Page images





The number was raised to in 1662 ; to

HAITI, see Hayti. 1694 ; to 800, in 1715; to 1000, in 1771; to 1100, in 1814 ; and finally, to 1300, in


HAKLUYT SOCIETY, established for the One-horse hackney carriages (afterwards cabriolets)

publication of rare voyages and travels, 15 Dec. permitted to be licensed All restriction as to number ceased, by 2 Wiii, iv.

1846, was named after Richard Hakluyt, who pub(the original fare was 18. a mile)

lished his “ Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Two hundred Hackney Chairs were licensen

1831 Discoveries made by the English Nation," in 1589; Office removed to Somerset-house

1782 and died 23 Nov. 1016. Coach-makers marie subject to a licence.

1785 Lost anul Found Office for the recovery of property HALIARTUS, a town in Baotia, near which

left in hackney coaches, established by act 55 Lysander the Spartan general was killed in battle Geo. III.

1815 with the Thebans, 395 B.C. All publie vehicles to be regulated by the act io &

17, 33, 127, by which they are placed HALICARNASSUS, Caria (Asia Minor); the under the control of the commissioners of police, reputed birth-place of Herodotus, 484 B.C.; the site

June and Ang. 1853 of the tomb of Mausolus, erected 352; was taken by By the Metropolitan Carriages Act, passed 12 Aug. 1869, various restrictions respecting the amount

Alexander, 334; see Mausoleum. of fare, &c., were removed, commencing, 1 Jan. 1870 Further regulations for cabs issued by the home

HALIDON HILL, near Berwick, where, on secretary

10 March, 1871

19 July, 1333, the English defeated the Scots, the

latter losing upwards of 14,000 slain, among whom HADRIANOPLE, see Adrianople.

were the regent Douglas and a large number of the HAFSFIORD (Norway). Here Harold Här- nobility; a comparatively small number of the fager, in a sea-fight, finally defeated his enemies;

English suffered. Edward Balliol thus became king and consolidated his kingdom, 8;2. A millenary of Scotland for a short time. festival was held throughout Norway, and a monu- HALIFAX (Yorkshire). The woollen manument to his memory at Hangesund, inaugurated by factory was successfully established here in the prince Oscar of Sweden, 18 July, 1872.

15th century. The power of the town to punish HAGUE, capital of the kingdom of Holland, capitally (by a peculiar engine resembling the once called the tinest village in Europe ; the place guillotine) any criminal convicted of stealing to of meeting of the states-general, and residence of the value of upwards of thirteen pence halfpenny, the former earls of Holland since 1250, when

was used as late as 1650. In 1857, Mr. J. CrossWilliam II. built the palace here.

ley announced his intention of founding a college

here, and Mr. F. Crossley presented the town with Here the states abjured the authority of Philip II. a beautiful park.

of Spain. A conference upon the five articles of the remon- HALIFAX ADMINISTRATION.

strants, which occasioned the synod of Dort 1610 Charles, earl of Halifax, was appointed first lord of Treaty of the Hague (to preserve the equilibrium of the North), signed by England, France, and

the treasury, 5 Oct. 1714. He died 19 May, 1715, Holland

21 May, 1659

and was succeeded by Charles, earl of Carlisle, on The De Witts torn in pieces here

24 July, 1672

10 Oct. following; and Robert Walpole became The French, favoured by a hard frost, took posses- premier.

sion of the Hague; the inhabitants and troops declared in their favour; general revolution en

Charles, earl of Halifax, first lord of the treasury. sued, and the stadtholder and his family fled to

William, loru Cowper, aft. earl, lorul chancellor. England

Daniel, earl of Nottingham, lord president.

19 Jan. 1795 The Hague evacuated by the French

Nov. 1813

Thomas, earl of Wharton, priry seal.
The stadtholder returned

Edward, earl of Oxford, admiralty.

James Stanhope, afterwards earl Stanhope, and Charles, HAILEYBURY;COLLEGE (Herts),

viscount Townshend, secretaries of state. wherein students were prepared for service in India;

Sir Richard Onslow, chancellor of the ercheuer. it was founded by the East India Company in 1806;

Dukes of Montrose and Marlborough, lord Berkeley,

Robt. Walpole, Mr. Pulteney, &c. was closed in 1858, and became a college for general education.

HALL, principal apartment in medieval man

sions. Westminster and Eltham halls are fine HAINAULT, a province in Belgium, anciently governed by counts, hereditary after Regnier I.

, examples; see Westminster Hall. who died in 916. The count John d'Arsenes became

HALL MARK, see Goldsmiths and Standard. count of Holland in 1299. Hainault henceforth partook of the fortunes of Flanders.

HALLE (Saxony, N. Germany), first menHAINAULT FOREST (Essex), disafforested Otho II. in 981. The orphan-house here was esta,

tioned in 801, was made a city by the emperor in 1851. Here stood the Fairlop oak (which see).

blished by August Francke, 1698-9. Halle suffered HAIR. In Gaul, hair was much esteemed, much by the Thirty years and Seven years' wars. hence the appellation Gallia comata; cutting off it was stormed by the French, 17 Oct. 1806, and the hair was a punishment. The royal family of added to the kingdom of Westphalia; but given up France held it as a privilege to wear long hair art- to Prussia in 1814. fully dressed and curled. “The clerical tonsure is of apostolic institution!” Isidorus Hispalensis. Pope Lord, and so be it), expressions used in the

HALLELUJAH AND AMEN (Praise the Anicetus forbade the clergy to wear long hair, 155. Hebrew hymns; said to have been introduced by Long hair was out of fashion during the pro- Haggai, the prophet, about 520 B.C.

Their introtectorate of Cromwell, and hence the term Round-duction into the Christian church is ascribed to St. heads; in 1795; and also 1801.Hair-powder came Jerome, about A.D. 390. into use in 1590; and in 1795 a tax of a guinea was laid upon persons using it, which yielded at HALYS, a river (Asia Minor), near which a one time 20,000l. per annum. The tax was repealed battle was fought between the Lydians and Medes. 24 June, 1869, when it yielded about 1000l. a year. It was interrupted by an almost total eclipse of the See Beard.

sun, which led to peace, 28 May, 585 B.C. (the



fourth year of the 48th Olympiad). Plin. Nat. HANIPER OFFICE (of the court of ChanHist. ii. Others give as the date 584, 603, and cery), where writs relating to the business of the 610 B.C. This eclipse is said to have been predicted subject, and their returns, were anciently kept in many years before by Thales of Miletus. Hero- hanaperio (in a wicker hamper); and those relating dotus, i. 75.

to the crown, in parra baga (a little bag). Hence HAM, on the Somme, N. France. The castle office was abolished in 1842.

the names Hanaper and Petty Bag Office. The was built in 1470 by the constable Louis of Luxembourg, comte de St. Pol, beheaded by Louis XI. HANAU (Hesse-Cassel), incorporated 1303. 19 Dec. 1475; Here were imprisoned the ex Here a division of the combined armies of Austria ministers of Charles X., 1830; and Louis Napoleon and Bavaria, of 30,000 men, under general Wrede, Bonaparte after his attempt at Boulogne, from Oct. encountered the French, 70,000 strong, under Na1840 till 25 May, 1846, when he escaped.

poleon I., on their retreat from Leipsic, 30 Oct.

1813. The French suffered very severely, though HAMBURG, a free city, N. W. Germany, the allies were compelled to retire. The county of founded by Charlemagne, about 809. It joined the Hanau was made a principality in 1803; seized by Hanseatic league in the 13th century, and became the French in 1806; incorporated with the duchy a flourishing commercial city. Population in 1860, of Frankfort in 1809; restored to Hesse in 1813; 229,941; in 1871, 338,974.

which was annexed to Prussia in 1866. A free imperial city by permission of the dukes of HANDEL'S COMMEMORATIONS. Holstein, 1296 ; subject to them till 1618; pur

The first was held in Westminster abbey, 26 May, chase its total exemption from their claims French declared

upon Hainburg for its 1784; king George III. and queen Charlotte, and treachery in giving up Napper Tandy; see Tundy, above 3000 persons being present. The band con

Oct. 1799

tained 268 vocal and 245 instrumental performers, British property sequestrated

March, 1801 and the receipts of three successive days were Hamburg taken by the French after the battle of

12,7461. These concerts were repeated in 1785, Jena, in .

1806 Incorporated with France

1786, 1790, and 1791.

1810 Evaruated by the French on the advance of the

Second great commemoration, in the presence of king Russians into Germany.

1813 William IV. and queen Adelaide, when there were 644 Restoreel to independence by the allies May, 1814 performers, 24, 26, 28 June, and 1 July, 1834. Awful fire here, which destroyed numerous churches Great Handel festival (at the Crystal Palace) on the and public buildings, and 2000 houses ; it con

centenary of his death, projected by the Sacred tinued for three day's

4 May, 1842 Harinonic Society. Grand Rehearsal at the Crystal Half the city inundated by the Elbe

i Jan. 1855 Palace, 15, 17, 19 June, 1857, anı 2 July, 1858. New constitution granted by the senate, July, 1860; Performances : Messiah, 20 June ; Selections, 22 June; Isthe new assembly (of 191 members) first met,

raelin Egypt, 24 June, 1859, when the prince consort, the 6 Dec. 1860

king of the Belgians, anal 26,827 persons were present. The constitution began

I Jan. 1861

There were 2765 vocal and 393 instrumental performers, Hamburg joined the x. German confederation,

and the performance was highly successful. The re21 Aug. 1866

ceipts amounted to about 33,000l., from which there Joined the German empire, Jan.; its privileges as a

were deducted 18,000!, for expenses ; of the residue free port confirmed

16 April, 1871

(15,000l.), two parts accruel to the Crystal Palace Com

pany, and one part to the Sacred Harmonie Society. HAMPDEN CLUBS, see Radicals, and Handel's harpisichord, original scores of bis oratorios, Chalgrore.

and other interesting relics, were exhibited.

Handel festivals (at the Crystal Palace): 4000 performers ; HAMPSTEAD HEATH, N.W. of London; highly successful ; 23, 25, 27 June, 1862 ; again, 26, 28, an act authorising the Metropolitan Board of Works 30 June, 1865; again, 15, 17, 19 June, 1868 (about to purchase the heath, from sir John Maryon

25,000 present; also, 19, 21, 23 June, 1871 (about Wilson, bart., passed 29 June, 1871, and the heath

84,000 persons subscribedl). was formally taken possession of by the Metropo HANDKERCHIEFS, wrought and edged litan Board of Works, 13 Jan. 1872, 45,000!. being with gold, used to be worn in England by gentlepaid. During the prevalence of small-pox in Lon men in their hats, as favours from young ladies, don, in 1871, a temporary hospital was established the value of them being from five to twelve pence at Hampstead. Charges of mismanagement having for each in the reign of Elizabeth, 1558. Stow's been made against the officers, an official inquiry Chron. Paisley handkercbiefs were first made in ensued which lasted 33 days, from 23 Sept. to 3 Nov. 1743. Further inquiry ensued respecting the disappear, ance of a child, Elizabeth Bellue.

HANDS, imposition of, was performed by Moses

The medical in setting apart his successor Joshua (Num. xxvii. officers were exonerated from blame, Dec.

23), in reception into the church, and in ordination, HAMPTON COURT PALACE (Middle- by the apostles (Acts viii. 17 ; I Tim. iv. 14). sex), built by cardinal Wolsey on the site of the HANGING, DRAWING, AND QUARTERmanor-house of the knights-hospitallers, and in ING, said to have been first inflicted upon William 1525 presented to Henry VIII.; perhaps the most Marise, a pirate, a nobleman's son, 25 Hen. III., splendid offering ever made by a subject to a 1241. Five gentlemen attached to the duke of sovereign. Here Edward VI. was born, 12 Oct. Gloucester were arraigned and condemned for trea1537; here his mother, Jane Seymour, died, 24 Oct. son, and at the place of execution were hanged, cut following; and here Mary, Elizabeth, Charles, and down alive instantly, stripped naked, and their others of our sovereigns resided. Much was pulled bodies marked for quartering, and then pardoned, down, and the grand inner court built by William 25 Hen. IV. 1447. Stow. The Cato-street conIII. in 1694, when the gardens, occupying 40 acres, spirators (which see) were beheaded after death by were laid out. The vine was planted 1769. Here hanging, 1 May, 1820. Hanging in chains was was held, 14-16 Jan. 1604, the CONFERENCE be- abolished in 1834; see Death. tween the Puritans and the Established church elergy, which led to a new translation of the Bible; HANGO BAY (Finland). On 5 June, 1855, see Conference.

a boat commanded by lieut. Geneste left the



29 June,

British steamer Cossack, with a flag of truce to 1837. Ernest-Augustus, duke of Cumberland, brother to land some Russian prisoners. They were fired on

William IV. of England, on whose demise he by a body of ritlemen, and five were killed, several

succeeded (as a distinct inheritance) to the wounded, and the rest made prisoners. The Rus

throne of Hanover, 20 June. sian account, asserting the irregularity to have

1851. George V. (boru 27 May, 1819), son of Ernest;

ascended the throne on the death of his father, been on the side of the English, was not sub

18 Nov. His states anncral to Prussia, 20 Sept. stantiated. HANOVER (N. W. Germany), successively an

Heir: Prince Ernest-Augustus, bom 21. Sept. electorate, and a kingdom, chiefly composed of

1845. territories which once belonged to the dukes of HANSE TOWNS. The Hanseatic league Brunswick (which see). Population in 1859, (from hansa, association), formed by port towns in 1,850,000; in 1861, 1,888,070. It was annexed to Germany against the piracies of the Swedes and Prussia, 20 Sept. 1866.

Danes : began about 1140; the league signed 1241. Hanover became the ninth clectorate

A.D. 1692 At first it consisted only of towns situate on the Suffered much during the seven years' war 1756-63 coasts of the Baltic sea, but in 1370 it was composed Seized by Prussia

3 April, 1801 Occupied and hardly used by the French, 5 June, 1803 league proclaimed war against Waldemar, king of

of sixty-six cities and forty-four confederates. The Delivered to Prussia in Retaken by the French

1805 Denmark, about the year 1 348, and against Erie in Part of it annexed to Westphalia

1428, with forty ships and 12,000 regular troops, Regained for England by Bernadotte

6 Nov. 1813

besides seamen. On this several princes ordered Erected into a kingilom The duke of Cambridge appointed viceroy,

12 Oct. 1814 the merchants of their respective kingdoms to with

draw their effects. The Thirty years' war in Gerand a representative government established,

Nov. 1816

many (1618-48) broke up the strength of the assoVisited by George IV.

Oct. 1821

ciation, and in 1630 the only towns retaining the Ernest, duke of Cumberland, king 20 June, 1837

name were Lübeck, Hamburg, and Bremen. The He granted a constitution with electoral riglts, league suffered also by the rise of the commerce of

1848; which was annulled in obedience to the the Low Countries in the 15th century. Their

decree of the federal diet The king claims from England crown jewels, which

12 April, 1855 privileges by treaty in England were abolished by

Elizabeth in 1578. belonged to George III. (value about 120,000l.),

1857; by arbitration, the jewels given up, Jan. 1858 Stade dues given up for compensation, 12 June, 1861

HAPSBURG (HABSBURG or HABICHTSIn the war the king takes the side of Austria ; aud BURG), HOUSE OF, the family from which the the Prussians enter and occupy Hanover,

imperial house of Austria sprang in the with cen

13 June, et seq. 1866 tury, Werner being the first named count of HabsThe Hanoverians defeat the Prussians at Langen

burg, 1096. Hapsburg was an ancient castle of salza, 27 June; but are compelled to surrender,

Switzerland, on a lofty eminence near Schintznach. Hanover annexed to Prussia by law, 20 Sept. ; pro

Rodolph, count of Häpsburg, became archduke of mulgated

Austria,' and emperor of Germany, 1273; Protest of the king of Hanover aldressed to Europe Austria, and Germany.


23 Sept. Arrangement with Prussia by a treaty ratified HARBOURS. England has many fine natural

18 Oct. 1867 | harbours; the Thames (harbour, dock, and depôt), The king celebrates his "silver wedding "at Hiet

Portsmouth, Plymouth, &c. Acts for the improvezing, near Vienna, expressing hopes of recovering his kingdoni, &c.

ment of harbours, &c., were passed in 1847, 1861,

18 Feb. 1868 Part of his property' sequestrated by Prussia, and 1862.

March, Still further, in consequence of his maintaining a

HARFLEUR, seaport, N.W. France, taken Hanoverian legion (the king protested against it),

by Henry V., 22 Sept. 1415. Feb. 1869

HARLAW Aberdeenshire), the site of a 1692. Ernest-Augustus, youngest son of George, that son

desperate indecisive battle between the earl of of William, (luke of Brunswick-Lunebury, who Mar, with the royal army, and Donald, the lord of obtained by lot the right to marry (see Bruns the Isles, who aimed at independence, 24 July, 1411. wick). He became bishop of Osnabury in 1662, This conflict was very disastrous to the nobility, and in 1679 inherited the possessions of his

some houses losing all their males.
uncle John, duke of Calenberg; created ELECTOR
of Hanover in 1692.

HARLEIAN LIBRARY, containing 7000 [He married, in 1659, the princess Sophia, daugh

ter of Frederick, elector palatine, il of Eliza- manuscripts, besides rare printed books, bought by beth, the daughter of James I. of England. In secretary Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford and 1701, Sophia was declared next heir to the British Mortimer, 1705, et seq., is now in the British crown, after William III., Anne, and their de Museum.' A large portion of his life and wealth scendants. ]

was spent on the collection. He died 21 May, 1698. George-Lewis, son of the preceding ; married his cousin Sophia, the heiress of the luke of Bruns

1724. The Harleian Miscellany, a selection from wick-Zell; became king of Great Britain, 1 Aug.

the MSS. and Tracts of his library, was published 1714, as GEORGE I.

in 1744 and 1808. 1727. George-Augustus, his son (GEORGE II. of England), 11 June

HARLEY ADMINISTRATION, see 0:, 1760. George-William-Frederick, his grandson (GEORGE ford. III. of England), 25 Oct.

HARMONIC STRINGS, said to have been 1814. George-William-Frederick(the preceding sovereign), invented by Pythagoras about 540 B.C., through first king of Hanover, 12 Oct.

hearing four blacksmiths working with hammers, 1820. George-Augustus-Frederick, his son (GEORGE IV.

in harmony, whose weights he found to be six, of England), 29 Jan. 1830. William-Henry, his brother (WILLIAM IV. of Eng- musical glasses, were first “arranged" by an Irish

eight, nine, and twelve.- The Harmonica, or land), 26 June. [Hanover separated from the crown of Great gentleman named Puckeridge, and improved by Britain.)

Dr. Franklin in 1760.

6 Oct.



HARMONISTS, a sect, founded in Würtem- and other sums, more than 24,000l. in all, for furburg by George and Frederick Rapp, about 1780. ther improvements in following years. Not much is known of their tenets, but they held their property in common, and considered marriage In the patent museun at South Kensington is an eight

day clock made by Harrison in 1715. It strikes the a civil contract. They emigrated to America, and

hour, indicates the day of the month, and with one built New Harmony in Indiana in 1815. Robert exception (the escapement) its wheels are entirely Owen purchased this town about 1823; but failed made of wood. The clock was going in 1871. in his scheme at establishing a “social community and returned to England: see Socialists. The

HARROGATE (Yorkshire). The first or old Harmonists removed to Pittsburg in Pennsylvania spa in Knaresborough forest was discovered by capt. in 1822.

Slingsby in 1571: a dome was erected over the well

by lord Rosslyn in 1786. Two other chalybeate HARMONIUM, a keyed instrument, resem- springs are the Alum well and the Towit spa. The bling the accordion, the tones being generated by sulphureous well was discovered in 1783. The the action of wind upon metallic reeds. The theatre was erected in 1788. The Bath hospital was Chinese were well acquainted with the effects pro- erected by subscription in 1825. duced by vibrating tongues of metal. M. Biot stated, in 1810, that they were used musically by HARROW-ON-THE-HILL SCHOOL M. Grenié; and in 1827-29, free reed stops were Middlesex), founded and endowed by John Lyon employed in organs at Beauvais and Paris. The

in 1571. To encourage archery, the founder inbest known harmoniums in England are those of stituted a prize of a silver arrow to be shot for Alexandre and Debain, the latter claiming to be the annually on the 4th of August ; but the custom has original maker of the French instrument. In 1841, , been abolished. 'Lord Palmerston, sir R. Peel, the Mr. W. E. Evans, of Cheltenham, produced his statesman, and lord Byron, the poet, were educated English harmonium, then termed the Organ-Har- here. The school building suttered by fire, 22 Oct. monica, and by successive improvements he produced 1838. The school arrangements were modified by a fine instrument, with diapason quality, and great the public schools act, 1868. Charles II. called rapidity of speech, without loss of power. English Harrow church “the visible church.” Cyclopedia.

HARTLEY COAL MINE (NorthumberHARNESS, chariots and the leathern dress- land). On 16 Jan. 1862, one of the iron beams, ings used for horses to draw them, are said to have about 12 tons weight, at the mouth of the ventilating been the invention of Erichthonius of Athens, who shaft, broke and fell, destroyed the brattice, divided was made a constellation after his death, under the

the shaft, and carried down sufficient timber to kill name of Bootes (Greek for ploughman), about

two men who were ascending the shaft, and buried 1487 B.C.

alive 202 persons, men and boys. Several days HARO, CRY OF (Clamour de Haro), tradition- elapsed before the bodies could be removed. Much ally derived from Raoul, or Rollo, of Normandy, sympathy was shown by the queen and the public, ancestor of our Norman princes of England. Rollo and about 50,000l. were collected for the bereaved administered justice so well, that injured persons families. The coroner's verdict asserted the necescried " à Raoud!The cry was raised in a church sity of two shafts to coal mines, and recommended in Jersey in 1859.

that the beams of colliery engines should be of

malleable instead of cast iron. HARP. Invented by Jubal, 3875 1.c. (Gen. iv. 21). David played the harp before Saul, 1063 B.C. HARTWELL (Buckinghamshire), the retreat 1 Sam. xvi. 23. The Cimbri, or English Saxons, of Louis XVIII., king of France, 1807-14. He had this instrument. The celebrated Welsh harp landed in England at Yarmouth, 6 Oct. 1807, took was strung with gut; and the Irish harp, like the up his residence at Gosfield-hall, in Essex, and more ancient harps, with wire. Erard's improved afterwards came to Hartwell, as the count de Lille. harps were first patented in 1795.

His consort died here in 1810. On his restoration,

he embarked at Dover for France, 24 April, 1814; One of the most ancient harjin existing is that of Brian Boroimhe, monarch of Irelan: it was given by his

see France. son Donagh to pope John XVIII., together with the HARUSPICES, priests or soothsavers, of crown and other regalia of his father, in order to obtain

Etruscan origin, who foretold events from observing alsolution for the murler of his brother Teig. Adrian IV. alleged this as being one of his principal titles to

entrails of animals. They were introduced to Rome the kingdom of Ireland in his bull transferring it to by Romulus (about 750 B.C.), and abolished by ConHenry II. This lanp was given by Leo X. to stantine, A.D. 337, at which time they were seventy Henry VIII., who presented it to the first earl of in number. Clanricante: it then came into possession of the family of De Burgh ; next into that of MacMahon of Clenagh, HARVARD COLLEGE (Massachusetts, tounty of Clare ; afterwards into that of MacNamara North America) was founded by the general court of Limerick; and was at length deposited by the right at Boston, on 28 Oct. 1636. It derived its name from hon. William Conyngham in the College Museum, Dublin, in 1782.

John Harvard, who bequeathed to it his library and

a sum of money in 1638. HARPER'S FERRY (Virginia), see United States, 1859-62.

HASTINGS, a cinque-port, Sussex; said to

owe its name 10 the Danish pirate Hastinge, who HARRISON'S TIME-PIECE, made by built forts here, about 893; but Mr. Kemble thinks John Harrison, of Foulby, near Pontefract. In it was the seat of a Saxon tribe named Hastingas. 1714, the government offered rewards for methods! At Senlac, now Battle, near Hastings, more than of determining the longitude at sea; IIarrison came 30,000 were slain in the conflict between Harold II. to London, and produced his first time-piece in l of England and William duke of Normandy, the 1735; his second in 1739; his third in 1749; and former losing his life and kingdom, 14 Oct. 1066, his fourth, which procured him the reward of his birthday. He and his two brothers were interred 20,0001. offered by the Board of longitude, a few years at Waltham abbey, Essex. The new town, St. after. He obtained 10,000l. of his reward in 1764, Leonard's-on-Sea, was begun in 1828. A new pier


.9 May, 1801

here was inaugurated by earl Granville, 5 Aug. HAWAII, see Owhyhee. 1872.


first HASTINGS' TRIAL. Warren Hastings, licensed in 1698. Licensing commissioners were governor-general of India, was tried by the peers of appointed in 1810. The expense of licensing was Great Britain for high crimes and misdemeanours. reduced in 1861, and regulated by the Pedlars' Act, Among other charges was his acceptance of a present 1871. of 100,000l. from the nabob of Oude; see Chunar, Treaty of. The trial lasted seven years and three

HAWKING, sec Falconry. months ; commencing 13. Feb. 1788, terminating HAYMARKET (Westminster), opened in in his acquittal, 23 April, 1795. Mr. Sheridan's 1864, was removed to Cumberland-market, 1 Jan. speech on the impeachment excited great admira 1831. The Haymarket theatre was opened in 1702; tion.

see Theatres. Mr. Buckstone manager, 1853-72. Hastings was born in 1732 ; went to India as a writer in

HAYTI or HAITI, Indian name of a West 1750; became governor-general of Bengal in 1772 ; of India, 1773 ; governed ably, but, it is said, unscrupu

Indian island, discovered by Columbus in Dec. lously and tyrannically, till he resigned in 1785. The

1492, and named Hispaniola, and afterwards St. expenses of his trial (70,000l.) were paid by the East Domingo. Before the Spaniards fully conquered India Company; and pensiou was granted to him. it, they are said to have destroyed, in battle or cold He died a privy-councillor in 1818.

blood, three million of its inhabitants, including HATELY FIELD, see Shrewsbury.

i women and children, 1495. It now comprises the

republics of St. Domingo in the east, and Hayti HATFIELD'S ATTEMPT. On in May, in the west.. Population (1872) of Hayti, about 1800, during a review in Hyde-park, a shot from an 572,000; of St. Domingo, about 136,500. undiscovered hand was fired, which wounded a young gentleman who stood near king Geo. III. In Hayti seized by the filibusters and French buccathe evening, when his majesty was at Drury-lane The French government took possession of the

1630 theatre, Hatfield fired a pistol at him. Hatfield whole colony

1677 was confined as a lunatic till his death, 23 Jan. 1845, The negroes revolt against France 23 Aug. 1791 aged 69 years.

And massacre nearly all the whites 21-23 June, 1793

The French directory recognise Toussaint l'OuverHATS, first made by a Swiss at Paris, 1404.

ture as general-in-chief

1794 When Charles VII. made his triumphal entry into

The eastern part of the island ceded to France by Rouen, in 1449, he wore a hat lined with red velvet, Toussaint establishes an independent republic in

1795 and surmounted with a rich plume of feathers. St. Domingo Henceforward, hats and caps, at least in France, Ile surrenders to the French

7 May, 1802 began to take place of chaperons and hoods. Is conducted to France, where he dies

1803 Henault. Hats were first manufactured in England A new insurrection, under the command of Dessa

Nov. by Spaniards in 1510. Stow. Very high-crowned

lines; the French quit the island hats were worn by queen Elizabeth's courtiers; and

Dessutlines proclaims the massacre of all the whites,

29 March; crowned emperor of Hayti, as Jacques I., high crowns were again introduced in 1783. A

8 Oct. 1804 stamp-duty laid upon hats in 1784, and in 1796, He is assassinated, and the isle divided 17 Oct. 1805 was repealed in 1811. Silk hats began to supersede Henry Christophe, a man of colour, president in beaver about 1820.

Feb. 1807 : crowned emperor by the title of Henry

I., while Pethion rules as president at Port-auNone allowed to sell any hat for above pod. nor cap for


March, 1811 above 28. 8.., 5 Henry VII. 1489. Every person above

Numerous black'nobility and prelates created seven years of age to wear on Sundays and holidays, a Pethion dies; Boyer elected president May, 1818 cap of wool, knit, made, thickened, and dressert in Christophe cominits suicide, Oct. 1820; the two England by some of the trade of cappers, under the

states uited under Boyer as regent for life, Nov. forfeiture of three farthings for every day's neglect, 1820; who is recognised by France

1825 1571. Excepted : maids, ladies, and gentlewomen, and Revolution : Boyer deposed .

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1843 every loni, knight, and gentleman, of twenty marks of St. Domingo and the eastern part of Hayti piroland, and their heirs, and such as had borne office of

claim the Dominican republic," Feb. 1844; recog. worship, in any city, town, or place, and the wardens nised by France

1848 of London companies, 1571.

Hayti proclaimed an empire under its late president

Solouque, who takes the title of Faustin I., HATTERAS EXPEDITION, see United 26 Aug. 1849; crowned

18 April, 1852 States, Aug. 1861.

Faustin attaking the republic of St. Domingo,

1 Feb. 1856 HAU-HAU FANATICS, see New Zealand,

Revolution in Hayti: general Fabre Geffraril proclairus the republic of Hayti

22 Dec. 1858 1865.

Faustin abdicates

15 Jan. 1859

Getfrarıl takes oath as HAVANNAH, capital of Cuba, West Indies, Sixteen persons executed for a conspiracy against

president of Hayti founded by Velasquez, 1511; taken by lord Albe Geffrared marle, 14 Aug. 1762 ; restored, 1763; the remains José Valverde elected president of the republic of of Columbus were brought from St. Domingo and St. Domingo, or Dominican republic March, 1858 deposited in the cathedral here, 1795.

Spanish emigrants land: a declaration for reunion

with Spain sigued 18 March, decreed by the HAVRE-DE-GRÂCE (N. W. France) was queen

20 May, 1861 defended for the Huguenots by the English in 1562;

Insurrection against Spain in St. Domingo, 18 Aug. 1863

A Spanish force sent; the insurgents generally who, however, were expelled in 1563. It was bom defeated.

1864 barded by Rodney, 6 to 9 July, 1759; by sir Richard Great fire at Port-au-Prince ; 600 houses destroyed, Strachan, 25 May, 1798; and blockaded, 6 Sept.

23 Feb. 1865 1803. The attempts of the British to burn the St. Domingo renounced by Spain shipping here failed, 7 Aug. 1804. The Inter

Military insurrection under Salnave against Get national Maritime Exhibition here opened, 1 June,

frard, 7 May; Cape Hayti seized

Cabral provisional president of St. Domingo, Sept. 1868.

1365; B. Baez proclaimed president .

23 Jan.

5 May,

9 May,

14 Nov,

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