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ANNUALS, a name given to richly bound ANTARCTIC POLE, the opposite to the volumes, containing poetry, tales, and essays, by north or arctic pole; see Southern Continent. eminent authors, illustrated by engravings, published annually, at first in Germany, and also in

ANTEDILUVIAN HISTORY, Genesis iv., London in 1823. The duration of the chief of these v., vi. According to the tables of Mr. Whiston, publications is here given :

the number of people in the ancient world, previous

to the Flood, reached to 549,755 millions in the year Forget-me-not (Ackerman's)

1823-48 of the world 1482. Friendship's Offering

1824-44 Literary Souvenir (first as “the Graces").

1824-34 ANTHEMS. Hilary, bishop of Poictiers, and Amulet

1827-34 St. Ambrose composed them about the middle of Keepsake

1828-56 the 4th century. Lenglet. They were introduced Hool's Comic Annual

into the church service in 386. Baker. Ignatius ANNUITIES or PENSIONS. In 1512, 201. a is said to have introduced them into the Greek, and year were given to a lady of the court for services St. Ambrose into the Western Church. They were done; and 6l. 138. 4d. for the maintenance of a introduced into the Reformed churches in queen gentleman, 1536. , 137. 6$. 8d. deemed competent Elizabeth's reign, about 1565. T. Tallis and R. to support a gentleman in the study of the law, Tarrant, early English anthem writers, died 1585. 1554. An act was passed empowering the government to borrow one million sterling upon an an- ANTHRACENE, see Alizarine. nuity of fourteen per cent., 4-6 Will. & Mary, 1691-3. This mode of borrowing soon afterwards became thropos, Greek for man), for promoting the science

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SOCIETY (angeneral among governments. An annuity of il. 28. IId. per annum, accumulating at 10 per cent, Feb. 1863; Dr. James Hunt, president, in the

of man and mankind, held its first meeting on 24 compound interest, amounts in 100 years to 20,000l. chair. The " Anthropological Review” first came The Government Annuities and Life Assurances Act was passed in 1864, for the benefit of the logical Societies were amalgamated 17 Jan. 1871.

out in May, 1863. The Anthropological and Ethnoworking classes; since it enables the government and styled “The Anthropological Institute,” Sir to grant deferred annuities for sums payable in

John Lubbock, president. small instalments. Works on annuities were published by De Witt, 1671; De Moivre, 1724; Simp- ANTHROPOPHAGI (eaters of human flesh), son, 1742; Tables by Price, 1792 ; Milne, 1815; see Cannibals. Jones, 1843; Farre, 1864.

ANTIBURGHERS, see Burghers. ANNUITY TAX: a tax levied to provide stipends for ministers in Edinburgh and Montrose, ANTICHRIST (opposed to Christ), i John ij. and which caused much disaffection, was abolished 18, termed the “Man of sin," 2 Thess. ii. in 1860, and other provisions made for the pur- these passages many interpretations have been given, pose. These, however, proved equally unpalatable, and many myths were current in the middle ages, and its abolition was provided for by an act passed respecting the incarnation of the devil, &c. The 9 Aug. 1870.

term is applied to each other by Roman Catholics

and Protestants. ANNUNCIATION OF THE VIRGIN MARY, 25th of March, Lady-day (which see), a festival

ANTI-CORN-LAW LEAGUE, for procommemorating the tidings brought to Bary by the curing the repeal of the laws charging uuty on the angel Gabriel (Luke i. 26): its origin is referred importation of corn, sprung from various metroto the 4th or 5th century. The religious order of politan and provincial associations, was founded at the Annunciation was instituted in 1232, and the Manchester, 18 Sept. 1838, and supported by Messrs. military order, in Savoy, by Amadeus, count of Charles Villiers, Richard 'Cobden, John Bright, &c.; Savov, in memory of Amadeus I., who had bravely see Corn Laws, and Protectionists. defended Rhodes against the Turks, 1355.

Meetings held in various placesMarch & April, 1841
Excited meeting at Manchester

18 May, AVOINTING, an ancient ceremony observed A bazaar held at Manchester, at which the League at the inauguration of priests, kings, and bishops, realised 10,000l.

2 Feb. 1842 Aaron was anointed as high priest, 1491 B.C.; and About 600 deputies connected with provincial assoSaul, as king, 1095 B.C. Alfred the Great is said ciations assemble in London,

Fel).-Aug. to have been the first English king anointed, A.D.

The League at Manchester proposed to 871; and Edgar of Scotland, 1098.— The religious

50,000l., to depute lecturers throughout the

country, and to print pamphlets rite is derived from the epistle of James v. 14, about

First meeting at Drury-lane Theatre. 15 March, 1843 A.D. 60. Some authors assert that in 550, dying Monthly meetings at Covent Garden, commenced persons, and persons in extreme danger of death, 28 Sept. ; great free-trade meetings at Manchester were anointed with consecrated oil, and that this

14 Nov. 1843, and 22 Jan, 1845 was the origin of Extreme Unction (one of the

Bazaar at Covent Garden opened

5 May, sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church).

Great Manchester meeting, at which the League

proposed to raise a quarter of a inillion sterling ANONYMOUS LETTERS, see Threatening Letters.

The Corn Importation Bill having pissed, 26 June,

the League is formally dissolved ; Mr. Cobden was ANORTHOSCOPE, a new optical apparatus,

rewarded by a national subscription, nearly 80,000l.

2 July, 1846 described by Dr. Carpenter in 1868. In it distorted on the accession of the Derby ministry, a revival of figures lose their distortion when put into rapid the Anti-Corn-Law League was proposed at Manmotion.

chester, and a subscription was opened, which

produced within half an hour 27,520l. (soon provd ANTALCIDAS, PEACE OF. In 387 B.C. unnecessary)

. 2 Mar. 1352 Antalcidas the Lacedaemonian made peace with Artaxerxes of Persia, on behalf of Greece, but prin- ANTIETAM CREEK, near Sharpsburg, cipally in favour of Sparta, giving up the cities of Maryland, U. S. Here was fought a terrible battle lonia to the king.

on 17 Sept. 1862, between the Federals undor gene


20 Oct.

23 Dec.


ral M.Clellan and the Confederates under Lee. her death ensued, and her successor, James I., was far After his victory at Bull Run or Manassas, 30 Aug.,

from favouring the design. Lee invaded Maryland, and was inmediately fol

The Society of Antiquaries revived, 1707 ; received its

charter of incorporation from George II., 1751; and lowed by M'Clellan. . On 16 Sept. Lee was joined

apartments in Somerset-house granted to it in 1777 by Jackson, and at five o'clock next morning the Its Memoirs, entitled " Archaeologia,” first published conflict began. About 100,000 men were engaged, in 1770; present president, earl Stanhope, elected, and the battle raged till night. The Federals were 1846.

British Archæological Association founded Dec. 1843. repeatedly repulsed; but eventually the Con

Archaological Institute of Great Britain formed by a federates retreated and repassed the Potomac on

seceding part of the Association, 1845. 18 and 19 Sept. The loss of the Federals was

Society of Antiquaries of Edinburgh founded in 1780. estimated at 12,469; of the Confederates, 14,000. Since 1845 many county archæological societies have

been formed in the United Kingdom. ANTIGUA, a West Indian Island, discovered The Society of Antiquaries of France (1814) began in 1805 by Columbus in Nov. 1493; settled by the English as the Celtic Academy, in 1632; made a bishopric, 1842. Population in 1861, 36,412. Governor, Sir B. C. C. Pine, 1869.


Byzantium, at the close of the 2nd century, is supANTILLES, or CARIBBEE ISLANDS, an early posed to have been the first who advocated the simname of the West Indies (which see).

ple humanity of Jesus. This doctrine, advocated by

Arius about 318, spread widely after the ReformaANTIMONY, a white brittle metal, com- tion, when it was adopted by Lælius and Faustus pounds of which were early known. It was, and Socinus. Bayle. See Arians, Socinians, Uniis still, used blacken both men's and women's tarians. eyes in the east (2 k'ings ix. 30, and Jeremiah iv. 30). Mixed with lead it forms printing type metal. ANTIUM, maritime city of Latium, now Porto Basil Valentine wrote on antimony about 1410. d'Anzio, near Rome, after a long struggle for indePriestley.

pendence, became a Roman colony, at the end of the

great Latin war, 340-338 B.C. It is mentioned by ANTINOMIANS (from the Greek anti, Horace, and was a favourite retreat of the emperors against, and nomos, law), a name given by Luther and wealthy Romans, who erected many villas in (in 1538) to John Agricola, who is said to have its vicinity. The treasures deposited in the temple held *that it mattered not how wicked a man was if he had but faith.” (Opposed to Rom. iii. 28, & his war with Antony, 41 B.C.

of Fortune here were taken by Octavius Cæsar during vi. 1, 2.). He retracted these doctrines in 1540. The Antinomians were condemned by the British par ANTONINUS' WALL, see Roman Walls. liament, 1648.

ANTWERP (French, Anvers), the principal ANTIOCH, now ANTIAKEH, Syria, built by port of Belgium, is mentioned in history in 517. It Seleucus, 300 B.C. after the battle of Ipsus, 301, was a small republic in the nth century, and it was acquired the name " Queen of the East." Here the the first commercial city in Europe till the wars of disciples were tirst called Christians, A.D: 42 (Acts the 16th and 17th centuries. xi. 20). Antioch was taken by the Persians, 540; by the Saracens about 638; recovered for the Eastern Its fine exchange built in . emperor, 966; lost again in 1086; retaken by the Taken after 14 months siege by the prince of Parma Crusaders in June, 1098, and held by them till June, Truce of Antwerp (between Spain and United Pro

17 Aug. 1585 1268, when it was captured by the sultan of Egypt.

vinces) for 12 years, concluded

29 Mar. 1609 It was taken from the Turks in the Syrian war, i Much injured by the imposition of a toll on the Aug. 1832, by Ibrahim Pacha, but restored at the Scheldt by the treaty of Munster

1648 peace. Antioch suffered much by an earthquake, After Marlborough's victory at Ramillies, Antwerp and about 1600 persons were killed, 3 April, 1872. The Barrier treaty concluded here

6 June, 1706 --The Era of Antioch is much used by the early Taken by marshal Saxe Christian writers of Antioch and Alexandria ; it Occupied by the French

9 May, 1746

1792-3, 1794-1814 placed the Creation 5492 years B.C. 31 councils were Civil war between the Belgians and the House of held at Antioch, 252-1161.

Orange. (See Belgium.)


The Belgian troops, laving entered Antwerp, were ANTIPODES. Plato is said to be the first opposed by the Dutch garrison, who, after a who thought it possible that antipodes existed

dreadful contlirt, being Triven into the citadel,

cannonaded the town with red-hot balls and shells (about 388 B.C.). Boniface, archbishop of Mentz, legate of pope Zachary, is said to have denounced

27 Oct. 1830

The citadel bombarded hy the French, 4 Dec.; sura bishop as a heretic for maintaining this doc

rendered by gen. Chassé

23 Dec. 1832 trine, A.D. 741. The antipodes of England lie to The exchange burnt; archives, &c., destroyed the south-east of New Zealand, near Antipodes

2 Aug. 1858 Island,

Proposal to strengthen the fortifications adopted

Aug. 1859 ANTI-POPES, rival popes elected at various A fine art fête held .

: 17-20 Aug. 1861 times, especially by the French and Italian factions, Great Napoleon wharf destroyed by fire"; loss 25 from 1305 to 1439. In the article l'opes, the Anti

lives and about 400,00ol.

2 Dec. popes are printed in italics.

Great fete at the opening of the port by the abolition of the Scheldt dues

3 Aug. 1863 ANTIQUARIES. A college of antiquaries is

Fortifications begun 1860; completed.

1865 Statue of Leopold I, uncovered

2 Aug. 1868 said to have existed in Ireland, 700 B.C. The annual International Congress of Prehistoric Archæology, ANVAR-I-SUHAIH, or the Lights of Canooriginated at La Spezzia in 1865; annual meetings pus, the ancient Persian version of the ancient have been held since at Paris, Norwich, &c. Fables of Pilpay, Bidpai, or Vishnu Sarma, made A society was founded by archbishop Parker, Camden, by Husain Vaiz, at the order of Nushirran, king of Stow, and others in 1572. Spelman.

Persia. The English translation by E. B. Eastwick, Applicatiou was unde to Elizabeth for a charter, but published 1854. See Fables.


16 Nov. 1715



2 Esdras Tobit




APATITE, mineral phosphate of lime. About Other apologies were written by the early fathers of 1856 it began to be largely enıployed as manure. It the Church. is abundant in Norway, and in Sombrero, a small West India Island.

APOSTLES (Greek, apostolos, one sent forth).

Twelve were appointed by Christ, A.D. 31; viz. APOCALYPSE or REVELATION, written by Simon Peter and Andrew (brothers), James and St. John in the isle of Patmos about A.D. 95. John (sons of Zebedee), Philip, Nathanael (or Bar

tholomew), Matthew (or Levi), Thomas, James the APOCRYPHA. In the preface to the Apo- Less (son of Alphæus), Simon the Canaanite and crypha it is said, “These books are neyther found in Jude or Thaddeus (brothers), and Judas Iscariot.. the Hebrue nor in the Chalde.” Bible, 1539. The Matthias was elected in the room of Judas Iscariot, history of the Apocrypha ends 135 B.C. The books A.D. 33 (Acts i.); and Paul and Barnabas were were not in the Jewish canon, were rejected at the appointed by the Holy Spirit, A.D. 45 (Acts xiii. 2). council of Laodicea about A.D. 366, but were received as canonical by the Roman Catholic church APOSTLES' CREED, erroneously attributed at the council of Trent on 8 April, 1546. Parts of to the apostles, is mentioned as the Roman creed by the Apocrypha were admitted to be read as lessons Ruffinus, 390. Irenæus, bishop of Lyons (177), by the church of England, by the 6th article, 1563. gives a creed resembling it. Its repetition in public Many of these were excluded by the act passed 1871. worship was ordained in the Greek church at 1 Esdras

from about B.C. 623-445 century, whence it passed to the church of England.

Antioch, and in the Roman church in the nith

734-678 Judith.


APOSTOLICI, a sect, at the end of the end Wisdom of Solomon.

century, which renounced marriage, wine, flesh, &c. $10

A second sect, founded by Segarelli about 1261, Ecclesiasticus (John)

B.C. 300 or 180 wandered about, clothed in white, with long beard, Baruch

dishevelled hair, and bare heads, accompanied by Song of the Three Children History of Susannah

women called spiritual sisters, preaching against Bel and the Dragon

the growing corruption of the church of Rome, and Prayer of Manasses

676 predicting its downfall. They renounced baptism, 1 Maccabees

about 323-135

the mass, purgatory, &c., and by their enemies 2

from about 187-161 There are also Apocryphal writings in connection with burnt alive at Parma in 1300, and his followers

were accused of gross licentiousness. Segarelli was the New Testament.

were dispersed in 1307, and extirpated about 1404. APOLLINARISTS, followers of Apollinaris, a reader in the church of Laodicea, who taught house). On 10 Oct. 1345, Edward III. settled six

APOTHECARY (literally, a keeper of a store(366) that the divinity of Christ was instead of a soul to him; that his flesh was pre-existent to his pence, per diem for lite on Coursus de Gangeland, appearance upon earth, and was sent down from Apothecarius London', for taking care of hina heaven, and conveyed 'throngh the Virgin; that during his severe illness in Scotland. Rymer's

Federa; see Pharmacy. there were two sons, one born of God, the other of the Virgin, &c. These opinions were condemned | Apothecaries exempted from serving on juries or by the council of Constantinople, 381.

London Apothecaries Company separated from the APOLLO, the god of the fine arts, medicine, Their practice regulated and their authority ex

Grocers' and incorporated, 1617 ; hall built 1670 music, poetry, and eloquence, had many temples tended over all England, 55 Geo. III. c. 19 (1815), and statues, particularly in Greece and Italy. His amended by 6 Geo. IV. c. 133

1825 most splendid temple at Delphi was built 1263 B.C.; Botanical Garden at Chelsea left by sir Hans Sloane see Delphi. His temple at Daphne, built 434. B.C.,

to the company, Jan. 1753, during a period in which pestilence raged, was burnt

their introducing every year fifty new plants,
until their number should amount to 2000

Jan. 1755 A.D. 362, and the Christians were accused of the

The Dublin guild incorporated

1745 crime. Lenglet. The statue of Apollo Belvedere, discovered in the remains of Antium, in Italy, in APOTHEOSIS, a ceremony of the ancient 1503, was purchased by pope Julius II., who placed nations of the worlå, by which they raised their it in the Vatican.

kings and heroes to the rank of deities. The deifyAPOLLONICON, an elaborate musical in- ing a deceased emperor was begun at Rome by strument, constructed on the principle of the organ, Augustus, in favour of Julius Cæsar, 13 B.C. Tille

mont. was invented by Messrs. Flight and Robson, of St. Martin's lane, Westminster, and exhibited by them APPEAL or ASSIZE OF BATTLE. By the first in 1817. Timbs.

old law of England, a man charged with murder APOLOGIES FOR CHRISTIANITY were ad- might fight with the appellant, thereby to make dressed by Justin Martyr to the emperor Antoninus proof of his guilt or innocence.' In 1817, a young Pius about 139, and to the Roman senate about 164. maid, Mary Ashford, was believed to have been

violated and murdered by Abraham Thornton, who, * Some ascribe the authorship to Cerinthus, the here in an appeal, claimed his right by his wager of tic, and others to John, the presbyter, of Ephesis. In battle, which the court allowed ; but the appellant the first centuries many churches disowned it, and in the (the brother of the maid) refused the challenge, and 4th century it was excluded from the sacred canon by the accused escaped, 16 April, 1818. This law was the council of Laodicea, but was again received by other immediately afterwards struck off the statute-book, councils, and confirmed by that of Trent, held in 1545, by 59 Geo. III. (1819). ei seq. Although the book has been rejected by Luther, Michaelis, and others, and its authority questioned in

APPEALS. In the time of Alfred (869-901), all ages, from the time of Justin Martyr (who wrote his first Apology for the Christians in A.D. 139), yet its appeals lay from courts of justice to the king in canonical authority is still alınost universally acknow- council; but being soon overwhelmed with appears ledged.

from all parts of England, he framed the body of


on condition of

laws which long served as the basis of English by the conqueror's friends. Where the tithes were jurisprudence. The house of lords is the highest só appropriated, the vicar had only such a compecourt of appeal in civil causes. Courts of appeal at tency as the bishop or superior thought fit to allow, the Exchequer Chamber, in error from the judg- | Pope Alexander IV. complained of this as the bane ments of the superior and criminal courts, were of religion, the destruction of the church, and a regulated by statutes in 1830 and 1848. Appeals poison that had infected the whole nation. Lay from English tribunals to the pope were first intro- appropriations began after the dissolution of the duced about 1151, were long vainly opposed, and monasteries, 1536. were abolished by Henry VIII. 1534; restored by

APRICOT, Prunus Armeniaca, from Asia Mary, 1554; again abolished by Elizabeth, 1559. Å proposition for establishing an imperial court of Minor, said to have been first planted in England appeal submitted to the house of lords by the lord about 1540, by the gardener of llenry VIII. chancellor Hatherley, 15 April; was referred to a APRIL, the fourth month of our year, the select committee, 30 April, 1872." A similar proposi- second of the ancient Romans. tion by lord chancellor Selborne, 13 Feb. 1873. See Privy Council, and Justices, Lord.

APTERYX (wingless), a bird, a native of New

Zealand, first brought to this country in 1813, and APPENZELL, a Swiss canton, threw off the deposited in the collection of the earl of Derby. supremacy of the abbots of St. Gall early in the 15th Fossil specimens of a gigantic species of this bird century, and became the thirteenth member of the (named Dinornis) were discovered in New Zealand Swiss confederation, 1513.

by Mr. Walter Mantell in 1843 and since. APPIAN WAY, a Roman road, made by APULIA, a provi in S.E. Italy. The people Appius Claudius Cæcus, while censor, 312 B.C. favoured Hannibal, and were severely punished by APPLES. Several kinds are indigenous to

the Romans at his retreat, 207 B.C. Apulia was conEngland, but those in general use have been quered by the Normans, whose leader Guiscard rebrought at various times from the continent.

ceived the title of duke of Apulia from pope Nicho

las II. in 1059. After many changes of masters, it Richard Harris, fruiterer to Henry VIII., is said to

was absorbed into the kingdom of Naples, in 1265. have planted a great number of the orchards in Kent, and lord Scudamore, ambassador to France in AQUARII, a sect said to have been founded by the reign of Charles I., planted many of those in Tatian in the 2nd century, who forebore the use of Herefordshire. Ray reckons 78 varieties of apples wine even in the sacrament; during persecution in his day (1688). În 1866 there were 1500 varieties they met secretly at night. For this they were in the collection of the Royal Horticultural Society, censured by Cyprian (martyred, 258). many not worth cultivation.

AQUARIUM or AQUAVIVARIUM, a vessel APPORTIONMENT ACT (for rents) passed containing water (marine or fresh) in which animals I Aug. 1870.

and plants may co-exist, mutually supporting each APPRAISERS. The valuation of goods for other; snails being introduced as scurengers. In another was an early business in England; and so

1849, Mr. N. B. Ward succeeded in growing seaearly as 1283, by the statute of merchants, or of Warington demonstrated the conditions necessary

weeds in artificial sea-water; in 1850, Mr. R. Acton Burnel, "it was enacted that if they valued the goods of parties too high, the appraisers should for the growth of animals and plants in jars of take them at such price as they have limited.” In water; and in 1853 the glass tanks in the Zoological

Gardens, Regent's Park, were set up by Mr D. 1845 their annual licence was raised from 10s.

Mitchell. In 1854, Mr. Gosse published “The

Aquarium.” Mr. W. Alford Lloyd, late of PortlandAPPRENTICES. Those of London were road, London, by his enterprise in collecting speciobliged to wear blue cloaks in summer, and blue mens did much to increase the value and interest of gowns in winter, in the reign of queen Elizabeth, aquaria. The great aquarium (50 yards long and 1558. Ten pounds was then a great apprentice fee. 12 wide) at the Jardin d'Acclinatation at Paris, From twenty to one hundred pounds were given in was constructed under his direction in 1860. He the reign of James I. Stow's Survey. The appren- also constructed the aquarium at Hamburg. That tice tax enacted 43 Geo. III. 1802. The term of at Brighton was inaugurated by prince Arthur, 30 seven years, not to expire till the apprentice was March, and publicly opened by the mayor, 10 Aug. 24 years old, required by the statute of Elizabeth 1872. The great aquarium at the Crystal Palace was (1563), was abolished in 1814. An act for the pro- opened, Jan. 1872. tection of apprentices, &c., was passed in 1851. The

AQUATINT, see Engraring. apprentices of London have been at times very riotous; they rose into insurrection against foreigners AQUEDUCT, an artificial watercourse on an on Evil Ilay-day (which see).

inclined plane. Appius Claudius advised and conAPPROPRIATION CLAUSE, of the Irish Appian way, about 312 B.C. There are now some

structed the first Roman aqueduct, as well as the Tithe Bill of 1835, brought forward by lord John remarkable aqueducts in Europe : that at Lisbon is Russell

, whereby any surplus revenue that might of great extent and beauty; that at Segovia has priated for the education of all classes of the people. 129 arches; and that at Versailles is three miles The principle was adopted by the commons, but long, and of immense height, with 242 arches in

three stories. The stupendous aqueduct on the rejected by the lords in 1835 and 1836, and was

Ellesmere canal, in England (1007 feet in length, abandoned.

and 126 feet high) was completed by T. Telford, APPROPRIATIONS (property taken from and opened 26 Dec. 1805. The Lisbon aqueduct the church), began in the time of William I. The was completed in 1738, and the Croton aqueduct, parochial clergy, then commonly Saxons, were im- near New York, was constructed between 1837 and poverished by the bishops and liigher clergy (gene. 1842. The aqueduct to supply Marseilles" with rally Normans) to enrich the monasteries possessed water was commenced in 1830. An aqueduct to

to 405.

supply London with water from the Welsh lakes ARANJUEZ (Central Spain), contains a fine was proposed by Mr. J. F. Bateman in 1865. royal palace, at which several important treaties AQUILA, S. Italy. Near here the Arragonese tion broke out here against Charles IV. and his

were concluded. On 17 March, 1808, an insurrecunder the condottiere Braccio Forte-Braccio were favourite, Godoy, the prince of peace. The former defeated by the allied Papal, Neapolitan, and Milanese army under Jacob Caldora, 2 June, 1424. Ferdinand VII., 19 March.

was compelled to abdicate in favour of his son, Braccio, a wounded prisoner, refused to take food, and died, 5 June.

ARAUCANIA, a province in S. America. Its

inhabitants maintained almost unceasing war with AQUILEIA (Istria), made a Roman colony the Spaniards from 1537 to 1773, when their indeabout 180 B.C. and fortitied A. D. 168. Constantine pendence was recognised. They are now nominally II, was slain in a battle with Constans, fought at subject to Chili. Aquileia towards the close of March 340. Maximus defeated and slain by Theodosius, near Aquileia, 28

ARAUSIO (now ORANGE), S. E. France. July, 388. Theodosius defeated Eugenius and Through the jealousy of the Roman proconsul Arbogastes, the Gaul, near Aquileia, and remained Q. Servilius Cæpio, who would not wait for the sole emperor, 6 Sept. 394. Eugenius was put to

arrival of the army of the consul C. Manlius, both death, and Arbogastes died by his own hand, mor- were defeated here by the Cimbri with much tified by his overthrow. St. Ambrose held a synod slaughter, 105 B. C. here in 381. In 452 Aquileia was almost totally ARBELA. The third and decisive battle bedestroyed by Attila the Hun, and near it in 489 tween Alexander the Great and Darius Codomanus Theodoric and the Ostrogoths totally defeated decided the fate of Persia, 1 Oct. 331 B.C., on a Odoacer, the king of Italy.

plain in Assyria, between Arbela and Gaugamela. AQUITAINE, the Roman province Aquitania The army of Darius consisted of 1,000,000 foot and (S. W. France), conquered by the Romans 28 b. c.; 40,000 horse; the Macedonian army amounted to by the Visgoths, A. D. 418; taken from them by only 40,000 foot and 7000 horse. Arrian. The gold Clovis in 507. Henry II. of England obtained it and silver found in the cities of Susa, Persepolis, with his wife Eleanor, 1152. It was erected into a

and Babylon, which fell to Alexander from this principality for Edward the Black Prince in 1362; victory, amounted to thirty millions sterling; and but was annexed to France in 1370. The title of the jewels and other precious spoil, belonging to duke of Aquitaine was taken by the crown of Darius, sufficed to load 20,000 mules and 5000 England on the conquest of this duchy by Henry v. camels. Plutarch. in 1418. The province was lost in the reign of ARBITRATION. Submission to arbitration Henry VI.

was authorised and made equivalent in force to the ARABIA (W. Asia). The terms Petroa (stony), decision of a jury, by 9 & 10 Will. III. (1698). Felir (happy), and Deserta are said to have been Submissions to arbitration may be made rules of applied to its divisions by Ptolemy, about A. D. 140. any court of law or equity, and arbitrators may The Arabs claim descent from Ishmael, the eldest compel the attendance of witnesses, 3 & 4 Will. IV. son of Abraham, born 1910 B. C. Gen. xvi. Arabia

C. 42 (1833); see Ouzel Galley. The Common Law was unsuccessfully invaded by Gallus, the Roman Procedure Act (1854) authorises the judges of governor of Egypt, 24 B. c. In A.D. 622, the superior courts to order compulsory arbitration ; Arabians under the name of Saracens, followers of and, by an act passed in 1859, railway companies Mahomet (born at Mecca, 570), their general and may settle disputes with each other by arbitration. prophet, commenced their course of conquest ; see

The Arbitration (Masters and Workmen) Act was Mahometanism. Arabia was conquered by the passed 6 Aug. 1872. See Prud'hommes. Ottomans 1518-39. The Arabs greatly favoured literature and the sciences, especially mathematics, strawberry-tree, was brought to England from the

ARBUTUS. The Arbutus Andrachne, oriental astronomy, and chemistry. The Koran was written Levant about 1724. in Arabic (622-632). 'l'he Bible was printed in Arabic in 1671. Sce Wanabees.

ARCADES, or walks arched over. The princi

pal in London are the Burlington-arcade, opened ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAIN

20 March, 1819; and the Lowther-arcade, Strand, MENTS (or 1001 Tales) were translated into opened 1831; see Strand, and Exeter Change. The French by Galland, and published in 1704; but Royal-arcade, Dublin, opened June, 1820, was burnt their authenticity was not acknowledged till many to the ground, 25 April, 1837. years after. The best English translation from the Arabic is that of Mr. E. W. Lane, published in

ARCADIA, in the centre of the Peloponnesus, 1839, with valuable notes and beautiful illustra- Greece, named after Arcas, a king. The Arcadians tions.

regarded their nation as the most ancient of Greece,

and older than the moon (Proselēni, which word ARABIC FIGURES, (1, 2, 3, &c.) see Arith- Döderlein conjectures to mean Pre-Hellenic). metic.

Pelasgus is said to have taught them to feed on ARABICI, a sect which sprung up in Arabia, former food ; for which they honoured him as a

acorns, as being more nutritious than herbs, their about 207, whose distinguishing tenet was, that the soul dies with the body, and will rise again with it. god, 15?. B.C. Arcadia had twenty-five kings,

whose history is altogether fabulous. ARAGON, part of the Roman Tarraconensis, a Magna Græcia, in S. Italy, said to have been kingdom, N.E. Spain, was conquered by the Car- colonised by Arcadians under Enotrus, about thaginians, who were expelled by the Romans about 1710 B.C. ; and under Evander 200 B. C. It became an indepeodent monarchy in Pelasgus begins his reign

Supposed institution of the Lupercalia, in honour A.D. 1035; see Spain.

of Jupiter by Lycaon, who reigned

Areas taught his subjects agriculture and to spin ARAM, the ancient Dame of Syria (which sce).

B.C. 1240





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