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There were ten, and sometimes as many as eighteen, lord of Connaught, by Dermot king of Leinster in legions kept at Rome. Augustus had a standing 1152, is asserted to have led to the landing of the army of 45 legions, together with 25,000 horse and English and the subsequent conquest. The province 37.000 light-armed troops, about 5 B.C.; and the of Leinster gave the title of duke to Schomberg's peace establishment of Adrian was thirty of these son in 1690. The title became extinct in 1719, and formidable brigades. A legion was divided into ten was conferred on the family of Fitzgerald in 1766. cohorts, and every cohort into six centuries, with a vexillum, or standard, guarded by ten men. The for its university (founded 1409) and its fair (1458).

LEIPSIC. (Saxony), an ancient city, famous peace

Britain was protected by three legions. At Breitenfeld, near here, Gustavus Adolphus, king The French army has been divided into legions of Sweden, defeated the Imperialists, under Tilly, since Francis I. See Thundering Legion.

7 Sept. 1631; and the Imperialists were again LEGION OF HONOUR, a French order defeated here by the Swedes, under Torstensen, 23 embracing the army, civil officers, and other indi- Oct. 1642. Here took place, on 16, 18, 19 Oct. 1813, viduals distinguished for services to the state; " the battle of the nations,” between the French instituted by Napoleon Bonaparte, when first consul, army and its allies, commanded by Napoleon 19 May, 1802. The order was confirmed by Louis (160,000), and the Austrian, Russian, and Prussian XVIII'in 1815, and its constitution modified in armies (240,000 strong). The French were beaten 1816 and 1851. The honour was conferred on many chiefly owing to 17 Saxon battalions, their allies, British subjects who distinguished themselves in turning upon them in the heat of the engagement. the Russian war, 1854-6, and in the Paris exhibitions 80,000 men perished on the field, of whom more of 1855 and 1867. The palace and offices were burnt than 40,000 were French, who also lost 65 pieces of by the communalists, 23 May, 1871.

artillery, and many standards. The victory was LEGITIMISTS, a term (since 1814) applied followed by the capture of Leipsie, of the rear of the Bourbon family to the throne of France: brated 18 Oct. 1863. The Leipsic book fair began to those who support the claims of the elder branch guard of the French army, and of the king of Sasony whose present representative is Henry, duc de Bordeaux, called comte de Chambord, born 29 Sept. 1545. 1820. They held a congress at Lucerne on 24-29 LEITH, the port of Edinburgh, was burnt by June, 1862, and agreed to continue a pacific policy. the earl of Hertford in 1544. It was fortified by the The party was active in Feb. 1871. Their efforts to French partisans of queen Mary in 1560, and recover power have proved ineffectual; see France. surrendered to the English. The “ Agreement of LEGNAGO, a fortress on the Adige, N. Italy, Leith” between the superinteudents and ministers

was made, Jan. 1572. The docks were begun one of the Quadrilateral. It was captured by the French in 1796; but reverted to the Austrians in 1720. 1815. It was surrendered to the Italians in Oct. LEITHA, a river dividing the Austrian terri1866.

tories; see Austria. LEGNANO, Lombardy. Here the emperor LELEGES, a Pelasgic tribe which inhabited Frederick Barbarossa was defeated by the Milanese Laconia about 1490 B.C., and after many contests and their allies 29 May, 1176, and the treaty of Con- merged into the Hellenes. stance ensued in 1183.

LE MANS, a French city, department of the LEICESTER (central England), a bishopric Sarthe. Here the retreating French general Chanzy for a short time in the 8th century, returned two

was overtaken and defeated by the Germans under members to parliament in the reign of Edward I. prince Frederick Charles and the grand-duke of Here Richard III. was buried 25 Aug. 1485; and Mecklenburg, after some conflicts : 10, 11 Jan. 1871. here cardinal Wolsey died, 29 Nov. 1530. During Le Mans was entered 12 Jan. In six days' fighting the civil war, Leicester was taken by Charles I. 31 about 22,000 French made prisoners. May, and by Fairfax, 17 June, 1645. The stocking LEMURES. The ancients supposed that the manufacture was introduced in 1680.

soul, after death, wandered over the world, and LEIGHLIN (W. Carlow), a see founded by disturbed the peace of the living.

The happy St. Laserian, about 628. Burchard, the Norwegian, spirits were called Lares familiares, and the the son of Garmond, founded or endowed the priory unhappy, Lemures. The Roman festival, Lemuof St. Stephen of Leighlin. Bishop Doran, appointed ralia, kept on 9, 11, 13. May, is said to hare been in 1523, was murdered by his archdeacon, Maurice instituted by Romulus about 747 E.C., to propitiate Cavenagh, who was hanged on the spot where the the spirit of the slaughtered Remus. crime was committed. Beatson. In 1600 Leighlin was united to Ferns; the combined sce united to forty days fast observed in the Roman catholic

LENT (from the Saxon, lencten, spring). The Ossory in 1835; see Ferns and Bishops.

church from Ash-Wednesday to Easter-day, said to LEININGEN (or LINANGE), a principality have been instituted by pope Telesphorus, 130. In partly in Bavaria, Baden, and Hesse, mediatised in early times Lent commenced on the Sunday, now 1806. The present prince Ernest, born 9 Nov. 1830, called the first Sunday in Lent; and the four days a captain in the British navy, is the son of prince beginning with Ash-Wednesday were added by pope Charles, the half-brother of queen Victoria. Feodore, Felix Ill., in 487, in order that the fasting days dowager princess of Hohenlohe Langenburg, the should amount to forty. Lent was first observed in queen's half-sister, died 23 Sept. 1872, aged nearly England by command of Ercombert, king of Kent, 65. The first husband of the duchess of Kent, in 640 or 641. Baker's Chron. Flesh was prohibited prince Enrich of Leiningen, died 4 July, 1814. during Lent; but Henry VIII. permitted the use of

LEINSTER, a kingdom in 1167, now one of white meats by a proclamation in 1543, which conthe four provinces of Ireland, divided into four tinued in force until, by proclamation of James I., archbishoprics by pope Eugenius III., at a national in 1619 and 1625, and by Charles I., in 1627 and synod, held at Kells, 9 March, 1151-2, and in which 1631, flesh was again wholly forbidden ; see Ashhis holiness was represented by cardinal Paparo.

Wednesday, Quadragesima.
The abduction of Devorgilla, wife of O'Ruare, a LEON, KINGDOM OF, see under Spain.

LEONARDS' ACTS, LORD ST., 22 & 23 LEVELLERS, a fanatical party in Germany, Vict. c. 35; 23 & 24 Vict. c. 38 (1859-60), relate to headed by Muncer and Storck in the 16th century. legal proceedings.

who taught that all distinctions of rank were usurpaLEONINE CITY (Città Leonina or Borgo), tions on the rights of mankind. At the head of formerly a suburb, now included in the city of 40,000 men, Muncer commanded the sovereign Rome, was founded by Leo 1V., pope 847-55,

and princes of Germany and the magistrates of cities to named Leopolis. It comprehends the castle of St. resign their authority; and on his march his followers Angelo, the hospital of San Spirito, the Vatican ravaged the country. The landgrave of Hesse at

him palace and gardens, and St. Peter's. 'Its possession length defeate at Frankenhausen, 15 May, was allotted to pope Pius IX. when the Italian royal 1525; 7000 of the enthusiasts fell in the battle, and troops entered Rome, 20 Sept. 1870. About 1500 the

rest fled; their leader was taken and beheaded inhabitants of the Leonine city voted for union with in parliament in 1647, were put down by Cromwell the kingdom of Italy, 2 Oct. 1870.

in 1649, and their leader Lilburn imprisoned. At LEONINES, hexameter and pentameter verses, the period of the French revolution some Levellers rhyming at the middle and the end, are said to have appeared in England. A " Loyal Association” was been first made by Leoninus, a canon, about the formed against them by Mr. John Reeves, Nov. middle of the 12th century, or by pope Leo II. | 1792. about 682. LEPANTO (near Corinth), Battle of, 7 Oct. low-lying district of about 2000 square miles, in

LEVELS. The great Level of the Fens is a 1571: when the combined feets of Spain, Venice, Lincolnshire, Huntingdonshire, Cambridgeshire, and Genoa, Malta, and Pius V., commanded by don Norfolk, said to have been overflown by the sea John of Austria, defeated the whole maritime force during an earthquake, 368. It was long afterwards of the Turks, and completely checked their pro an inland sea in winter, and a noxious swamp in gress.

summer, and was gradually drained-by the Romans, LEPROSY, a skin disease described in Leviticus the Saxons, and especially by the monks during the xüi. (B.C. 1490), which prevailed in ancient times reigns of the Plantagenet kings. One of the first throughout Asia. It has now almost disappeared works on a large scale was carried out by Morton, from Europe. It chiefly affected the lower classes, bishop of Ely, in the reign of Henry VII. "A general yet occasionally proved fatal to the very highest drainage act was passed by the advice of lord Burghpersonages. Robert Bruce of Scotland died of leprosy ley, in 1601, but little work was done till the reign in 1329. A hospital for lepers was founded at of James I., who, in 1621, invited over the great Granada, by queen Isabella of Castile, about 1504, Dutch engineer, Cornelius Vermuyden, to assist in and a large number of leper houses were founded in the general drainage of the country. After completBritain. Dr. Edmondson met with a case in Edin- ing several great works, Vermuyden agreed (in 1629) burgh in 1809.

to drain the “Great Level, He was at first LERIDA, the ancient Ilerda, E. Spain, founded prevented from proceeding with his undertaking by the Carthaginians. Near it Julius Cæsar de through a popular outery against foreigners ; but feated Pompey's lieutenants, 49 B.C.

eventually, aided by Francis, earl of Bedford, in

It was made the residence of the kings of Aragon, 1149. It was

spite of the great opposition of the people, for whose captured for Philip V. by the French under the duke complete in 1652. He also reclaimed much valuable

benefit he was labouring, he declared his great work of Orleans, 13 Oct. 1707, and by Suchet, 13 May, land at Axholme, in Lincolnshire, 1626-30, and 1810.

many Dutch and French protestants settled here LESSONS, see Common Prayer.

about 1634; and a few of their descendants still LETTERS, see Alphabet, Anonymous, Belles remain. There are the Middle, Bedford, South, Lettres, Copying Machine, Epistles, Literature, Marque, and Privateers.

The drainage of the Great Level employed the LETTRES DE CACHET, sealed letters

talents of Rennie (about 1807), and of Telford

(1822), and of other eminent engineers. issued by the kings of France since about 1670, by The Middle Level commission cut through certain virtue of which those persons against whom they barrier banks, and replaced them by other works 1844 were directed were thrown into prison or exiled. These were reported unsound in March, and the The National Assembly decreed their abolition, i

outfall sluice at St. Germains, near King's Lynn, Nov. 1789.


4 May, 1862

High tides ensuing, about 6000 acres of fertile land LETTUCE, introduced into England from were inundated, causing a loss of about 25,000l. Flanders about 1520. It is said that when queen

After unwearied, and, for a while, unsuccessful Catherine wished for a salad, she had to send to

efforts, a new coffer dam was constructed under Holland or Flanders for lettuce.

the superintendence of Mr. Hawkshaw, which was reported sound

July, 1862 LEUCTRA, in Baotia, N. Greece, where the

Another inundation, begun through the bursting

of a marshland sluice, near Lynn, was checked Thebans under Epaminondas defeated the superior

4 Oct. 1862 force of Cleombrotus, king of Sparta, 8 July, 371 B.C. 4000 Spartans, with their king, were slain. The LEVERIAN MUSEUM, formed by sir AshSpartans gradually lost their preponderance in ton Lever, exhibited to the public at LeicesterGreece.

house, London; it was offered to the public, in LEUDES, from the German, Leute, people. 1785, by the chance of a guinea lottery, and won by Native feudal vassals, faithful to the German and

Mr. Parkinson, in 1785, who sold it by auction, in French sovereigns in the 6th and 7th centuries.

lots, May-July, 1806. LEUTHEN (S. Prussia); see Lissa.

LEVIATHAN, see Steam Navigation. LEVANT (the East), a term applied to Greece, LEWES (Sussex), where Henry III., king of Turkey, Asia Minor, &c. Levant companies, in England, was defeated by Montfort, earl of Leicester, London, were established in 1581, 1593, and 1605. and the barons, 14 May, 1264. Blaauw. The


king, his brother Richard, king of the Romans, and The severity of the law in respect to newspapers his son Edward, afterwards Edward I., were taken relaxed by lord Campbell's act, 6 & 7 Vict. c. 96. 1843 prisoners. One division of Montfort's army, a body A bill relieving newspapers from actions for libel in

reporting speeches at lawful public meetings, read of Londoners, gave way to the furious attack of

third time in the commons, Aug. 1867, but prince Edward, who, pursuing the fugitives too far,

dropped ; read and time 1 April; and withdrawn, caused the battle to be lost; see Evesham.

1 July, 1868

Wason v. Walter (“Times"); parliamentary reports LEXICON, see Dictionaries, and Lexicography.

and fair comments, declared no libel 25 Nov. 1868 LEXINGTON (Massachusetts), Battle of, at LIBERIA, the republic of freed and indigenous the beginning of the war of independence. The negros on the coast of Upper Guinea, West Africa, British obtained the advantage, and destroyed the was founded in 1822 by the American Colonisation stores of the revolted colonists, but lost in the battle Society, which was established by Henry Clay in 273 men, killed and wounded, 19 April, 1775. The 1816: capital, Monrovia. The independence of Lihostilities thus commenced continued to 1783.– beria was proclaimed, 24. Aug. 1847 ; recognised by LEXINGTON, a town in Missouri, U.S., fortified by Europe in 1848, by America, in 1861. It is stated the Federals, was attacked by the confederate general to be tourishing. The president visited the InterPrice, on 29 Aug. ; and after a gallant resistance by national Exhibition of London in 1862. Presidents: colonel Mulligan, surrendered on 21 Sept. 1861. Daniel B. Warner, elected 1864; James Spriggs LEYDEN (Holland), Lugdunum Batavorum, Jan. 1870, was deposed, Oct. 1871; escaped from

Payne installed 6 Jan. 1868; E. J. Roy, president, important in the 13th century. Between 31 Oct; prison ; drowned, Feb. '1872. J. J. Roberts, the 1573, and 3 Oct. 1574, when it was relieved, it endured first president, was re-elected Jan. 1872. Populatwo sieges by the armies of Spain, during which 6000 tion, about 700,000. of the inhabitants died of famine and pestilence. In commemoration the university was founded, 1575. LIBERTINES (signifying freedmen and their In 1699 two-thirds of the population perished by a sons), was a sect headed by Quintin, and Corin, fever, which, it was said, was aggravated by its about 1525, who held monstrous opinions. improper treatment by professor De la Boe. The

LIBRARIES. The first public library of university was almost destroyed by a vessel laden with 10,000 lbs. weight of gunpowder blowing up,

which we have any certain account in history was and demolishing a large part of the town, and killing The second of note was founded by Ptolemy Phila

founded at Athens by Pisistratus, about 540 B.C. numbers of people, 12 Jan. 1807. The Leyden jar delphus, 284 B.C. It was partially destroyed when was invented about 1745, by Kleist, Muschenbroek, Julius Cæsar set fire to Alexandria 47 B.c. 400,000 and others; see Electricity.

valuable books in MS. are said to have been lost by LIBEL: By the Roman laws of the Twelve this catastrophe. Blair. Tables, libels which affected the reputation of another were made capital offences. In the British law, The first library at Rome brought from Macedonia

The first private library was Aristotle's. Strabo. B.C.

107 whatever renders a man ridiculous, or lowers a man According to Plutarch, the library at Pergamos conin the opinion and esteem of the world, is deemed a tained 200,000 books. It came into the posseslibel. “The greater the truth the greater the libel,” sion of the Romans at the death of Attalus III., the well known law maxim of a high authority, is

who bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people 133 now disputed ; see Trials, 1788, 1790, 1792, 1803, The library of Appellicon, sent to Rome from

86 1808 et seq., 1863; and (note) Patents and Times.

Library founded at Constantinople by Constantine, A.D. Dispersing slanderous libels made felony

An Alexandrian library, said to have been burnt by Wm. Prynne, a puritan lawyer, fined 5000l., placed

the caliph Omer I. .

640 in the pillory, where his ears were cut off, and Library at St. Mark's, Venice, begun, by gifts from imprisoned, for writing “Histriomastix," a con

Petrarch, 1352 ; enlarged by cardinal Bessarion 1468 demnation of stage plays ; which was considered

Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, collected a to be a libel on the queen, who favoured them,

library of nearly 500,000 volumes at Buda ; died . 1490 1633 : he was tried and further punished for his

The tirst public library in Italy founded at Florence satirical writings in


by Niccolo Niccoli, one of the great restorers of Fox's libel bill, which enlarged the discretionary

learning. At his death he left his library to the power of juries in cases of libel, thrown out by the

public, 1436. Cosmo de' Medici enriched it with lords in 1791 ; passed in 1792 the invaluable Greek and Hebrew MSS.

about 1560 Blasphemous and seditious libels, on the second

The Vatican Library at Rome, founded by pope ottence, made punishable with transportation


Nicholas V. in 1447, and improved by Sixtus V., 1588 An action for libel was brought in the court of

(contained about 150,000 volumes and 40,000 King's Bench by a bookseller named Stockdale,

MSS., 1868) against Messrs. Hansard, the printers to the house this action related to an opinion

Imperial Library of Vienna, founded by Frederick of commons ;

III. in 1440, and by Maximilian I.

• 1500 expressed in a parliamentary report of a book Royal Library of Paris, founded by John 1350, enpublished by Stockdale, 7 Nov. 1836. Lord Den

larged by Charles V., 1364 ; said to contain 815,000 man, in giving judgment, said he was not aware

volumes and 84,000 MSS. in 1860. A new readingthat the authority of the house of commons could

room has been built. justify the publication of a libel-an opinion

Royal Libraries founded at Copenhagen by Christian which led to some proceedings on the part of the

III, about 1533 : at Stockholm, by Gustavus Vasa, house, and to other actions by Stockdale

1837-39 about 1540 ; at Munich, by Albert III., about 1550 Verdicts were given in his favour, and in Nov. 1839,

Escurial at Madrid, commenced with the foundation the sheriff's took possession of Hansard's premises.

of the palace, by Philip II.

1557 This caused much excitement in parliament, and Harvard University Library (see Harvard), Massathey were ordered to appear at the bar of the

chusetts, U.S., founded 1632, endowed

1638 house of cominons, and were formally committed

Imperial Library at St. Petersburg (principally the to the custody of the serjeant-at-arins, 21 Jan.,

spoils of Poland), founded

1714 but immediately discharged: the conflict was Astor Free Public Library, New York, founded by maintained by the law officers and the commons

John Jacob Astor, by gift of 80,00ol.

May, 1840 A law was passed giving summary protection to

persons employed by parliament in the publication Richard de Bury, chancellor and high treasurer of of its reports and papers

14 April,

England, purchased thirty or forty volumes of the

about 355





abbot of St. Alban's for fifty pounds' weight of LICHFIELD (Staffordshire). The see of silver.

1341 University Library, St. Andrew's, founded

Mercia (at Lichtield) was founded about 656; re

• 1411 Glasgow University Library, founded about

moved to Chester, 1075; to Coventry, 1102. In 1121

1473 Sion College Library, founded


Robert Peche was consecrated bishop of Lichfield Royal Society Library, founded

1667 and Coventry. By an order in council, Jan. 1837, Harleian Library (which see) begun

• 1705

the archdeaconry of Coventry was added to the see University Library, Cambridge, founded 1475 ; Geo.

of Worcester, and Dr. Samuel Butler became bishop 1. gave 6ooo guineas to purchase Dr. Moore's col

of Lichfield. This see has given three saints to the lection

1715 Bodleian Library at Oxford, founded 1598; opened

Romish church; and to the British nation one lord 8 Nov. 1602 ; contains nearly 400,000 volumes and

chancellor and three lord treasurers. It is valued upwards of 30,000 MSS.

in the king's books at 559l. 188. 2d. Present income, Cottonian Library, founded by Sir Robert Cotton 45001

about 1588 ; appropriated to the public, 1701 ; partly destroyed by fire, 1731 ; removed to the

Lichfield cathedral was first built about 656; the preBritish Museum (which see)

sent structure was founded by Roger de Clinton, the

1753 Radcliffe Library at Oxford, founded by the will of

37th bishop, in 1148. Walter de Langton (bishop in Dr. Radcliffe, 1714; opened


1296), built the chapel of St. Mary, now taken into the The Libraries of the Royal Institution (founded choir, and under bishop Heyworth (1420) the cathedral 1803), the London Institution (1805), and the

was perfected. The building was despoiled at the Royal College of Surgeons (1786), have classified

Reformation, and was scandalously injured in the parcatalogues.

liamentary war (when its monuments, its fine sculpLibrary of the University of Dublin (1601), and the

tures, and beautifully painted windows, were demoAdvocates' Library in Edinburgh (1680), are ex

lished). It was repaired at the restoration, 1660; in tensive and valuable.

1788; and by Gilbert G. Scott, 1860-63. Library of East India Company, founded


In Lichfield castle, king Richard II. kept his Christmas Royal Libraries in England : that of Edward iv., festival, 1397, when 200 tuns of wine and 2000 oxen mentioned 1480, increased in the reigns of Edw.

were consumed. A charter was granted to Lichtield, VI. and James I. ; much enlarged by Richard

constituting it a city, by Edward VI., 1549. Bentley, while librarian, 1694-1735; added to the

British Museuin by Geo. II., 1759 ; rich library of 1781. James, earl of Cornwallis, died 1824.
Geo. III., presented to the nation, 1823; deposited 1824. Hon. Henry Ryder, died 31 March, 1836.
in the British Museum

1829 In 1609 the Stationers' Company agreed to give a

BISHOPS OF LICHFIELD. copy of every book published, to the Bodleian 18 36. Samuel Butler, died 4 Dec. 1839. Library, Oxford. By 14 Charles II. e. 33 (1662), 1839. James Bowstead, died 11 Oct. 1843. three copies were required to be given to certain

1843. John Lonslade, died 19 Oct. 1867. public libraries ; by 8 Anne, c. 19 (1709), the num.

1867. Geo. Aug. Selwyn, late bishop of N. Zealand. ber was increased to nine; by 41 Geo. III. c. 107,

LICHFIELD HOUSE COMPACT, said to eleven ; which number was reduced to five by

to have been made between the Whig government 5 & 6 Will. IV. C. 110 (1835): the British Museum, the Bodleian, Oxford, the Public Library, Cam and Daniel O'Connell in 1835 at Lichfield-house, bridge, the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, and 13, St. James's-square. Trinity College, Dublin.

LICINIAN LAWS. In 375 B.C., C. Licinius FREE LIBRARIES successfully established, since 1850, Stolo and L. Sextius, tribunes of the people, pro

at Manchester, Liverpool, Salford, &c. Many others forned under aets

passed in 1845, 1850 & 1856 mulgated various rogationes or laws to weaken the On 5 Nov. 1855, a proposal to establish a Free Li

power of the patricians and benefit the plebs: one brary in the city of London was negatived, and was to relieve the plebeians from their debts ; in 1857 that in Marylebone was closed for want of another enacted that no person should possess more support.

than 500 jugera of the public land, or more than The new city library, Guildhall (free) was opened

100 head of large cattle, or 500 of small, in the

5 Nov. 1872 Roman states; and the third, that one of the conSee Circulating Library.

suls should be a plebeian. After much opposition LIBYA (Africa), was conquered by the Persians, these were carried, and L. Sextius became the first 524 B.C., and by Ptolemy Soter, 320.

plebeian consul, 365. Another law, 56 B.C., of this LICENCES. This mode of levying money was societies assembled for election purposes; and

mame, imposed a severe penalty on party clubs, or introduced by Richard I. about 1190 ; but was then another, about 103 B.C. (brought forward by P. confined to such of the nobility as desired to enter

Licinius Crassus), limited the expenses of the the lists at tournaments.

table. Games and gaming-houses licensed in London 1620

LIEBENAU (Bohemia). Here was fought Licence system for excisable articles enforced in various reigns, froin the 12th Charles II.


the first action of the seven weeks' war, 26 June, Lottery offee-keepers to take out licences, and pay 1866; when the Austrians were compelled to 501. for each. This reduced the number from

retreat by the Prussians under general Von Horne.

Aug. 1778 General licensing act, ý Geo. iv. c. 61

1828 LIECHTENSTEIN, a principality, S. GerLicences for public-houses granted in 1551, and for many. Population, in 1867, 8320. Constitutional refreshment-houses, with wine licences

1860 charter, 26 Sept. 1862. Prince John II., born 5 The licensing system was applied to India as a kind

Oct. 1840, succeeded his father Alois-Joseph, 12 of income-tax, 1859: ceased in

1861 Licences for the sale of tea, coffee, chocolate, and

Nov. 1858. pepper were abolished and other licences modified

LIEGE (Belgium), a bishopric, under the Gerby acts passed in

1860-70 Licensing Reform Agitation


man empire, from the 8th century till 1795. Liege Acts for licensing plays and playhouses by the lord frequently revolted against its prince-bishops.

chamberlain, were passed in 1736 (10 Geo. II. After a severe contest, the citizens were beaten at e. 28); and in 1843 (6 & 7 Vict. c. 68); and for Brusthem, 28 Oct. 1467, and Liege taken by Charles music and dancing in publie-houses, in 1752 (25

the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who treated them with Geo. II. c. 36).

great severity. In 1482 Liege fell into the power Neu licensing net, regulating the sale of intoxicating liquors ; very much opposed ; passed and came

of De la Marck, the Boar of Ardennes, who killed into operation. 10 Aug. 1872 the bishop, Louis of Bourbon, and was himself



to 51

defeated and killed. Liege was taken by the duke of Marlborough, 23 Oct. 1702; and by the French and others, at various times, up to 1796, when it was annexed to France. It was incorporated with the Netherlands in 1814, and with Belgium in 1830. Iron-works were established at Liege in the 16th century. An international volunteer shooting contest held here, Sept. 1869.

LIEGNITZ, see Pfaffendorf.

LIEUTENANTS, LORD, for counties, were instituted in England, 3 Edw. VI., 1549, and in Ireland in 1831. Their military jurisdiction abolished by Army Regulation Act, 1871. For the lords lieutenants of Ireland, see Ireland.

LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANIES ACT, passed 9 Aug. 1870, requires the companies to publish annual returns of receipts, expenditure, &c.

LIFE BOAT, &c., see Wrecks. Patent granted to Mr. Lukin for a life-boat

1785 A reward, offered by a committee in South Shields

for a life-boat, 1788, obtained by Mr. Henry Greathead, of that town (he received 1200l. from parliament), 1789; it first put to sea

30 Jan. 1790 31 life-boats built, and


lives saved up to 1804 The duke of Northumberland offered a reward of

105l. for a life-boat fulfilling certain conditions, 1850 ; obtained by Mr. James Beeching, of Yarmouth

1851 The tubular life-boat of Mr. H. Richardson, the Challenger, patented in Jan, ; a cruise was made by him from Liverpool to London in it

1852 The National Life-boat Institution, founded in 1824;

its journal first published, 1852. In 1856 its funds
were enlarged by a bequest of 10,00ol. from

Hamilton Fitzgerald, esq.
Report to Dec. 1872, 21,465 lives had been saved by

its life-boats ; 658 lives and 31 vessels saved in

1871 ; 548 lives and 25 ships saved in 1872. 185 life-boats in the United Kingdom, 1865; 264,

1870. Hans Busk Life-ship Institute founded The American Life-raft, composed of cylinders

lashed together, sailed from New York, 4 June,
1867, navigated by three men, capt John Mikes
and Messrs. Miller and Mullane, and arrived at

Southampton, 25 July following.
LIFE-PRESERVER, the apparatus of capt. Manby

(brought into use in Feb. 1808), effects a com-
munication with the distressed vessel by a rope,
thrown by a shot from a mortar, with a line
attached to it. For the night, a night-ball is
provided with a hollow case of thick pasteboard,
and a fuse and quick match, and charged with
fifty balls, and a sufficiency of powder to inflame
them. The fuze is so graduated that the shell
shall explode at the height of 300 yards. The
balls spread a brilliant light for nearly a minute,
and give a clear view of every surrounding object.
In 20 years, 58 vessels and 410 of their crews and
passengers had been saved. Capt. Man by died

18 Nov. 1854, aged 89. The Boat-LOWERING APPARATUS, in consequence

of many being lost when boats were lowered froin the Amazon in 1852, invented by Mr. Charles Clifford, of London, in 1856, has been much approved of, and has been generally adopted in the royal navy Capt. Kynaston's hooks were approved by admiral

sir Baldwin Walker in 1862, and by a committee

on the subject in 1872.
Exhibition of life-boats, life-rafts, &c., at the

London Tavern opened 15 April, 1873.
LIFE GUARDS, see Guards.
LIFE INSURANCE, see Insurance.

LIFE-PEERAGES. A bill for creating them was read a second time in the lords, 27 April, 1869, but afterwards rejected.

LIFE SHIPS. To promote the construction and use of these the Hans Busk Life Ship Institute was founded, Oct. 1869.

LIGHT. The law of refraction discorered by Snellius, about 1624. The motion and velocity of light discovered by Reaumur, and after him by Cassini, and calculated by Ramer (1676) and Bradley (1720). Its velocity' ascertained to be about 190,000,000 of miles in sixteen minutes, or nearly 200,000 miles in a second, which is a million of times swifter than the velocity of a cannon ball, about 1667. The light of the sun takes eight minutes and eight seconds for its transmission through the space to the earth. The undulatory theory of light, its polarisation, and its chemical action, have all been made known in the present century by Dr. Thos. Young, Fresnel, Malus, Arago, Biot, Brewster, Wheatstone, Ritter, Niepce, Daguerre, Talbot, Tyndall, &c.; see Optics, Photography, Calorescence, Fluorescence.

LIGHTHOUSE, called Pharos (now phare, French; faro, Italian), from one erected at Pharos, near Alexandria, Egypt, 550 feet high, said to have been visible forty-two miles, about 285 B.C. There was one at Messina, at Rhodes, &c. 'The light was obtained by fires. A coal-fire light was exhibited at Tynemouth castle, Northumberland, about 1638. The first true lighthouse erected in England was the Eddystone lighthouse (which see) in 1758-60. Lights were exhibited in various places by the corporation of the Trinity-house early in the 16th century. 2814 lighthouses in the world (1867).

The Commissioners on Lights, &c. (1861), report 171

shorelights in England, 113 in Scotland, and 73 in

Ireland (total, 357); and 47 floating-lights. 6 lighthouses building, April, 1867. The French have 224 lighthouses on shore. The source of light in our lighthouses is principally oil ; but in harbour lights gas has been successfully used. Glass reflectors were used in 1780, and copper ones in 1807. A common coal-fire light was discontinued at St. Bees so recently as 1822. Fresnel's Dioptric system (which see), devised about 1819, was adopted for the first time in England by Messrs. Wilkins, at the direction of the corporation of the Trinity-house,

1 July, 1836. The most brilliant artificial light ever produceil-derived

from magneto-electricity by a machine devised by
professor Holmes-was first employed at the South
Foreland lighthouse, near Dover, on 8 Dec. 1858 ; and
at Dengeness (or Dungeness) in 1862. Mr. Holmes'
arrangement, and a similar one constructed by M.
Serin, were shown at the International exhibition,

London, in 1862.
Mr. H. Wilde's apparatus for producing a most powerful

magneto-electric light, on trial in northern light

houses, Oct. 1866. Lime-light (which see) employed at the S. Foreland light

house in 1861.
Gas light tried successfully at Howth Bailey lighthouse,

Dublin Bay, July, 1869.
The cost of erecting the three great British lighthouses

- viz , the Skerry-Vore (west coast), 158 feet highi,
83,1261. ; the Bishop Rock, Scilly Isles, 145 feet high,
36,559!. ; and the Bell Rock, Scotland, 117 feet higli,

LIGHTNING-CONDUCTORS were first set up for the protection of buildings by Franklin shortly after 1752, when he brought down electricity from a thunder-cloud. Richmann, of St. Prtersburg, was killed while repeating these experiments, Aug. 1752. The first conductor in England was set up at Payne's Hill, by Dr. Watson. In 1766 one was placed on the tower of St. Mark, at Venice, which has since escaped injury, although frequently injured by lightning previously. A powder magazine at Glogau, in Silesia, was saved by a conductor

Oct. 1869

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