of Wearmouth, in 676 The glass manufacture established in England at

To determine the figure of the earth, a degree of latitude

has been measured in ditferent parts of the world ; by Crutched-friars, and in the Savoy (Stow)

1557 Bouguer and La Condamine in Peru, and by MauperGreat improvements have been inade in the manu

tuis and others in Lapland, 1735. facture, through the immense increase of chemical

France and Spain measured by Mechain, Delambre, knowledge in the present century. Professor

Biot, and Arago, between 1792 and 1821. Faraday published his researches on the manu

Measurements made in India by col. (afterwards sir facture of glass for optical purposes in

1830 The duties on glass, first imposed 1695 : repealed,

George) Everest, published in 1830. 1698; re-enacted, 1745: finally remitted, 24 April, 1845

Experiments made by pendulums to demonstrate the

rotation of the earth by Foucault in 1891; and to GLASS-PAINTING was known to the ancient Egyp

determine its density by Maskelyne, Bailly, and tians. It was revived about the roth century,

others; and in 1826, 1828, and 1854, by Mr. (now sir) and is described in the treatise by the monk

G. B. Airy, the astronomer royal. Theophilus ; wis practised at Marselles in a

ARTIFICIAL GLOBES. It is said that a celestial globe was beautiful style, about 1500, and attained great

brought to Greece from Egypt, 368 B.C., and that perfection about 1530. Specimens of the 13th

Archimedes constructed a planetarium about 212 B.C. centary exist in England ; C. Winston's work is

The globe of Gottorp, a concave sphere, eleven feet in the best on the subject, 1846, new edition


diameter, containing a table and seats for twelve perGLASS - PLATE, for coach-windows, mirrors, &c.,

sons, and the inside representing the visible surface made at Lambeth by Venetian artists, under the

of the heavens, the stars and constellations all dispatronage of Villiers, duke of Buckingham .

tinguished according to their respective magnitudes, The manufacture was improved by the French, and being turned by means of curious mechanism, who made very large plates; and further improvements in it were made in Lancashire, when

their true position, rising and setting, are shown.

The outside is a terrestrial globe. The machine, called the British Plate Glass company was established 1773 the globe of Gottorp, from the original one of that Manufacture of British sheet glass introduced by

name, which, at the expense of Frederick II. duke of Messrs. Chance, of Birmingham, about


Holstein, was erected at Gottorp, under the direction

of Adam Olearius, and was planned after a design found GLASTONBURY (Somerset), said to have among the papers of the celebrated Tycho Brahe. been the residence of Joseph of Arimathea, and the

Frederick IV. of Denmark presented it to Peter the site of the first Christian church in Britain, about

Great in 1713.

It was nearly destroyed by fire in 60. A church was built here by Ina about 708.

1757; but it was afterwar is reconstructed. Core. The town and abbey were burnt, 1184, and an

The globe at Pembroke-hall, Cambridge, erected by Dr.

Long (inaster, 1733), is eighteen feet in diameter. earthquake did great damage in 1275. Richard In 1851 Mr. Abrahams erected in Leicester-square, for Whiting, the last abbot, who had 100 monks and Mr. Wyld, a globe 6 feet 4 inches in diameter, lit 400 domestics, was hanged on Tor-hill in his pon

from the centre by day, and by gas at night. It was tificals for refusing to take the oath of supremacy

closed in July, 1861; the models were sold, and the to Henry VIII., 14 Nov. 1539. The monastery was

building eventually taken down. suppressed 1540.


see Shakespeare's Theatre. — The Globe “ Theatre, GLENCOE MASSACRE of the Macdonalds, erected on the site of Lyon's-inn, Strand, was a Jacobite clan, for not surrendering before 1 Jan. opened 28 Nov. 1868, Mr. Sefton Parry, manager. 1692, the time stated in king William's proclama- – The Globe evening newspaper; formerly whig, mation. Sir John Dalrymple, master (afterwards now conservative ; established 1803. earl) of Stair, their enemy, obtained a decree " to extirpate that set of thieves,” which the king is

GLOIRE, French steam frigate, see Vavy, said to have signed without perusing. Every man

French. under 70 was to be slain. This mandate was trea GLORY, the nimbus drawn by painters round cherously executed by 120 soldiers of a Campbell the heads of saints, angels, and holy men, and the regiment, hospitably received by the Highlanders, circle of rays on images, adopted from the Cæsars 13 Feb. 1692. About 60 men were slain; and many and their datterers, were used in the ist century. women and children, turned out naked in a freez- The doxology, Gloria Patri,” is very ancient, ing night, perished. This exited great indigna- and originally without the clause " as it was in tion; and an inquiry was set on foot, May, 1695, the beginning," &c. In the Greek it began with but no capital punishment followed.

doxa," glory.



GLOUCESTER (Roman Glevum), submitted were Saturnius, III; Basilides, 134; and Valentine, to the Romans about 45, and to the Saxons 577. 140. Priscillian, a Spaniard, was burnt at Treves The statutes of Gloucester, passed at a parlia- as a heretic, in 384; for endeavouring to revive ment held by Edward I. 1278, relate to actions at Gnosticism. law. This city was incorporated by Henry III.; and was fortified by a strong wall, which was de

GOA (S.W. Hindostan), was taken by the Pormolished after the Restoration, in 1600, by order of tuguese under Albuquerque in 1510, and made their Charles II., as a punishment for the successful | Indian capital. resistance of the city to Charles I., under col. GOBELIN-TAPESTRY, so called from a Massey, Aug., Sept. 1643. The Gloucester and house at Paris, formerly possessed by wool-dyers, Berkeley, canal was completed in April, 1827. whereof the chief (Gile's Gobelin), in the reign of Gross bribery took place here at the election for the Francis I., is said to have found the secret of dyeing parliament in 1859:- The BiSHoPRIC was one of scarlet. This house was purchased by Louis XIV. the six erected by Henry VIII. in 1541, and was for a manufactory of works for adorning palaces formerly part of Worcester. It was united to (under the direction of Colbert), especially tapestry, Bristol in 1836. The church, which belonged to designs for which were drawn by Le Brun, about the abbey, and its revenues, were appropriated to 1606. the maintainance of the see. The abbey, which was founded by king Wulphere about 700, was

“GOD BLESS YOU!” see Sneezing. burnt in 1102, and again in 1122. In it are the "GOD SAVE THE KING.” This melody tombs of Robert, duke of Normandy, and Edward II. is said to have been composed by John Bull, Mus. In the king's books, this bishopric is valued at D., in 1606, for a dinner given to James I. at 3151. 178. 2d. per annum. Present income, 5000l. Merchant Taylors' Hall; others ascribe it to Henry

Carey, author of “Sally in our alley," who died, 1802. George Isaac Huntingford, translated to Hereford, 4 Oct. 1743. It has been claimed by the French. June, 1815.

The controversy on the subject is summed up in 1815. Hon. Hen. Ryder, translated to Lichfield, 1824. Chappell's “ Popular Music of the Olden Times” 1824. Christopher Bethell, translated to Exeter, 1830. (1859). 1830. James Henry Monk, died. 1856. Charles Baring, translated to Durham, Sept. 1861. GODERICH ADMINISTRATION. Vis1861. Wm. Thoinson, translated to York, 1862.

count Goderich * (afterwards earl of Ripon) became 1862. Charles John Ellicott (present bishop').

first minister on the death of Mr. Canning, 8 Aug. GLOVES. Woodstock and Worcester leather 1827; he resigned 8 Jan. 1828. gloves are of ancient celebrity. In the middle Viscount Goderich, first lord of the treasury. ages, the giving a glove was a ceremony of inves Duke of Portland, president of the council. titure in bestowing lands and dignities; and two

Lord Lyndhurst, lord cluncellor. bishops were put in possession of their sees by each

Earl of Carlisle, lori priry seal. receiving a glove, 1002. In England, in the reign

Viscount Dudley, Mr. Huskisson, and the marquis of

Lansdowne, forcign, colonial, d home secretaries. of Edward II. the deprivation of gloves was a Lord Palmerston, secretary-at-car. ceremony of degradation. The Glovers' company Mr. C. W. Wynn, president of the India board. of London was incorporated in 1556. Embroidered Mr. Charles Grant (afterwards lord Glenelg), board of gloves were introduced into England in 1580, and are still presented to judges at maiden assizes. The

Mr. Herries, chancellor of the exchequer.

Mr. Tierney, master of the mint, dc. importation of foreign gloves was not permitted till 1825.

GODFATHERS AND GODMOTHERS, or GLUCINUM (from glukus, sweet). In 1798 sponsors. The Jews are said to have had them at Vauquelin discovered the earth glucina' (so termed circumcision; but there is no mention of them in from the sweet taste of its salts). It is found in scripture. Tradition says that sponsors were first the beryl and other crystals. From glucina Wöhler appointed by Hyginus, a Roman bishop, about 154, and Bussy obtained the rare metal glucinum in during a time of persecution. In Roman Catholic 1828. Gmelin.

countries bells have godfathers and godmothers at

their baptism. GLUCOSE, see Sugar.

GODOLPHIN ADMINISTRATIONS GLUTEN, an ingredient of grain, particularly (see Administrations), 1684. and 1690.

Lor! wheat, termed the vegeto-animal principle (con-Godolphin became prime minister to queen Annc, taining nitrogen). Its discovery is attributed to 8 May, 1702. The cabinet was notified in 1704. Beccaria in the 18th century.

The earl resigned 8 Aug. 1710, and died 1712. GLYCERINE, discovered by Scheele, about Sidney, lord (afterwards earl) Godolphin, treasury. 1779, and termed by him the sweet principle of Sir Nathan Wright, lord keeper, fats,” and further studied by Chevreul, termed the Thomas, earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, loro pre“ father of the fatty acids." It is obtained pure by saponifying olive oil or animal fat with oxide of John Sheffiell, marquis of Normanby (afterwards duke lead, or litharge. Glycerme is now much employed Hon. Henry Boyle, chancellor of the exehepier.

of Normanby and Buckingham), priry senl. in medicine and the arts.

Sir Charles Helges and the earl of Nottingham (the latter

succeeded by Robert Harley, created earl of Oxford in GLYOXYLINE (invented by Mr. F. A. Abel,

1704), secretaries of state. the chemist of the war departinent, in 1867), an explosive mixture of gun-cotton, pulp and saltpetre

GODWIN'S OATH. “Take care you are saturated with nitro-glycerine. It was abandoned not swearing Godwin's oath.” This caution, to a for compressed gun-cotton.

* Born 1782; held various inferior appointments from GNOSTICS (from the Greek gnosis, know

1809 to 1818, when he became president of the board of ledge), a sect who, soon after the preaching of

trade; was chancellor of the exchequer from 1818 to Christianity, endeavoured to combine its principles office he held in the Grey cabinet, Nov. 1830; created earl

April, 1827, when he became colonial secretary, which with the Greek philosophy. Among their teachers of Ripon, 1833 ; died 28 Jan. 1859.


person taking a voluntary and intemperate oath, or wire the one-eighteenth part of an inch will bear the making violent protestations, had its rise in the weight of 500 lb. without breaking. Fourcroy. following circumstance related by the monks : GOLD LEAF. A single grain of gold may be extended Godwin, earl of Kent, was tried for the murder of

into a leaf of fifty-six square inches, and gold leaf can

be reduced to the 300,000 part of an inch, and gilding prince Alfred, brother of Edward the Confessor, and

to the ten-millionth part. Kelly's Cambist. pardoned, but died at the king's table while pro- GOLD ROBBERY. Three boxes, hooped and sealed, contesting with oaths his innocence of the murder; taining gold in bars and coin to the value of between supposed by the historians of those times to have 18,00ol. and 20,000l. were sent froin London, 15 May, been choked with a piece of bread, as a judgment

1855. On their arrival in Paris, it was found that

ingots to the value of 12,000l. had been abstracted, from Heaven, having prayed it might stick in his throat if he were guilty of the murder; 1053.

and shot substituted, although the boxes bore no marks of violence. Many persons were apprehended

on suspicion ; but the police obtained no trace till GODWIN SANDS, sand-banks off the east Nov. 1856. Three men named Pierce, Burgess, and coast of Kent, occupy land which belonged to Tester, were tried and convicted 13-15 Jan. 1857, on Godwin, earl of Kent, the father of king Harold II.

the evidence of Edwarl Agar, an accomplice. They This ground was afterwards given to the monastery

had been preparing for the robbery for eighteen months

previous to its perpetration. of St. Augustin at Canterbury; but the abbot neglecting to keep in repair the wall that defended GOLD COAST, West Africa; settlements it from the sea, the tract was submerged about made by the Dutch; transferred to Great Britain 1100, leaving these sands, upon which many ships by treaty, signed 2 Feb. 1872. have been wrecked. Salmon.

GOLD FISH (the golden carp, cyprinus GOLD (mentioned Gen. ii. 11), the purest, and

auratus), brought to England from China in 1691;

but not common till about 1723. most ductile of all the metals, for which reason it has been considered by almost all nations as the GOLDEN BULLS, ROSE, see Bulls, Rose, most valuable. It is too soft to be used pure, and note. to harden it it is alloyed with copper or silver: our coin consists of twenty-two carats of pure gold, and

GOLDEN FLEECE (see Argonauts). Philip two of copper. By 17 & 18 Vict. c. 96 (1854), gold riage, instituted the military order of "Toison d'or"

the Good, duke of Burgundy, in 1429, at his marwares are allowed to be manufactured at a lower standard than formerly ;-wedding rings excepted,

or "golden tleece;" it was said on account of the by 18 & 19 Vict. c. 60 (1855). The present stated profit he made by wool. The number of knights price is 31. 178. 10£d. per oz.; see Coin of England, Burgundy, afterwards became grand master of the and Guineas.

order. The knights wore a scarlet cloak lined with The Amalgamation of coll is described by Pliny (about ermine, with a collar opened, and the duke's cipher, and Vitruvins (about 27 B.C.). The alchemist Basil

in the form of a B, to signify Burgundy, together

with Hints striking fire, with the motto Ante the solution of the chloride of goll andi fulminating ferit, quam flamma micat.

At the end of the gold. Andreas Cassius, in 1685, described the pre- collar hung' a golden fleece, with this device, paration of gold purple, which was then adapted by Pretium non rile laborum.The order afterwards Gmelin. Gold has been subjected to the researches of became common to all the princes of the house of

eminent chemists, such as Berzelius and Faraday, Austria, as descendants of Mary, daughter of GOLD MINES. Gold was found most abundantly in Charles the Bold, last duke of Burgundy, who Africa, Japan, and South America. In the last it

married Maximilian of Austria in 1477, and now was discovered by the Spaniaris in 1492, from which

belongs to both Austria and Spain, in conformity time to 1731 they imported into Europie 6000 millions of pieces of eigiit, in register gold and silver, exclu

with a treaty made 30 April, 1725. sively of what were unregistered.

GOLDEN HORDE, a name given to the Peter the Great re-opened ancient gold mines in Russia, 1699.

Mongolian Tartars, who established an empire in A piece of gold weighing ninety marks, equal to Kaptchak (or Kibzak), now S.E. Russia, abort sixty pounds troy (the mark being eight ounces), was 1224, their ruler being Batou, grandson of Gengis found near La Paz, a town of Peru, 1730.

Khan. They invaded Russia, and made Alexander Gold discovered in Malacca in 1731; in New Anda- Newski grand-duke, 1252. At the battle of BielaInsia in 1785; in Ceylon, 1800; 2887 oz. of gold, value

wisch, in 1481, they were crushed by Ivan III. and 999ıl., obtained from mines in Britain and Ireland in 1864; it has been found in Cornwall, and in the county

the Nogai Tartars. of Wicklow in Ireland. The Ural or Oural mountains of Russia long pro

GOLDEN LEGEND, “Legenda Aurea." duced gold in large quantity.

The lives of our Lord and the saints, written by Gold discuvered in California, Sept. 1847; and in

Giacomo Varaggio, or Jacobus de Voragine, a Australia, 1851. On 28 April, 1858, a nugget, said to

Dominican monk about 1260; first printed 1470; weigh 146 pounds, was shown to the queen. a translation printed by Caxton, 1483. estimated that between 1851 and 1859 gold to the value of 88,889,435!. was exported froin Victoria alone (see GOLDEN WEDDING, see Wedding. California and Australiu severally).

GOLDEN NUMBER, the cycle of nineteen Gold discovered in what is now termed New Columbia in 1856: much emigration there in 1858.

years, or the number that shows the years of the Gold discovered in New Zealand, and in Nova Scotia moon's cycle; its invention is ascribed to Meton, of in 7861.

Athens, about 432 B.C. Pliny. To find the golden Gold discovered in South Africa (Transvaal republic, number or year of the lunar cycle, add one to the &c.), and discovered in Sutherlandshire; mch excite- date, and divide by 19; the quotient is the number ment, Oct. 1868; in West Australia, reported Sept.

of cycles since Christ, and the remainder the golden 1870; in the Bendigo fields, Victoria, Nov. 1871. Gold obtained in United Kingdom ; value in 1861,

number. The golden number for 1871, 10; 1872, 10,8161. ; in 1862, 20,390l, ; in 1863, 17477. ; in 1864, 11; 1873, 12; 1874, 13.

999ıl. ; in 1865, 58941. ; in 1868, 3522l. GOLD WIRE was first made in Italy about 1350. An

GOLDSMITHS' COMPANY (London) ounce of gold is sufficient to gild a silver wire above began about 1327, and incorporated 16 Rich. II., 1300 miles in length; and such is its tenacity that a 1392. The old hall was taken down in 1829, and

It is

the present magnificent edifice by Philip Hardwick, died afterwards in the hospitals, and many were tried,

convicted and executed. was opened 15 July, 1835; see Assay, and Standard. The first bankers were goldsmiths.

The loss of property was estimated at 180,000l.

Lord George was tried for high treason and acquitted, Goldsmiths'hall marks on gold and silver plate are five : 5 Feb. 1781. He died a prisoner for libel, 1 Nov. 1793.

1. The sovereign's head ; 2, lion passant (the standard Alderman Kennett was found guilty of a dereliction of mark, probably introduced between 1538 and 1558; duty, 10 March, 1781. 7, the price mark, fixed 8 & 9 Will. III. 1696-7; 4, leopard's head, the hall mark; 5, the maker's mark (an

GOREE, a station near Cape Verd, W. coast old custom).

of Africa, planted by the Dutch, 1617. It was [The dute-letter, is one of an alphabet of 20 letters : A to taken by the English admiral Holmes in 1663;

U or V, J being omitted. The letter is changed on 30 seized by the French, 1677; and ceded to them by May annually, and the shape of the letter every 20 years ; the treaty of Nimeguen in 1678; taken by the thus 1796-1816, A, &c. ; 1816-36, a, &c. ; 1836-56, 8, &c.;

British in 1758, 1779, 1800, and 1804; ceded to 1856-76, a, &c. The earliest known alphabetical series began 1438-9.)

France, 1814. Governor Wall was hanged in Lon

don, 28 Jan. 1802, for the murder of sergeant ArmGOMARISTS, see Arminians.

strong, committed while governor at Goree in 1782. GONFALONIER, or STANDARD BEARER

GOREY (S. E. Ireland). Near here the king's OF JUSTICE, originally a subordinate officer in troops under colonel Walpole were defeated, and Florence; instituted 1292; became paramount in their leader slain, by the Irish rebels, 4 June, 1798. the 15th century, and was suppressed, 27 April, 1532, when the constitution was changed and Alex GORGET, the ancient breast-plate, was very ander de Medicis made duke.

large, varying in size and weight. The present

diminutive breast-plate came into use about 1660; GOOD FRIDAY (probably God's Friday),

see Armour. the Friday before Easter day, on which a solemn fast has long been held, in remembrance of the GORHAM CASE, see Trials, 1849-50. crucifixion of Christ on Friday, 3 April, 33, or 15 April, 29. Its appellation of good appears to be five feet seven inches high. It is a match for the

GORILLA, a powerful ape of W. Africa, about peculiar to the church of England; our Saxon fore- | lion, and attacks the elephant with a club. It is fathers denominated it Long Friday, on account of considered to be identical with the hairy people the length of the offices and fastings enjoined on this day. Good Friday, 1873, 13 April; 1874, Periplus, about 400 B.C.

called Gorullai by the navigator Hanno, in his

In 1847 a sketch of a 3 April; 1875, 26 March.

gorilla's cranium was sent to professor Owen by Dr. GOODMAN'S FIELDS THEATRE, Savage, then at the Caboon river, and preserved London, opened 1729. Here David Garrick made specimens have been brought to Europe, and a his debut as Richard III., 19 Oct. 1741. The new living one died on its voyage to France. In 1859 theatre erected about 1746, was burnt down, June, professor Owen gave a summary of our knowledge 1802. The Garrick Theatre here was opened in of this creature at the Royal Iustitution, London ; 1830; burnt, 4 Nov. 1846; and since rebuilt.

and in 1861 several skins and skulls were there ex

hibited by M. Du Chaillu, who stated that he killed GOODWIN, see Godwin.

21 of them in his travels in Central Africa. The GOODWOOD RACES, see Races.

gorilla was not known to Cuvier. GOOJERAT (N. India), see Guzerat.

GOSPELLERS, a name given to the followers

of Wicklitfe, who attacked the errors of popery, GOOSE, see Michaelmas.

about 1377. Wickliffe opposed the authority of the GORDIAN KNOT, is said to have been made pope, the temporal jurisdiction of bishops, &c., and of the thongs that served as harness to the waggon

is called the father of the Reformation. of Gordius, a husbandman, afterwards king of Phrygia. Whosoever loosed this knot, the ends of thew's and Mark's are conjectured to have been

GOSPELS (Saxon god-spell, good story). Matwhich were not discoverable, the oracle declared written between A.D. 38 and 65; Luke's 55 or 65; should be ruler of Persia. Alexander the Great cut John's, about 97. Irenæus in the 2nd century reaway the knot with his sword until be found the fers to each of the gospels by name. Dr. Robert ends of it, and thus, in a military sense at least, Bray was one of the authors of the Society for the interpreted the oracle, 330 B.C.

Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign countries, GORDON'S, “NỌ POPERY” RIOTS, Associates," still exists ; its object being to assist

A body termed " “ Bray's occasioned by the zeal of lord George Gordon, in forming and supporting clerical parochial libraries. June 2-9, 1780. On 4 Jan. 1780, he tendered the petition of the Protestant GOSPORT (Hampshire), contains the Royal Association to lord North

Clarence victualling yard. The great Haslar hosOn Friday, 2 June, he headed the mob of 40,000 persons pital, near Gosport, was built in 1762. who assembled in St. George's Fields, under the name of the Protestant Association, to carry up a petition to GOTHA, capital of the duchy of Saxe Coburgparliament for the repeal of the act which granted Gotha. Here is published the celebrated Almanach certain indulgences to the Roman Catholics. The mob

de Gotha, which first appeared in 1764, in German, proceeded to pillage, burn, and pull down the chapels and houses of the Roman Catholies tirst, but after GOTHARD, see Gotthard. wards of other persons, for nearly six days. The Bank was attempted, the gaols opened (the King's Bench, GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE began about Newgate, Fleet, and Bridewell prisons). On the 7th, the 9th century after Christ, and spread over Europe. thirty-six fires were seen blazing at one time.

At Its great feature is the pointed arch; hence it has length by the aid of armed associations of the citizens, the horse and foot guards, and the inilitia of several

been suggested to call it the pointed style. " Gothic" counties, then embodied and marched to London, the was originally a term of reproach given to this style riot was quelled on the 8th.

by the renaissance architects of the 16th century. 210 rioters were killed and 248 wounded, of whom 75 Its invention has been claimed for several nations,


particularly for the Saracens. The following list is were slain on the spot. At the time, many persons from Godwin's Chronological Table of English believed that the young men were rather the victims Architecture :

than the authors of a plot. Their father, William, ANGLO-ROMAN-B.C. 55 to about A.D. 250-St. Martin's

was treacherously executed in 1584 for his share in church, Canterbury.

the raid of Ruthven, in 1582; and he and his father, ANGLO-SAXON-A.D. 800 to 1066—Earl's Barton church ; Patrick, were among the assassins of Rizzio, 9 St. Peter's, Lincolnshire.

March, 1566. GOTHIC ANGLO-Roman-A.D. 1066 to 1135–Rochester

cathedral nave : St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield ; St. GRACE, a title assumed by Henry IV. of EngCross, Hants, &c.

land, on his accession, in 1399. Excellent Grace EARLY ENGLISH, or POINTED—A.D. 1135 to 1272— Temple was assumed by Henry VI. about 1425. Till the

church, London ; parts of Winchester, Wells, Salisbury, and Durham cathedrals, and Westminster Abbey: that title, but afterwards by the title of Majeslo

time of James I. 1603, the king was addressed up POINTED, called Pure Gothic- A.D. 1272 to 1377–Exeter

cathedral, Walthain Cross, &c., St. Stephen's, West-only. “Your Grace" is the manner of addressing minster.

an archbishop and a duke in this realm.—The term FLORID PorxTED--A. D. 1377 to 1509– Westminster Hall; Grace of Godis said to have been taken by

King's College, Cambridge : St. George's Chapel, Windo bishops at Ephesus, 431 (probably from 1 Cor. xv. sor; Henry VII.'s Chapel, Westminster. ELIZABETHAN - A.D. 1509

10), by the Carlovingian princes in the 9th century,

1625-Northumberland House, Strand ; part of Windsor Castle ; Hatfield | by popes in the 13th century; and about 1440 it was House, Schools at Oxford.

assumed by kings as signifying their divine right. Revival of Grecian architecture about 1625. Banqueting The king of Prussia's saying, that he would reign House, Whitehall, &c.

" by the grace of God,” gave much offence, 18 Oct. The revival of Gothic architecture commenced about

1861. 1825, mainly through the exertions of A. W. Pugin. The controversy as to its expediency was rife in 1860-1. GRACE AT MEAT. The ancient Greeks GOTHLAND, an isle in the Baltic sea, was

would not partake of any meat until they had first conquered by the 'Tentonic knights, 1397-8; given The short prayer said before, and by some persons

offered part of it, as the first fruits, to their gods. up to the Danes, 1524; to Sweden, 1645; conquered after meat, in Christian countries, is in conformity by the Danes, 1677, and restored to Sweden, 1679.

with Christ's example, John vi. I1, &c. GOTHS, a warlike nation that inhabited the country between the Caspian, Pontus, Euxine, and Greeks, 974-748 B.C. ; see Italy.

GRÆCIA MAGNA, colonies planted by the Baltic seas. They entered Mæsia, took Philippopolis, massacring thousands of its inhabitants ; de- GRAAL, Holy (Sangreal). The publication feated and killed the emperor Decius, 251 ; but were of Tennyson's poem with this title, Dec. 1869, led defeated at Naissus by Claudius, hence surpamed to much discussion. Tennyson treats it as the cup Gothicus, 320,000 being slain, 269. Aurelian ceded in which Christ drank at the Last Supper. The Dacia to them in 272; but they long troubled the mediæval romances treat it as the dish which held empire. After the destruction of the Roman western the paschal-lamb. The word is probably old French, empire by the Heruli, the Ostrogoths, under Theo- gréal, from the old Latin gradalis, a dish. derie, became masters of the greater part of Italy, where they retained their dominion till 553, when

GRAFFITI, a term given to the scribblings they were finally conquered by Narses, Justinian's found on the walls of Pompeii and other Roman general. The Visigoths settled in Spain, and ruins ; selections were published by Wordsworth in founded a kingdom, which continued until the 1837, and by Garrucci in 1856. country was subdued by the Saracens.

GRAFTON ADMINISTRATION, sucGOTTHARD, ST., near the river Raab, Hun- ceeded that of lord Chatham, Dec. 1767. The duke gary. Here the 'Turks, under the grand vizier resigned, and lord North became prime minister, Kupriuli

, were totally defeated by the Imperialists Jan. 1770; see North's Administration. and their allies, commanded by Montecuculi, 1 Aug. | Augustus Henry, duke of Grafton, first lord of the trea1664. Peace followed this great victory.

sury (born, 1735; died 1811)

Frederick, lori North, chancellor of the exchequer. GÖTTINGEN (Hanover), a member of the Earl Gower, lord president. Hanseatic league about 1360. The university Earl of Chatham, lord priry seal. “Georgia Augusta,” founded by George II. of Earl of Shelburne and Viscount Weymouth, secretaries of England in 1734, was opened 1737. It was seized by the French, *1760, and held till 1762. In 1837, Marquis

of Granby, master-general of the ordnance. several of the most able professors were dismissed Lords Sandwich and Le Despencer, joint postmastersfor their political opinions.


Lords Hertford, duke of Ancaster, Thomas Townshend, GOVERNESSES' BENEVOLENT IN

&c. STITUTION, was established in 1843, and incor- Lord Camden, lord chancellor, succeeded by Charles porated in 1848. It affords to aged governesses Yorke (created lord Morden), died (it is said by his own annuities and an asylum; and to governesses in

hand) 20 Jan. 1770. distress a temporary home and assistance.

GRAHAM'S DIKE (Scotland), a wall built in GOVERNMENT ANNUITIES ACT, see An- 209 by Severus Septimus, the Roman emperor, or, nuities. The building of the new GOVERNMENT

as others say, by Antoninus Pius. It reached from OFFICES began in 1861.

the Firth of Forth to the Clyde. Buchanan relates

that there were considerable remains of this wall in GOWRIE CONSPIRACY. John Ruthven, his time, and vestiges of it are still to be seen. earl of Gowrie, in 1600, reckoning on the support of the burghs and the kirk, conspired to dethrone James GRAIN. Henry III. is said to have ordered a VI. of Scotland, and seize the government. For grain of wheat gathered from the middle of the ear this purpose the king was decoyed into Gowrie's to be the original standard of weight: 12 grains to house in Perth, on 5 Aug. 1600. The plot was frus- be a pennyweight; 12 pennyweights one ounce, and trated, and the earl and his brother, Alexander, 12 ounces a pound Troy. Lawson.


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