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ASTRONOMERS-ROYAL

1719

1811

1852, an electric telegraph signal ball in the Strand GRESHAM COLLEGE (London), estawas completed, and put in connection with Green-blished by sir Thomas Gresham in 1575, founder of wich observatory.

the Royal Exchange. He left a portion of his pro

perty in trust to the city and the Mercers' company John Flamsteed

1675

to endow this college for lectures in divinity, astroElmund Halley

nomy, music, geometry, civil law, physic, and James Bradley

1742 rhetoric; he died 21 Nov. 1579. The lectures, Nathaniel Bliss

· 1762

commenced in Gresham's house, near Broad-street, Nevil Maskelyne

1765 June, 1597 (where the founders of the Royal Society John Pond George Biddell Airy

1835

first met in 1645). The buildings were pulled down (Under whose superintendence the apparatus have in 1768, and the Excise office erected on its site. been greatly increased and improved.)

The lectures were then read in a room over the GREGORIAN CALENDAR, see Calendar,

Royal Exchange for many years : on the rebuilding

of the exchange, the Gresham committee erected and New Style.-GREGORIAN CHANT received its the present building in Basinghall-street, which was name from pope Gregory I., who improved the designed by G. Smith, and opened for lectures, 2 Ambrosian chaut, about 590.

Nov. 1843. It cost above 7000l. In 1871 the colGRENADA, see Granada, and New Granada. lege acquired a valuable collection of books and picGRENADE, an explosive missile, so named tures, bequeathed by Mrs. Hollier. from granada, Spanish, invented in 1594. It is a GRETNA GREEN (Dumfries, S. Scotland, small hollow globe, or ball, of iron, about two near the border). Here runaway marriages were inches in diameter, which is filled with fine powder, contracted for many years, as Scotch law ruled that and set on fire by a fusee at a touchhole.

an acknowledgment before witnesses made a legal

marriage. John Paisley, a tobacconist, and termed GRENADIERS. The Grenadier corps was a

a blacksmith, who officiated from 1760, died in 1814. company armed with a pouch of hand-grenades, His first residence was at Megg's Hill, on the comestablished in France in 1667; and in England in

mon or green betwixt Gretna and Springfield, to 1685. Brown.

the last of which villages he removed in 1782. A GRENELLE, see Artesian Wells.

man named Elliot was lately the principal officiating

person. The General Assembly, in 1826, in vain GRENOBLE (the Roman Gratianopolis), attempted to suppress this system; but an act of S.E. France. Here Napoleon was received on his parliament, passed in 1856, made these marriages return from Elba, 8 March, 1815, and here he issued illegal after that year, unless one of the persons three decrees.

married had lived in Scotland 21 days. GRENVILLE ADMINISTRATIONS.

GREY ADMINISTRATION succeeded the The first succeeded the Bute administration, 8 April, Wellington administration, which resigned 16 Nov. 1763; and resigned in July, 1765.

1830. It carried the Parliamentary and Corporation George Grenville (born 1712, died 1770), first lord of the Reform Acts (which see), and terminated 9 July, treasury and chancellor of the erchequer.

1834. Earl Granville (succeeded by the duke of Bedford), lord president

Earl Grey,* first lord of the treasury. Duke of Marlborough, priry seal.

Lord Brougham, lord chancellor. Earls of Halifax and Sandwich, secretaries of state.

Viscount Althorpe, chancellor of the exchequer. Earl Gower, loril chamberlain.

Marquis of Landsdowne, president of the council. Earl of Egmont, culmiralty.

Earl of Durham, privy scol. Marquis of Granby, orinance.

Viscounts Melbourne, Palmerston, and Goderich, home, Lord Holland (late Mr. Fox), paymaster.

foreign, and colonial secretaries. Welbore Ellis, secretary-out-urur.

Sir James Graham, almiralty. Viscount Barrington, treasurer of the nary.

Lord Auckland and Mr. Charles Grant (afterwards, 1830, Lord Hillsborough, first lord of traule.

lord Glenely), boards of trade and control. Lord Henley (afterwards earl of Northington), Tord chan

Lord Holland, chancellor of duchy of Lancaster. cellor.

Lord John Russell, peymaster of the forces. Duke of Rutland, lords North, Trevor, Hyde, &c.

Duke of Richmond, earl of Carlisle, Mr. Wynne, &c.

E. G. Stanley (afterwards earl of Derby), chief secretary SECOND GRENVILLE ADMINISTRATION, formed after the

for Ireland, became colonial secretary, March, 1833. death of Mr. Pitt, on 23 Jan. 1806. From the ability of many of its inembers, their friends said it contained GREY FRIARS, see Christ's Hospital. " all the talents, visdon, and ability of the country," a term applied to it derisively by its opponents. The

GREYTOWN, see Mosquito Coast. death of Mr. Fox, 13 Sept. 1806, led to changes, and

GRISONS, a Swiss canton; see Caddee. It eventually the cabinet resigned, 25 March, 1807 :

was overrun by the French in 1798 and 1799. The Lord Grenville, first lord of the treasury.

ancient league was abolished, and the Grisons beLord Henry Petty (afterwards marquis of Lansdowne), chancellor of the erchequer.

came a member of the Helvetic confederation, 19 Earl Fitzwilliam, lori president.

Feb. 1803.
Viscount Sidinonth (late Mr. Addington), priry seal.
Charles James Fox, foreign secretary.

GRIST-TAX (imposta sul macinato). PrinEarl Spencer, home secretary.

ciple of the tax adopted by the Italian parliament, William Windham, colonial secretary.

I April, 1868. Lori Erskine, lord chancellor. Sir Charles Grey (afterwards viscount Howick and earl GROAT, from the Dutch groat, value of fourGrey), admiralty.

pence, was the largest silver coin in England until Lord Minto, board of control,

after 1351. Fourpenny pieces were coined in 1836 Lord Auckland, board of trade.

to the value of 70,8841. ; in 1837, 16,0381. Lord Moira, master general of the ordnance. R. B. Sheridan, treasurer of the nary.

* Born 13 March, 1764 ; M.P., as Charles Grey, in 1786 ; Richard Fitzpatrick, &c.

first lord of the admiralty and afterwards foreign secreLord Ellenborough ( lord chief justice) had a seat in the tary in 1806 ; resigned in 1806 on account of his favouring cabinet

Roman Catholic emancipation; died 17 July, 1845.

in 1429.

GROCERS anciently meant “ingrossers or The Horse Grenadier guarls first troop, raised in 1603, monopolisers," as appears by a statute 37 Edw. III. was commanded by general Cholmondeley ; the second 1363 : "Les marchauntz nomez engrossent totes

troop was raised in 1702, and was commanded by lord

Forbes ; this corps was reduced in 1783, the officers

The Grocers' maners de merchandises vendables."

retiring on full pay. company, one of the twelve chief companies of London, was established in 1345, and incorporated GUARDS' INSTITUTE, Francis-street, Vauxhall-bridge road :

reading and lecture rooms, &c., for all officers and

soldiers in the metropolis ; inaugurated by the duke of GROCHOW, near Praga, a suburb of Warsaw. Cambridge, 11 July, 1867. Here took place a desperate conflict between the See Horse Guards, Yeomen, National, and Imperial

Guards. Poles and Russians, 19, 20 Feb. 1831, the Poles remaining masters of the field of battle. The Rus- GUASTALLA, N. Italy, a city, near which sians shortly after retreated, having been foiled in 'the imperial army, commanded_by the king of their attempt to take Warsaw. They are said to Sardinia, was defeated by the French, 19 Sept. have lost 7000 men, and the Poles 2000 ; see also 1734. The ancient duchy, long held by the dukes Poland, 1861.

of Mantua, was seized by the emperor of Germany, GROG, sea term for rum and water, derived its 1746, and ceded to Parma, 1748. After having name from admiral Edw. Vernon, who wore grogram

been comprised in the Italian republic, 1796, and breeches, and was hence called “Old Grog." About subjected to other changes, it was annexed to 1745, he ordered his sailors to dilute their rum with Parma, 1815, and to Modena, 1847. water.

GUATEMALA. A republic in Central AmeGUADALOUPE, a West India Island, dis- rica, revolted from Spain, 1821, and declared indecovered by Columbus'in 1493. The French took pendent, 21 March, 1847, Constitution settled, possession of it in 1635, and colonised it in 1664. 2 Oct. 1859. President" (1862), general Raphael Taken by the English in 1759, and restored in 1963: died 14 April, 1865; succeeded by Vincent Cerna,

Carrera, elected 1851; appointed for life, 1854; The allies, in order to allure the Swedes into the 3. May, 1865; re-elected, 1869. late coalition against France, gave them this island. sident, Manuel Garcia Granedos, Dec. 1872. A war It was, however, by the consent of Sweden, restored between Guatemala and San Salvador broke out in to France at the peace in 1814.

Jan. 1863; and on 16 June the troops of the latter

were totally defeated. An insurrection became forGUAD-EL-RAS (N. W. Africa). Here the midable, July, 1871. Alliance with Honduras Spaniards signally defeated the Moors, 23 March, against 'San Salvador, March, 1872. Population, 1860, after a severe conflict: general Prim mani- about 1,180,000. fested great bravery, for which he was ennobled. The preliminaries of peace were signed on the 25th.

GUEBRES, see Parsees. GUANO or HUANO (the Peruvian term for GUELPHIC ORDER of knighthood was manure), the excrement of sea-birds that swarm on instituted for Hanover by the prince regent, afterthe coasts of Peru and Bolivia, and of Africa and wards George IV., 12 Aug. 1815. Australia. It is mentioned by Herrera in 1601, and

GUELPHS AND GHIBELINES, names Garcilasso stated that the bírds were protected by given to the papal and imperial factions who dethe incas. Humboldt was one of the first by whom

stroyed the peace of Italy from the 12th to the end it was brought to Europe, in order to ascertain its value in agriculture. The importation of guano of France in 1495). The origin of the names is

of the 15th century (the invasion of Charles VIII. into the United Kingdom appears to have commenced ascribed to the contest for the imperial crown in 1839. 283,000 tons were imported in 1845 (of between Conrad of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, which 207,679 tons came from the western coast of lord of Wiblingen (hence Ghibelin), and Henry Africa); 243,016 tons in 1851 (of which 6522 tons nephew of Welf, or Guelf, duke of Bavaria, in 1138. came from Western Australia); 131,358 tons in the former was successful; but the popes and 1864; 237,393 tons in 1865; 135,697 tons in 1866; several Italian cities took the side of his rival. Hie 280,311 in 1870.

Guelf and Hie Gibelin are said to have been used GUARANTEES. The “Guarantee by Com- as war-cries in 1140, at a battle before Weinsberg, panies act," relating to the security by means of in Würtemberg, when Guelf of Bavaria was defeated sureties required for persons employed in the public by the emperor Conrad IV. who came to help the service, was passed 20 Aug. 1867 (30 & 31 Vict. rival duke Leopold.* The Ghibelines were almost c. 108).

totally expelled from Italy in 1267, when Conradin, GUARDIAN, high-church weekly journal, the last of the Hohenstaufens, was beheaded by first published 21 Jan. 1846.

Charles of Anjou. Guelph is the name of the GUARDS. The custom of having guards is present royal family of England ; see Brunsicick,

and Hanover. said to have been introduced by Saul, 1093 B.C. Body guards were appointed to attend the kings of Eng. GUERRILLA, Spanish, “a little war"; a land, ı Henry VII. 1485.

term applied to the armed peasants who worried Horse Guards were raised 4 Edw. VI. 1550.

the French armies during the Peninsular war, The three regiments, ist, 2nd, and 3rd Foot Guards were

1808-14. raised in 1660, and the command of them given to col. Russell, general Monk, and lorl Linlithgow. The GUERNSEY, see Jersey. 2nd regiment, or Coldstream, was the first raised ; see Coldstream. These guards were the beginning of our GUEUX (beggars), a name given by the comte standing ariny.

de Barlaimont to the 300 Protestant deputies from

the Low Countries, headed by Henri of Brederode * He did great service in the West Indies, by taking and Louis of Nassau, who petitioned Margaret, Portobello, Chagre, &c. ; but by his disagreement with the commander of the land forces, the expedition against * It is stated, traditionally, that the emperor conCarthagena, in 1741, is said to have failed.

demned all the men to death, but permitted the women missed the service for writing two pamphlets attacking to bring out whatever they most valued : on which they the admiralty; he died 30 Oct. 1757.

carried out their husbands on their shoulders.

He was dis

governess of the Low Countries, to abolish the GUILLOTINE, an instrument for causing inquisition, 5 April, 1566. The deputies at once immediate and painless death, named after its supassumed the name as honourable, and immediately posed inventor, a physician named Joseph Ignatius organised armed resistance to the government; see Guillotin. In 1866 M. Dubois, of Amiens, stated Holland.

that the idea only was due to Guillotin, who at a GUIANA (N.E. coast of South America), dis- meeting of the legislative assembly in 1789 excovered by Columbus in 1498, visited by the pressed an opinion that capital punishment should Spaniards in the 16th century; and explored by sir be the same for all classes. Accordingly, at the Walter Raleigh in 1596 and 1617. The French request of the assembly, M. Louis, secretary of the settlements here were formed in 1626-43; and the March, 1792, a mode of capital punishment,“ sure,

“ Académie de Chirurgie," submitted to it on 20 Dutch, 1627-67. Demerara and Essequibo were ceded to Great Britain in 1814; see Demerara. quick, and uniform,” which he had invented. The Governor of British Guiana, John Scott, 1868.

first person executed by it was a highway robber

named Pelletier, on 25 April; and Dangremont was GUIDES, a corps in the French army, espe- | its first political victim, 21 Aug. following. Guillotin cially charged with the protection of the person of died in 1814. The guillotine at Paris was burnt the general, was formed by Bessières, under the by the communist insurgents, 7 April, 1871. A direction of Bonaparte, who had been nearly similar instrument (called the Mannaia) is said to carried off by the enemy, 30 May, 1796. Several have been used in Italy, at Halifax in England squadrons of “guides' were formed in 1848, to (see Halifax), and in Scotland, there called the guard the ministers. They formed a portion of Maiden and the Widow. the imperial guard till Sept. 1870.

GUINEA (W.coast of Africa) was discovered by GUIENNE, a French province, was part of the Portuguese about 1446. From their trade with the dominions of Henry II. in right of his wife the Moors originated the slave trade, sir John HawEleanor, 1152. Philip of France seized it in 1293, kins being the tirst Englishman who engaged in this which led to war. It was alternately held by traffic. Assisted by English gentlemen with money England and France till 1453, when John Talbot, for the purpose, he sailed from England in Oct. 1562, earl of Shrewsbury, in vain attempted to retake it with three ships, proceeded to the coast of Guinea, from the latter.

purchased or forcibly seized 300 negroes, sold them GUILDHALL (London) was built in 1411. profitably at Hispaniola, and returned home richly When it was rebuilt in 1669), after the great fire laden with hides, sugar, ginger, and other merof 1666, no part of the ancient building remained, chandise, in Sept. 1563. This voyage led to similar except the interior of the porch and the walls of enterprises. Hakluyt. See Slave Trade. An African the hall. The front was erected in 1789; and a

company to trade with Guinea was chartered 1588. new roof built, 1864-5. Beneath the west window The Dutch settlements here were transferred to are the colossal figures of Gog and Magog, said to

Great Britain, 6 April, 1872. See Elmina. represent a Saxon and an ancient Briton. The

GUINEAS, English gold coin, so named from hall can contain 7000 persons, and is used for city having been first coined of gold brought by the feasts. Here were entertained the allied sovereigns African company from the coast of Guinea in 1063, in 1814, and Napoleon III., 19 April, 1855; and valued then at 203.; but worth 308. in 1695. Rehere the city industrial exhibition was held, 6 | duced at various times; in 1717 to 218. In 1810 March, 1866, and the International Botanical guineas were sold for 228. 6d. ; in 1816, for 278. In banquet, 22 May, 1866. A memorial window, the 1811 an act was passed forbidding their exportation, gift of the cotton workers of Lancashire, to com

and their sale at a price above the current value, 218. memorate the munificence of the metropolis towards The first guineas bore the impression of an elephant, them in the famine of 1862-4, was uncovered, 15 having been coined of this African gold. Since the July, 1868. The prince consort memorial window was unveiled in the presence of prince Arthur, been coined.

issue of sovereigns, 1 July, 1817, guineas have not 3 Nov. 1870. A library existed in the Guildhall in 1426, from which books were taken by the protector Somerset in the reign of Edward VI. The library and 16 Aug. 1513. See Spurs.

GUINEGATE, BATTLES OF, 11 July, 1302, was again set up; and re-opened, Jan. 1828. The new handsome building by Horace Jones was opened GUISE, a French ducal family :by the lord chancellor Selborne, 5 Nov. 1872.

Claude of Lorraine, first duke, a brave warrior, GUILDS (of Saxon origin, about the 8th favoured by Francis I.; died

April, 1550 century), associations of inhabitants of towns for

Francis, the great general, born, 1519; assassinated, mutual benefit, resembling our religious and friendly | Henry, head of the Catholic league ; born 1550 ;

24 Feb. 1563 societies, chartered by the sovereiyn since the time

revenged his father's death; assassinated by order of Henry II.

of Henry III.

23 Dec. 1588 The Lonilon guilds became livery companies in the 14th

Charles, tirst opposed, and then submitted to,
Henry IV. ; died

1640 The guill of Corpus Christi, York, had 14,800 members

Henry died without issue

1664 when a return respecting these guilds was ordered to be made, 1388.

GUN, see Artillery, Fire-arms. -GunThe Early English Text Society published the “Ordi CLUB, for pigeon-shooting, founded by sir Gilbert of more than 100 guills, 1870.

East, in 1862, had 200 members, noblemen and The “Guild of Literature and Art" (including sir E. B. gentlemen, in July, 1867. The new gun-licences Lytton, C. Dickens, and others) founded an institu- produced in the financial year 1871-2, 62,4371. tion (on ground given by sir E. B. Lytton, at Stevenage) consisting of thirteen wellings, retreats for artists, scholars, and men of letters, which were completed invented by professor Schönbein, of Basel, and

GUN-COTTON, a highly explosive substance, and inaugurated, 29 July, 1865. The revival of religious guilds began in 1851, with

made known in 1846. It is purified cotton, steeped that of St. Alban, which held its 21st anniversary in a mixture of equal parts of nitric acid and sul20 June, 1872.

phuric acid, and afterwards dried, retaining the

(entury.

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appearance of cotton wool. See Collodion. Its nature Above i tons of gunpowder on board the Lottie Sleigh, was known to Bracconot and Pelouze.

in the Mersey, exploded ; much damage done in Liver

pool and Birkenhead, but no lives lost, 16 Jan. 1864. The diet of Frankfort voted, 3 Oct. 1846, a recompense About 104,000 lbs, of gunpowder exploded at the Belve

of 100,000 florins to professor Schönbein and Dr. dere powder magazines of Messrs. Hall & Co., at Boettger, as the inventors of the cotton powder, pro Plumstead, near Woolwich; 13 persons perished, and vided the authorities of Mayence, after seeing it tried, the shock was felt at 50 miles' distance, 1 Oct. 1864.

pronounced it superior to gunpowder as an explosive. Searching inquiries were made into the circumstances, Improvements were made in the manufacture of yun and new regulations for the keeping and transmission

cotton by an Austrian officer, Baron von Lenk, about of powder issued in November ; see Dartford. 1852, and it was tried by a part of the Austrian army Mr. Gale, a blind gentleman of Plyinouth, on 22 June, in 1855, but did not obtain favour.

1865, patented his method of rendering gunpurular In 1862 details of the manufacture were communicated uninflammable by combining with it finely growdered

by the Austrian government to our own government, glass, which can be readily separated by a sieve when and Mr. Abel, our war-office chemist, was directed to the powder is required for use. Successful public experiment on the constitution and desirability of experiments were made. gun-cotton. The British Association also appointed a Mr. Gale exhibited his process before the queen at Scientific committee to consider its merits. A com Windsor, 10 Nov. 1865, and it was severely tested at a plete decision was not arrived at.

martello tower, near Hastings, 20 June, 1866. The The first trial of English-made gun-cotton was made in attaininent of perfect security was still doubtful.

the spring of 1864, at the manufactory at Stowinarket, Gale's Protected Gunpowder Company was formed, Suffolk, by Messrs. Prentice.

Oct. 1865, and wound up, March, 1867, There was manufactured, by a company, the" patent safety Great explosion at Messrs. Hall's powder-mills, near

gun-cotton,” according to Mr. Abel's patent (including Faversham; u men killed, much damage done : shock the pulping, compressing, and wet processes), basedi felt at Canterbury, 10 miles off, 28 Dec. 1867. Another on researches commenced in 1866. The cotton WALS explosion about 21 Dec. 1868. said to be explosive by detonation, and not by Dixon & Beck's works blown up; 9 lives lost, 25 July, ignition. A great explosion took place at Stowmarket; 1868. 24 persons were killed (including A. E. II, and W. R. Explosion at Hounslow mills, 3 lives lost, 6 Sept. 1872. Prentice, managers); about 60 were dreadfully wounded, Milner's powder-inagazines placed in fire at Woolwich and nearly the whole town was destroyed as if by a arsenal and found secure, 8-9 Oct. 1872.

boinbardment, 11 Aug. 1871. The verdict at the inquest attributed the explosion to GUNPOWDER PLOT, for springing a mine

the culpable "addition of sulphuric acid to the gun under the houses of parliament, and destroying the cotton subsequent to its passing the tests required by three estates of the realm-king, lords, and commons

government," 6 Sept. 1871. A government cominission, appointed in Sept. to con

there assembled, was discovered on 4 Nov. 1605. It sider the manufacture and use of gun-cotton, reported

was projected by Robert Catesby early in 1604, and in favour of both, with special regard to compressed several Roman Catholics of rank were in the plot. gun-cotton, 13 Dec. 1871.

Guy Faux was detected in the vaults under the Another report recommended this gun-cotton to be house of lords, hired for the purpose, preparing

stored wet, with drying apparatus near; and to be the train for being fired on the next day: Catesby

kept in slighter boxes, 25 July, 1872. Mr. E. (). Brown, of the war department, Woolwich, dis

and Percy (of the family of Northumberland) were covers that wet gun-cotton can be exploded by con

killed at Holbeach house, whither they had Hled, cussion by a detonating fuse, about Nov. 1872.

8 Nov.; and Guy Faux, sir Everard Digby, RookIt is used as an explosive agent in mining, &c,

wood, Winter, and others, were executed, 30, 31 GUN-CLOTH, made on a similar principle, was patented Jan. 1606. Henry Garnet, a Jesuit, suffered as an by Mr. W. A. Dixon, about 1866.

accomplice, 3 May following. An anonymous letter Corton-GUNPOWDER, patented by Mr. R. Punshon, 1871. sent to lord Monteagle led to the discovery. It GUN LICENCE ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870;

contained the following words, “ Though there be annual licence, ios.

no appearance of any stir, yet I say they shall

receive a terrible blow this parliament, and yet GUNPOWDER. The invention of gunpowder they shall not see who hurts them." The vault is generally ascribed to Bertholdus or Michael called Guy Faux cellar, in which the conspirators Schwartz, a Cordelier monk of Goslar, south of lodged the barrels of gunpowder, remained till Brunswick, in Germany, about 1320. But many 1825, when it was converted into offices. writer's maintain that it was known much earlier in various parts of the world. Some say that the

GUNTER’S CHAIN, used in measuring land, Chinese and Hindoos possessed it centuries before. invented by Edmund Gunter, in 1606. Its composition, moreover, is expressly mentioned

GURNEY'S ACT, 31 & 32 Vict., c. 116 by Roger Bacon, in his treatise De Nullitate (1868), amends the law relating to larceny and Magice. He died in 1292 or 1294. Various sub

embezzlement. stitutes for gunpowder have been

recently invented, such as the white gunpowder of Mr. Horsley and GUTTA PERCHA is procured from the sap Dr. Ehrhardt, and gun-paper by Mr. Hochstódten. of the Isonandra Gutta, a large forest tree, growing A new gunpowder by M. Newmaver, of Toya, near in the Malayan peninsula and on the islands near Leipsic, was discussed in Nov. 1866. “Pellet gun- it. It was made known in England by Drs. D. powder" was ordered to be used in gun-charges in Almeida and Montgomery, at the Society of Arts, the army, March, 1868. An act to amend the law in 1843. As a non-conductor of electricity it is inconcerning the making, keeping, and carriage of valuable in constructing submarine telegraphs, an gunpowder, &c. was passed 28 Aug. 1860, and other application suggested by Faraday, 1847. acts since. See Birmingham, 1870. In May, 1872, a company was formed to manufacture Mr. R.

GUY'S HOSPITAL (London). Thomas Guy, Punshon's patent cotton-gunpowder, asserted to be

a wealthy bookseller, after bestowing large sums on very safe and controllable. See Chronoscope and

St. Thomas's, determined to found a new hospital, Explosives.

At the age of seventy-six, in 1721, he commenced

the present building, and lived to see it nearly W. Hunter, after a careful examination of the question, completed. It cost him 18,7931., and, in addition, in 1847, thus states the result :-"July and August,

he endowed it with 219,4991. In 1829, 190,1151. 1346, may be safely assuned to be the time when the explosive force of gunpowder was first brought to bear

were bequeathed to this hospital by Mr. Hunt, to on the military operations of the English nation." provide accommodation for 100 additional patients.

GUZERAT, a state in India, founded by Mah- Gitanos; German, Zigeuner); vagrants, supposed moud the Gaznevide, about 1020, was conquered by to be descendants of low-caste Hindoos espelled by Akbar in 1572; and became subject to the Mahrattas Timour, about 1399. They appeared in Germany 1732 or 1752. At the battle of Guzerat, near the and Italy early in the 15th century, and at Paris in Chenab, in the Punjab, 21 Feb. 1849, lord Gough 1427. In England an aet was made against their totally defeated the Sikhs and captured the town of itinerancy, in 1530; and in the reign of Charles I. Guzerat.

thirteen persons were executed at one assizes for GWALIOR, an ancient state in Central India ; having associated with gypsies for about a month. since 1803, under British protection. Scindiah, the

The gypsy settlement at Norwood was broken up, naharajah, remained faithful during the revolt of and they were treated as vagrants, May, 1797. 1857

There were in Spain alone, previously to 1800, GYMNASIUM, a place where the Greeks of them yet exist in England. Notwithstanding

more than 120,000 gypsies, and many communities performed public exercises, and where philosophers, their intercourse with other nations, their manners, poets, and rhetoricians repeated their compositions. customs, visage, and appearance are almost wholly in wrestling and boxing the athletes were often unchanged, and their pretended knowledge of naked (gymnos), whence the name. gymnastic society, formed in 1826, did not flourish. tuturity gives them power over the superstitious.

Esther Faa was crowned queen of the gypsies at In 1862, M. Ravenstein set up another gymnastic Blyth, on 18 Nov. 1800. The Bible has been transassociation. The German Gymnastic Institution, lated into gypsy dialects. Gypsy parliaments are in St. Pancras-road, London, was opened on 29 Jan. occasionally held. 1865, and a large and perfect gymnasium at Liverpool' was inaugurated by lord Stanley, 6 Nov. 1865. GYROSCOPE (from gyrere, to revolve), the A London athletic club existed in Nov. 1866.

name of a rotatory apparatus invented by Fessel of GYMNOSOPHISTÆ, a set of naked philo- Cologne (1852), and improved by professor Wheatsophers in India. Alexander (about 324 B.c.) was

stone and M. Foucault of Paris. “It is similar in astonished at the sight of men who seemed to principle to the rotatory apparatus of Bolinendespise bodily pain, and endured tortures without berger of Tübingen (born 1765, died 1831). The a groan. Pliny.

gyroscope by exhibiting the combined effects of the

centrifugal and centripetal forces, and of the GYPSIES, GIPSIES, or EGYPTIANS cessation of either, illustrates the great law of (French, Bohémiens ; Italian, Zingari; Spanish, i gravitation.

H.

HAARLEM, an ancient town in Holland, once : Restored there

1 March, 1849 the residence of the counts, was taken by the’duke Suspended again (see Fenians), 17. Feb. 1866 : of Alva, in July, 1573, after a siege of seven

26 Feb. and 31 May, 1867; and 28 Feb. 1868 till months. He violated the capitulation by butcher

25 March, 1869

The constitution of the Unitel States provides that ing half the inhabitants. The lake was drained, “the privilege of habeas corpus shall not be sus1849-51.

penled, unless whell, in cases of rebellion or

invasion, the public safety may require it ;” but HABEAS CORPUS. The subjects' Writ of i

Hoes not specify the department of the governRight, passed “ for the better securing the liberty ment having the power of suspension. A series of the subject,” 31 Charles II. c. 2, 27 May, 1679. of contests on this subject between the legal If any person be imprisoned by the order of any and military authorities began in Maryland, court, or of the queen herself, he may have a writ

May, 1861 of habeas corpus, to bring him before the court of

In consequence of the affair of Jolin Anderson (see

Slutery in Englund, note), an act was pissed in queen's bench or common pleas, which shall deter

1862, enacting that no writ of llobers Corpus should inine whether his committal be just. This act issue out of England into any colony, &c., (founded on the old common law) is next in im having a court with authority to grant such portance to Magna Charta. The Habeas Corpus act

writ. can be suspended by parliament for a specitied time HABITUAL CRIMINALS ACT, for the when the emergency is extreme. In such a case more effectual prevention of crime, giving powers the nation parts with a portion of its liberty to for the apprehension of habitual criminals on sussecure its own permanent welfare, and suspected picion, passed 11 Aug. 1869. persons may then be arrested without cause or purpose being assigned. Blackstone.

HABSBURG, see Hapsburg. Act suspended for a short time in 1689, 1696, 1708

HACKNEY, a parish N.E. of London; by Suspended for Scots' rebellion

the division of tbe Tower Hamlets, was made a Suspended for twelve months Suspendel for Scots' rebellion in

metropolitan borough by the Reforin act, 15 Aug.

1744.5 Suspended for American war

1867.

1777-9 main by Mr. Pitt, owing to French revolution

1794 Suspended in Irelaud, on account of the great re

HACKNEY COACHES (probably from the bellion

1798 French coche-ci-haquenée, a vehicle with a hired Suspended in Englanı, 28 Aug. 1799; and

horse, haqrenee. Their supposed origin in Hackney,

14 April, 1801 near London, is a vulgar error; see Cabriolets, and Again, on account of Irish insurrection

1803 Omnibuses. A gain, owing to alleged secret meetings (see Green Bag)

1715-6

1722

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21 Feb. 1817 Four were set up in London by a capt. Bailey ; Bill to restore the Habeas Corpnis brought into par their number soon increased liament

28 Jan. 1818 They were limited by the star-chamber in 1635 ; Suspended in Ireland (insurrection) 24 July, 1848! restricted in 1637 and in

1652

1625

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