Page images

B.C. 1320



Lycæan games instituted, in honour of Pan

to those places. The word is first found in the Agapenor appears at the head of the Arcadians at

Apology against the Arians by Athanasius, who the siege of Troy (Homer) The Lacedæmonians invade Arcadia, and are beaten

1194 died 373. The Eastern archbishops have since been by the women of the country in the absence of

styled patriarchs. Riddle. their husbands (?) Aristocrates 1. (of 'Orchomenns) put to death for Before the Saxons came to England, there were three offering violence to the priestess of Diana

archbishops : London, York, and Caerleon-upon-Usk;

715 Aristocrates II. stoned ; a republic founded

but soon after St. Augustin settled the metropolitan Supremacy of Sparta (acknowledged 560) abolished see at Canterbury, 602 ; see Canterbury. by the Thebans; Megalopolis founded by Epami

York continued archiepiscopal; but London and Caerleon nondas

lost the dignity ; see St. Darid's.

371 The Arcadians make alliance with Athens, and are The bishopries in Scotland were under the jurisdiction of defeated by Archidamus


the archbishop of York until the erection of the archiArcadia, having joined the Achæan league, on its

episcopal sees of St. Andrew's and Glasgow in 1470 and suppression, is annexed by Rome


1491; these last were discontinued at the Revolution ; see Glosgow and St. Andrew's.

The bishop of Moray, &c., is now (1873) styled Primus. ARCADIANS, an ultra-conservative French

The rank of archbishop was early in Ireland: see Ferns. political club,

composed of a section of the majority Four archbishops were constituted, Armagh. Cashel, in the chambers, and opposed to liberal measures, Dublin, and 'Tuam ; (until then the archbishop of even when emanating from the emperor (such as

Canterbury had jurisdiction over the Irish as well as the new press law). It derived its name from Rue English bishops, in like manner as the archbishop of

York had jurisdiction over those of Scotland), 1151. de l'Arcade, where its meetings were held: Feb.

Of these four archbishoprics two were reduced to bish1868.

opries (Cashel and Tuam) comformably with the stat.

3 & 4 Will. IV. by which also the number of sees in ARCH. It appears in early Egyptian and As

Ireland was to be reduced from twenty-two to twelve syrian architecture. The oldest arch in Europe is

(ste Bishops, Cushel, Tuam; Palliuin, &c.), 1833. probably in the Cloaca Maxima, at Rome, constructed under the early kings, about 588 B.C. ARCH-CHAMBERLAIN. The elector of The Chinese bridges, which are very ancient, are of Brandenburg was appointed the hereditary archgreat magnitude, and are built with stone arches chamberlain of the German empire by the golden similar to those that have been considered a Roman bull of Charles IV. in 1356, and in that quality he invention.* - The TRIUMPHAL arches of the Romans bore the sceptre before the emperor. formed a leading feature in their architecture. The arch of Titus (A.D. 80), that of Trajan (114), and ARCH-CHANCELLORS were appointed that of Constantine, (312), were magnificent. The under the two first races of the kings of France arches in our parks in London were erected about (418-986), and when their territories were divided, 1828. The Marble Arch, which formerly stood be- the archbishops of Mentz, Cologne, and Treves before Buckingham Palace (whence it was removed came arch-chancellors of Germany, Italy, and to Cumberland-gate, Hyde Park, in 1851) was Arles. modelled from the arch of Constantine; see Hyde Park.

ARCHDEACON, a name early given to the

first or eldest deacon, who attended on the bishop ARCHÆOLOGY, the science of antiquities; without any power; but since the council of Nice, see Antiquaries.

his function has become a dignity above a priest.

The appointment in these countries is referred to ARCHÆOPTERYX (ancient bird); the the eighth century. There are seventy-one archname given to the earliest known remains of a bird, deacons in England (1868), and thirty-three in Irefound in the lithographic slate of Solenhofen, by land. The archdeacon's court is the lowest in Herman von Meyer and Dr. Häberlern in 1861. Its ecclesiastical polity; an appeal lies from it to the structure approximated more to that of a reptile consistorial court, by 24 Henry VIII. (1532). than that of modern birds does. It was described by Owen in 1863.

ARCHERY is ascribed to Apollo, who com

municated it to the Cretans. ARCHANGEL (N. Russia), a city, is thus named from a monastery founded here, and dedi

Ishmael “became an archer" (Gen. xxi. 20), B.C. 1892 cated to St. Michael in 1584. The passage to Arch

The Philistine archers overcame Saul(1 Sam. xxxi. 3). 1056 Richard Chancellor in 1553, and it was the only Aster of Amphipolis, having been slighted by Philip, angel was discovered by the Englishnavigator David.commanded the use of the bow to be taught

1055 seaport of Russia till the formation of the docks at king of Macedon, at the siege of Methone, shot an Cronstadt, and foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703, arrow, on which was writtten “ Aimed at Philip's The dreadful fire here, by which the cathedral and right eye,” which put it out ; Philip drew back upwards of 3000 houses were destroyed, occurred

the arrow with these words: “if Philip take the in June, 1793

town, Aster shall be hanged," and kept his word 353 Archery introduced into England previous to A.D. 440

Harold and his two brothers were killed by arrows ARCHBISHOP (Greek archiepiscopos), a title shot from the cross-bows of the Norman soldiers given in the 4th and 5th centuries to the bishops

at the battle of Hastings

1066 of chief cities, such as Rome, Alexandria, Antioch,

Richard 1. revived archery in England in


and and Constantinople, who presided over the other The victories of Crecy (1346), Poietiers (1356), and

was himself killed by an arrow

1199 metropolitans and bishops in the districts attached

Agincourt (1415), were won chietly by archers.

Four thousand archers of the king surrounded the * The bridge of Chester, whose span is 200 feet, was houses of Parlianent ready to shoot ; pacified by commenced in 1829. The central arch of London Bridge the king, 21 Richard II. (Slow.). is 152 feet; and the three cast iron arches of Southwark The citizens of London formed into companies of Bridge, which rest on massive stone piers and abutments archers in the reign of Edward III. ; and into a are, the two side ones 210 feet each, and the centre 240 corporate body by the style of “The Fraternity of feet: thus the centre arch exceeds the adipired St. George,” 20 Henry VIII.

1538 bridge of Sunderland by four feet in the span, and the Roger Ascham's Torophilus, the School of Shooting," long-famed Rialto at Venice, by 167 feet; see Bridges. published

• 1571

1397 • 1004

about 500-420





The long bow was six feet long, and the arrow three ARCOLA (Lombardy), the site of battles be

feet; the usual range from 300 to 500 yards. tween the French under Bonaparte, and the AusRobin Hood is said to have shot from 600 to 800

trians under field-marshal Alvinzi, fought 14-17 yarus. The cross-how was fixed to a stock, and discharged with a trigger.

Nov. 1796. The Austrians lost 18,000 men in See Artillery Company, Torophilites, &c.

killed, wounded, and prisoners, four flags and

eighteen guns. The French lost about 15,000, and ARCHES, COURT OF, the most ancient con

became masters of Italy. In one contest Bonaparte, sistory court, chiefly a court of appeal from inferior in most imminent danger, was rescued by the jurisdictions within the province of Canterbury; it impetuosity of his troops. derives its name from the church of St. Mary-leBow (Sancta Maria de Arcubus), London, where it ARCOT (East Indies). This city (founded 1716) was formerly held, and whose top is raised on stone was taken by colonel Clive, 31 Aug. 1751; was pillars built archwise.. Cowell. Appeals from this retaken, 1758, but again surrendered to colonel court lie to the judicial committee of the privy Coote, 10 Feb. 1760; besieged and taken by Hyder council, by statute, 1832. The judge, Dr. Stephen Ali, when the British under colonel Baillie suffered Lushington, (appointed in 1828) resigned 1 July, severe defeat, 31 Oct. 1780. Arcot has been subject 1867; succeeded by sir Robert J. Phillimore. to Great Britain since 1801 ; see India. ARCHITECTURE (from the Greek archi

ARCTIC EXPEDITIONS, see North West tekton, chief artificer). The five great orders are, Passage, and Franklin's Expedition. -the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian (Greek) ;-the Tuscan and Composite (Roman). Gothic began to ARDAGH, an ancient prelacy in Ireland, prevail in the gth century. See the Orders and founded by St. Patrick, who made his nephew, Gothic.

Mell, the first bishop, 454. This see, held with The Pyramids of Egypt, begun

about B.C. 1500

Kilmore since 1742, was held in commendam with Solomon's Temple, begin.

Tuam (which see). It was united with Kilmore in Birs Nimroud, in Assyria

about 900 1839, and with Elphin in 1841. The Doric order begins

about 650 Doric Temple at Egina

550 ARDFERT AND AGHADOE,' bishoprics in Temple of Jupiter and Cloaca Maxima, at Rome

Ireland long united; the former was called the founded

616 Babylon built

bishopric of Kerry; Ert presided in the 5th century.

600 The Ionic order begins

William Fuller, appointed in 1663, became bishop The Corinthian order begins

of Limerick in 1667, since when Ardfert and AghaChoragic Monument of Lysierates

doe have been united to that prelacy. Near the Architecture flourishes at Athens

480-320 cathedral an anchorite tower, 120 feet high, the Erechtheum at Athens

450-420 loftiest and finest in the kingdom, suddenly fell, The Parthenon finished The Pantheon, &c., built at Rome


13 The Colosseum (or Coliseum) Hadrian builds temples at Ronie, &c. .

ARDOCH, see Grampian.

117 Diocletian's palace at Spalatro.

ARDRES, see Field of Cloth of Gold. Basilicas at Rome

330-900 St. Sophia, at Constantinople, begun

AREIOPAGUS or AREOPAGUS, a Greek Rock-cut temples in India-Caves of Ellora

500-800 tribunal, said to have heard causes in the dark, Canterbury cathedral, founded

602 Mosque of Omar at Jerusalem


because the judges should be blind to all but facts, York Minster, (present building) begun

instituted at Athens about 1507 B.C.; also ascribed St. Peter's, Rome

to Cecrops, 1556. The name is derived from the St. Paul's, London

1675-1710 Greek Areios pagos, the hill of Mars, through the

tradition that Mars was the first who was tried Dorn. Died.

there for the murder of Halirrhotius, who had Vitruvius, about .

violated his daughter Alcippe. The powers of this

court were enlarged by Solon, about 594 B.C., and William of Wickham

1324—1405 diminished by Pericles, 461 B.C. Paul preached on Michael Angelo Buonarotti


Mars' bill A.D. 52. (Acts xvii.) A. Palladio

1518-1580 Inigo Jones

1572-1652 Bernini

AREQUIPA, Peru, founded by Pizarro, 1539;

1598-1680 Christopher Wren


was destroyed by an earthquake, 13 Aug. 1868. J. Vanbrugh

1670–1726 James Gibbs


AREZZO, near the ancient Arrctium or AretiR. and J. Adams


num, an Etrurian city, which made peace with Sir William Chambers

1726–1796 Rome for 30 years, 308 B.C., was besieged by Augustus W. Pugin

1811-1852 the Galli Senones, about 283 B.C., who defeated the Sir Charles Barry

1795–1860 Roman army Metellus sent to its relief-a disgrace An Architectural Club was formed in 1791. An Archi- avenged signally by Dolabella.

Arezzo was an tectural Society existed in London in 1808. The Royal ancient bishopric: the cathedral founded in 1277. INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS was founded in 1834- It is renowned as the birthplace of Mæcenas, Society, established in 1831, was united to the Institute Petrarch, Vasari, and other eminent men. Michael in 1842. The ARCHITECTURAL Association began about Angelo was born in the vicinity. 1846. The ARCHITECTURAL MUSEUM, Westminster, opened, 21 July, 1869.

ARGAUM, in the Deccan, India, where sir

Arthur Wellesley, on 29th Nov. 1803, thoroughly ARCHONS. When royalty was abolished at defeated and subjugated the rajah of Berar and the Athens, in memory of king Codrus, killed in battle, Mahratta chief Scindiah. 1044 or 1068 B.C., the executive government was vested in elective magistrates called archons, whose ARGENTARIA, Alsace (now COLMAR, N. E. office continued for life. Medon, eldest son of France), where the Roman emperor Gratian totally Codrus, was the first archon. The office was limited defeated the Alemanni, and secured the peace of to ten years, 752 B.C., and to one year 683 B.C. Gaul, May, 378.



about 1171



B.C. 27



146 A.D. 1686


six years

ARGENTINE (or LA PLATA), CONFE- Argos governed by tyrants supported by Macedon; DERATION, S. America, 14 provinces (Buenos

freed : joins the Achaan league Ayres, one). This country was discovered by the Snbjugated by the Romans .

Argos taken from the Venetians Spaniards in 1515, settled by them in 1553, and formed part of the vice-royalty of Peru till 1778, United to Greece under king Otho (sce Greece) 25

Taken by the Turks 1716, who held it until when it became that of Rio de la Plata. It joined

Jan. 1833 the insurrection in 1811, and became independent in 1816. It was at war with Brazil from 1826 to

ARGYLE (W. Scotland), bishoprie of, founded 1828, for the possession of Uruguay, which became about 1200, Evaldus being the first bishop; the independent as Monte-Video ; and at war with diocese, previously united with Dunkeld, ended France from 1838-40. - Population, in 1869, 1688. Argyle and the Isles is a post-revolution 1,877,490. See Buenos Ayres.

bishopric, 1847; see Bishoprics. Buenos Ayres seceded in 1853 ; reunited.


ARIAN or ARYAN (in Sanskrit signifying An insurrection in San Juan in Nov. 1860 ; sur noble, warlike), a term now frequently applied to pressed in

Jan. 1862 the hypothetical Indo-Germanic family of nations, J. Urquiza, elected president, 20 Nov. 1853, was

including the Greek, Roman, and Teutonic races. succeeded by Dr. S. Derqui

8 Feb. 1860 Gen. Bartholomew Mitre, elected for six years, as ARIANS, followers of Arius of Alexandria, who sumed the president's office

12 Oct. 1862 preached against the divinity of Christ, about 315, Lopez, president of Paraguay, declared war against

and died in 336. The controversy was taken up by Mitre, and invaded the Argentine territories, May. Mitre declared war against Paraguay, 16

Constantine, who presided at the council of Nice, April; and made alliance with Brazil and Uru

June to Aug. 325, when the Arians were condemned; guay

4 May, 1865 but their doctrine long prerailed. It was favoured See Buenos Aires for the disputes with that state, by Constantius II. 341; and carried into Africa by and Brazil for the war with Paraguay.

the Vandals in the 5th century, and into Asia by Col. Dominique F. Sarmiento elected president for the Goths. Servetus published his treatise against

12 Oct. 1868 He suppresses the insurrection of Corrientes, Nov.

the Trinity, 1531, and was burnt, 1553. Leggatt, an Urquiza murdered

12 April, 1870 nasian Creed, Socinians, and Unitarians.

Arian, was burnt at Smithfield in 1614; see AthaARGINUSÆ, isles between Lesbos and Asia Minor, near these Conon and the Athenian inundated by waves of the sea, 13 Aug. 1868.

ARICA, Peru, destroyed by an earthquake, and fieet defeated the Spartan admiral Callicratidas, 406 B.C.

ARIKERA, near Seringapatam. Here lord

Cornwallis defeated Tippoo Sahib, 15 May, 1791. ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION, 1263 B.C. (1225, Clinton), said to have been undertaken by ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY: the Jason, to avenge the death of his kinsman Phryxus, most comprehensive ever devised by man. Aristotle and to recover the treasures seized by his murderer, was born at Stagyra (hence termed the Stagyrite), Æëtes, king of Colehis. The ship in which Phryxus 384 B.C.; was a pupil of Plato from 364 to 347; had sailed to Colchis having been adorned with the became preceptor of Alexander, son of Philip of figure of a ram, led to the fiction that the journey Macedon, in 342; and died in 322. He divided the was to recover the golden fleece. This is the first circle of knowledge into metaphysics and logic, naval expedition on record. Many kings and physics (including part of the science of mind), and heroes accompanied Jason, whose ship was called ethics. His philosophy was too much exalted by Argo, from its builder.

the schoolmen during the middle ages, and too ARGOS, the most ancient city of Greece, said much depreciated after the reformation. His works to have been founded either by Inachus, 1856 B.C.,

on natural science contain a vast collection of facts or his son, Phoroneus, 1807, received its name from merical opinions. To him is attributed the asser

and an extraordinary mixture of sound and chiArgus, the fourth of the Inachidæ, 1711 B.C. tion that nature abhors a vacuum, an opinion now Reign of Triopas : Polycaon seizes part of the king- B.C. maintained by eminent modern philosophers. dom and calls it after his wife, Messenia

1552 Gelanor, last of the Inachida, deposed by Danaus,

ARITHMETIC is said to have been introan Egyptian

duced from Egypt into Greece by Thales, about Feast of the Flambeaur, instituted in honour of 600 B.C. The Chinese used the abacus, or swan

Hypermnestra, who saved her husband, Lynceus, pan, at an early period. It is asserted that the son of Ægyptus, on his nuptial night, while her ancient Hindus adopted a system baving ten as a forty-nine sisters sacrificed theirs, at the com basis.

mand of their father, Danaus Lynceus dethrones Danaus

The oldest treatise upon arithmetic is by Euclid The kingdom divided by the brothers Acrisius and (7th, 8th, and oth books of his Elements), about Protus

1344 (1313 Cl.) Perseus, grandson of Acrisius, leaves Argos and The sexagesimal arithmetic of Ptolemy was used

founds Mycenæ (which see) The Heraclidæ retake the Peloponnesus, and Teme Diophantus, of Alexandria, was the author of thirnus seizes Argos

teen books of arithmetical questions (of which six Pheidon's prosperous rule

are now extant)

about 156 War with Sparta : combat of 300 on each side.

Notation by nine digits and zero (Àrabic figures), The Argives tine Sicyon and Ægina for helping their known at least as early as the 6th century in Hinenemy, Cleomenes of Sparta .

dostan-introduced from thence into Arabia, Sparta becomes superior to Argos

about 900-into Spain, about 980--into France, Themistocles an exile at Argos.

by Gerbert, 991– into England The Argives destroy Mycena and regain their The date in Caxton's Mirrour of the World, Arabic superiority

characters, is . Peloponnesian war Argos long neutral, joins Arithmetic of decimais inventei

1482 Athens

John Sherwood, bishop of Durham's Ludus ArithmoThe aristocratical party makes peace with Sparta, Machiner, printed at Rome and overthrows the democracy


• 1425







I102 770-730


514 495-490






First work' printed in England on arithmetic (de A reaction-alliance with Athens resumed .

Arte Supputundi) was by Toustall, bishop of Pyrrhus of Macedon besieging Argos, slain


417 395 272


24 Nov.

The theory of decimal fractions perfected by Napier Suffered in a series of engagements (the sharpest in his Phablologia

on 25 July)

21-27 July, 1583 Cocker's Arithmetic appeared in

1671 Dispersed by fire-ships sent into the midst, 28 July, Nystrom's Tonal system with 16 as a basis, pub- Many vessels sunk or taken by the English, lished. 1863

29 July,

The remainder retreat northward to Spain, sufARITHMOMETER, see Calculating Ma- fering much loss by severe storins, Aug. and Sept. chines.

Computed Spanish loss-35 ships; 13,000 men.

The queen attended a most soleinn thanksgiving · ARIZONA, a territory of the United States, at St. Paul's . originally part of New Mexico, was organised 24 Feb. 1863, capital, Tucson. It was colonised by metropolis from the 5th to the 9th century, the seat

ARMAGH, N. Ireland, of which it was the the Jesuits in the 17th century.

of the first ecclesiastical dignity in Ireland, founded ARK. Mount Ararat is venerated by the Arme- by St. Patrick, its tirst bishop, about 444, and said nians, from a belief of its being the place on which to have built the first cathedral, 450. Six saints of Noah's ark rested, after the universal deluge, 2347 the Roman calendar have been bishops of this see. B.C.; see Gen. vi. vii. Some assert Apamea, in

In the king's book, by an extent taken 15 James I., Phrygia, to be the spot; and medals have been it is valued at 400l. sterling a year; and until lately struck there with a chest on the waters, and the

was estimated at 15,000l. per annum.

The see was letters NOE, and two doves; this place is 300 miles re-constituted (sce Pallium) in 1151. Beatson. west of Ararat. The Ark of the Covenant, made by Armagh was ravaged by the Danes on Easter-day, Moses to contain the two tables of the law, 1491 852, and by O'Neil in 1564. B.C. (Exod. xxv.), was placed in Solomon's temple, 1004 B.C. (1 Kings viii).

ARMAGNACS, a political party in France,

followers of the duke of Orleans, murdered by the ARKADI, a Greek blockade-runner during the Burgundians, 23 Nov. 1407, derived their name Cretan insurrection, was destroyed by the Turkish from his father-in-law, the count of Armagnac. vessel Izeddin, off' Crete, 19 Aug. 1867, after at least About 3500 of this party were massacred at Paris 22 successful voyages.

in June, 1418, by their opponents, the followers of

the duke of Burgundy. ARKANSAS, originally part of Louisiana, ceded by Spain to France, 1763; and purchased by ARMED NEUTRALITY, the confederacy the United States in 1803, was made a territory, against England, formed by Russia, Sweden, and 1819; and a state, 1836; seceded from the union Denmark, 1780; ended, 1781; renewed, and a treaty 6 May, 1861; conquered, 1865. Several battles ratified in order to cause their flags to be respected were fought in this state in 1862. Capital, Little by the belligerent powers, 16 Dec. 1800. The prinRock.

ciple that neutral flags protect neutral bottoms being ARKLOW in Wicklow), where a battle was

contrary to the maritime system of England, the fought between the insurgent Irish, amounting to

British cabinet remonstrated, war ensued, and Nel31,000, and a small regular force of British, which

son and Parker destroyed the fleet of Denmark before signally defeated them, 10 June, 1798. The town

Copenhagen, 2 April, 1801. This event and the was nearly destroyed by the insurgents in May murder of the emperor Paul of Russia led to the previous.--Native gold was discovered in Arklow, dissolution of the Armed Neutrality. in Sept. 1795. Phil. Trans, vol. 86.

ARMENIA, Asia Minor. Here Noah is said to ARLES (Arelatum, from the Celtic Ar-lait, I have resided when he left the ark, 2347 B c. Armenear the waters), S. France (said to have been nia, after forming part of the Assyrian, Median, and founded 2000 B.C.), a powerful Roman city, was

Persian empires, became subject to the Greek kings made capital of the kingdom of Provence by Boson of Syria, after the defeat of Antiochus the Great, in 879 A.D.; and of the kingdom of Arles or Trans- 190 B.C. The Romans established the kingdoms of jurane Burgundy by Rodolph II. in 933. He was Armenia Major and Minor, but their intluence over succeeded by Conrad I. 937; and by Rudolph III. them was frequently interrupted by the aggressions 993; who at his death, 1032, transmitted his king of the Parthians. In all their political troubles the don to the emperor Conrad II. After various Armenians have maintained the profession of Chrischanges it was annexed to France in 1486. Many tianity, and their church is governed by patriarchs, councils (314-1275) were held at Arles; the most

not subject to Rome. Since 1715 an Armenian concelebrated in 314, when British bishops were

vent has existed at Venice, where books on all present.

subjects are printed in the Armenian language. ARMADA, TIE INVINCIBLE, collected and City of Artaxarta built equipped by Philip II. king of Spain, for the subju- Tigranes the Great reigns in Armenia Major

Antiochus Epiphanes invades Arinenia

165 gation of England. The following particulars are

Becomes King of Syria, and assumes the title of taken from Morant's historical account (accom- King of Kings" panying Pine's engravings of the tapestries formerly Defeated by Lucullus, 69; he lays his crown at the in the house of lords), printed 1739.

feet of Pompey


His son, Artavasdes, reigns, 54 ; he assists Pompey It consisted of 132 ships (besides caravels), 3165 against Julius Casar, 48; and the Parthians cannon, 8766 sailors, 2088 galley-slaves, 21,855

against Marc Antony solliers, 1355 volunteers (noblemen, gentlemen, Antony subdues, and sends him loaded with silver and their attendants), and 150 monks, with Martin

chains to Egypt. Alarco, vicar of the Inquisition,--the whole under Artaxias, his son, made king by the Parthians

the command of the duke of Medina-Sidonia 1587 Deposed by the Romans, who enthrone Tigranes II. The English fleet under lord Charles Howard, sir Armenia subjected to Parthia

Francis Drake, and sir John Hawkins, ready for Reconquered by Germanicus, grandson of Augustus sea, and three armies on land

Dec. After many changes Tiridates is made king by the The Armada sailed froin Lisbon; soon after dis

Romans persed by 3 storin

19 May, 1588 The Parthian conquerors of Armenia are expelled Re-collected, entered the Ciannel off Cornwaú,

by Trajan

115 19 July, Severus makes Volngarses king of part of Armenia:







34 33 20 15 18

• A.D.


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Christianity introduced, between .

. A.D. 100-300 Britons was skins of wild beasts, exchanged, after Armenia added to the Persian empire

232 Tiridates obtains the throne through

the Roman conquest, for the well-tanned leathern Diocletian,

cuirass. Tacitus. Hengist is said to have had 286; is expelled by Narses, 294 ; restored by Galerius


scale armour, A.D. 449. On his death, Armenia becomes subject to Persia,


The Norman armour formed brecches and jacket 342 ; is made neutral by Roine and Persia, 384 ; who divide it by treaty

The hauberk had its hood of the same piece

443 Armenia conquered and reconquered by the Greek John wore a surtout over a hauberk of rings set and Persian sovereigns


1199 And by the Greek emperors and Mahommedans

The heavy cavalry covered with a coat of mail

. 693-1065

Some horsemen had vizors and scull-caps, about. 1216 The Armenian church reconciled to Rome, about

Armour exceedingly splendid, about

1350 1330 Leon VI., last king of Armenia, taken prisoner by

Armour of plate commenced

1 407 the Saracens, 1375 ; released : he dies at Paris

Black armour, used not only for battle, but for

1393 Overrun by the Mongols, 1235; by Timour, 1383 ;

mouruing, Henry V.

1413 by the Turks, 1516; by the Persians, 1534 ; by the

Armour ot" Henry vii. consisted of a cuirass of Turks

steel, in the forn of a pair of stays, about

1 500 Shah Abbas, of Persia, surrenders Armenia to the Armour ceased to reach beluw the knees, Charles I. 1625 Turks, but transports 22,000 Armenian families

In the reign of Charles II. officers wore no other into his own states


armour than a large gorget, which is cominemo

rated in the diminutive ornament known at the Armenia overrun by the Russians

1828 Surrender of Erzeroum

9 July, 1829

present day. Meyrich. (See Syrio and Russo-Turkish Wor.)

ARMOUR PLATES, see Iron, and Nary of

England. ARMENIAN ERA, commenced on 9 July,

ARMS. The club was the first offensive wea552; the ecclesiastical year on 11 Aug. To reduce this last to our time, add 551 years and 221 days; spear, javelin, sword and dagger, bows and arrows.

pon; then followed the mace, battle-axe, pike, and in leap years subtract one day from 1. March to Pliny ascribes the invention of the sling to the 10 Aug. The Armenians used the old Julian style Phænicians; see articles on the various weapons and months in their correspondence with Euro- throughout the volume. peans.

ARMS, see Armorial bearings, and Heraldry. ARMILLARY SPHERE, an astronomical instrument composed of brass circles disposed in ARMS BILLS, for the repression of crime and such a manner that the greater and lesser circles of insurrection in Ireland were passed, 1807, 1810, the sphere may be seen in their natural position and 1823, 1829, and 15 Oct. 1831. The guns registered motion. It is said to have been invented by Era- under the last act at the close of the first year tosthenes, about 255 B.C.; and was employed by scarcely amounted to 3000, and the number was Tycho Brahe and others.

equally small of all other kinds of arms. The new

Arms' bill, passed 22 Aug. 1843, has been since reARMINIANS, or REMONSTRANTS, derive newed, but was not rigidly enforced till 1867. their former name from James Arminius (or Har

ARMSTRONG GUN, see under Cannon. mensen), a Protestant divine of Leyden, Holland (died 19 Oct. 1609); the latter name from his fol- ARMY. Ninus and Semiramis had armies lowers having presented a Remonstrance to the amounting to nearly two millions of fighting men, states-general in 1610. They separated from the 2017 B.C. The first guards and regular troops as a Calvinists, objecting to their views respecting pre- standing army were formed by Sanl, 1093 B.C. destination, &c. Their doctrines were condemned | Eusebius. The army of Xerxes invading Greece is in 1619, at the synod of Dort (which sce); they were said to have been 1,700,000 foot and 80,000 horse : exiled till 1625. The Calvinists were sometimes 480 B.C. One of the first standing armies of which styled Gomarists, from Gomar, the chief oppo- we have any account, is that of Philip of Macedon. nent to Arminius. James I. and Charles I. favoured The army which Darius opposed to Alexander the the Arminian doctrine.

Great (332 B.C.) is set down as between 750,000 and

a million. The first standing army which existed ARMORIAL BEARINGS became here- as such, in modern times, was maintained in France ditary in families at the close of the 12th century. by Charles VII. in 1445. The chief European

They were employed by the crusaders, 1100. The nations have had in their service the following lines to denote colours in arms, by their direction or armies: Spain, 150,000 men; Great Britain, 310,000; intersection, were invented by Columbière in 1639. Prussia, 350,000; Turkey, 450,000; Austria, 500,000 The armorial bearings of the English sovereigns are

Russia, 500,000 ; and France, 1,000,000. Estimated given under the article England. Armorial bearings number in Europe in 1863, 6,000,000 soldiers, were taxed in 1798, and again in 1808. The tax

1,000,000 horses, 11,000 guns. The European produced 64,5151. in the year ending 31 March, powers still increasing their armies, 1873. 1868; 64,2281., 1872. The tax is now 21. 28. ; if not on carriages, it is il. 18. annually (1873).

ARMY, BRITISH, mainly arose in the reign of Charles II. in 1661, in consequence of the extinction

of feudal tenures. The first five regiments of ARMORICA, now Brittany, N. France, was British infantry were established between 1633 and conquered by Julius Cæsar, 56 B.C. Many Gauls 1680. James II. established several regiments of retired there and preserved the Celtic tongue, A.D.

dragoon guards (1685-8). In 1685 the army con584; see Brittany.

sisted of 7000 foot and 1700 cavalry. Standing

armies were introduced by Charles I. in 1638; they ARMOUR. That of Goliath is described (about were declared illegal in England, 31 Char. II. 1679; 1063 B.C.) 1 Sam. xvii. 5. Skins and padded hides but one was then gradually forming, which was were early used, and brass and iron armòur, in maintained by William III. 1689, when the Mutiny plates or scales, followed. The body armour of the Act was passed. Grose's “History of the British

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