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an act passed 14 Aug. 1871. First president, Mr. Austrians, under Beaulieu, after a bloody engageJames Stansfeld, appointed president of the poor ment at the bridge of Lodi, 10 May, 1796. The law board, March, 1871; see Gladstone. Mr. Lam- republican flag floated in Milan a few days after. bert, C.B., first secretary, appointed Sept. 1871.

LOGARITHMS, the indexes of the ratio of LOCHLEVEN CASTLE (Kinross), built on numbers one to another, were invented by baron an isle in Loch Leven, it is said by the Picts, was Napier of Merchiston, who published his work in the royal residence of Alexander III. and his queen 1614. The invention was completed by Mr. Henry when taken from it to Stirling. It was besieged Briggs, at Oxford, who published tables, 1616-18. by the English in 1301, and in 1334. Patrick The method of computing by means of marked Graham, first archbishop of St. Andrew's, im- pieces of ivory was discovered about the same time, prisoned for attempting to reform the church, died and hence called Napier's bones. here about 1478. The earl of Northumberland was confined in it, 1569. It was the place of queen

LOGIC, " the science of reasoning." Eminent Mary's imprisonment in 1567, and of her escape on

works on it are by Aristotle; Bacon, Norum Sunday, 2 May, 1568.

Organon; Locke on the Understanding; and the

modern treatises on Logic, by archbishop Whately, LOCKE'S ACT, 23 & 24 Vict. c. 127 (1860), sir William Hamilton, and Mr. John Stuart Mill. relates to legal proceedings.

LOGIERIAN SYSTEM of musical educaLOCKE KING’S ACTS; 17 & 18 Vict' tion, commenced by J. B. Logier, in Jan. 1815, and c. 113 (1854), and 30 & 31 Vict. c. 69 (1867), relate introduced into the chief towns of the United Kingto mortgages.

dom, Prussia, &c. lle died 1846. LOCKS used by the Egyptians, Greeks, and LOG-LINE, used in navigation, about 1570; Romans. Denon has engraved an Egyptian lock of first mentioned by Bourne in 1577. It is divided wood. Du Cange mentions locks and padlocks as into spaces of 50 feet, and the way which the ship early as 1381. Bramah's locks were patented in makes is measured by a half-minute sand-glass, 1784. Mr. Hobbs, the American, exhibited his own

which bears nearly the same proportion to an honr locks in the Crystal palace, in 1851, and showed that 50 feet bear to a mile : the line used in the great skill in picking others.

royal navy is 48 feet. LOCOMOTIVES, see Railways. The use of LOGOGRAPHIC PRINTING, in which steam locomotives on ordinary roads is regulated by the commoner words were cast in one mass, was acts passed in 1861, and 1865.

patented by Henry Johnson and Mr. Walter of the LOCRI, a people of Northern Greece. They vol. iv. was printed by these types in 1789.

Times in 1783. Anderson's History of Commerce, resisted Philip of Maredon, were aided by the Athenians and Thebans, and defeated by him at LOGRONO, see Najara. Chæronea, 7 Aug. 338 B.C.

LOI DES SUSPECTS, enacted by the LOCUSTS, one of the plagues of Egypt, 1491 French convention, 17 Sept. 1793, during the reign B.C. (Exod. x.) Owing to the putrefaction of vast of terror, filled the prisons of Paris. The Public swarms in Egypt and Libya, upwards of 800,000 Safety bill, of a similar character, was passed, persons are said to bave perished, 128 B.C. Pales 18 Feb. 1858, shortly after Orsini's attempt on the tine was infested with such swarms that they life of the emperor. darkened the air; and after devouring the fruits of

LOLLARDS (by some derived from the Gerthe earth, they died, and their intolerable stench

man lollen, to sing in a low tone), the name given caused a pestilential fever, A.D. 406. A similar

to the first reformers of the Roman catholic religion catastrophe occurred in France in 837: A swarm of in England, the followers of Wykliffe. The sect is locusts settled upon the ground about London, and also said to have been founded in 1315 by Walter consumed the vegetables; great numbers fell in Lollard, who was burnt for heresy at Cologne in the streets; they resembled grasshoppers, but were three times the size, and their colours more varie- selves to acts of mercy. The first Lollard martyr.

1322. The Lollards are said to have devoted themgated, 4, Aug: 1748. They infested Germany in in England was William Sawtree, parish priest of 1749, Poland in 1750, and 'Warsaw in June, 1816. They are said to have been seen in London in 1857. were proseribed by parliament, and numbers of

St. Osith, London, 12 Feb. 1401, when the Lollards Russia was infested by them in July, 1860; Algeria, them were burnt alive. Sir John Cobham, lord severely, in 1866; and Sardinia in 1868.

Oldcastle, a follower of Wykliffe, was accused of LODGERS paying rol. a year for a whole year

treason and condemned, Sept. 1413. He escaped to for apartments without furniture, acquired 'the Wales, where he was captured, and brought to suffrage, by Reform act passed 15 Aug. 1867. Act London and burnt, 25 Dec. 1418. to protect their goods from distraint, passed 16 Aug.

LOMBARDISTS, disciples of Peter Lombard, 1871.

the schoolman, bishop of Paris, author of the “ Book LODGING-HOUSES. An act placing com of Sentences," who died in 1164. mon lodging-houses under the watch of the police

LOMBARD MERCHANTS, in England, was passed in 1851. In that year a model lodginghouse erected by prince Albert appeared at the

were understood to be composed of natives of some Great Exhibition. Since then, blocks of lodging

one of the four republics of Genoa, Lucca, Florence,

or Venice. Anderson. Lombard usurers were sent houses for the poor have been erected by Miss Burdett Coutts and others. Mr. Peabody's donation of

to England by pope Gregory IX. to lend money to 12 March, 1862, has been appropriated for a similar convents, communities, and private persons who purpose; see Peabody. On 19 Nov. 1863, the city

were not able to pay down the tenths which were of London voted 20,000). and a piece of land in collected throughout the kingdom with great rigour Victoria-street for the purpose; sce London, 1845.

that year, 13 Hen. III. 1299. They had offices in

the street named after them to this day. Their LODI (N. Italy). Napoleon Bonaparte, com usurious transactions caused their expulsion from manding the French army, totally defeated the the kingdom in the reign of Elizabeth.



LOMBARDY (N. Italy) derived its name became the capital of the Saxon kingdom of Essex, from the Langobardi, a German tribe from Branden- and was called Lundenceaster. In 1860, London burg, said (doubtfully) to have been invited into and the suburbs were estimated to cover 121 square Italy by Justinian to serve against the Goths. miles, 11 miles each way, being three times as large Their chief, Alboin, established a kingdom which as in 1800. The population of the metropolitan lasted from 568 to 174. The last king, Desiderius, districts in 1851, was 2, 362,236; in 1861, it was was dethroned by Charlemagne. (For a list of 2,808,862; in 1871, 3,264,530. The population the Lombard kings; see Italy.) About the end of of " the city” in 1851, was 127,869; in 1861, it the 9th century the chief towns of Lombardy forti was 112,063 ; in 1871, 74,732. Revenue of the fied themselves, and became republics. The first corporation in 1862, 437,341l. The "port” of Lombard league, consisting of Milan, Venice, London extends from London Bridge to the North Paria, Modena, &c., was formed to restrain the Foreland. See Docks, Mayors, and Treaties. power of the German emperors, in 1167: On 29 May, 1176, they defeated the emperor Frederick Boadicea, queen of the Iceni, reduces London to Barbarossa at Legnano, and eventually compelled ashes, and puts 70,000 Romans and strangers to

the sword

бr him to sign the peace of Constance in 1183. In She is defeated by Suetonius, 80,000 Britons are 1226 another league was formed against Frederick II., which was also successful. After this, Bishoprie said to have been founded by Theanus

massacred, and she takes poison

179 petty tyrants rose in most of the cities, and foreign London rebuilt and walled in by the Romans.

306 influence quickly followed. The Guelf and Ghibel 800 vessels said to be employed in the port of Lonline factions greatly distracted Lombardy; and

don for the export of corn


604 from the 15th century to the present time, it has Bishoprie revived by St. Mellitus been contended for by the German and French

St. Paul's church founded by Ethelbert

610 A plague ravages London .

644 sovereigns. The house of Austria obtained it in Great fire which nearly consumed the city. 1748, and held it till 1797, when it was conquered London pillaged by the Danes

839 by the French, who incorporated it with the Cisal Alfred repairs and strengthens London pine republic, and in 1805 with the kingdom of Easterlings settle in London before.

978 Italy. On the breaking up of the French empire Tower built by William I.


1086 1090 I100


1078 in 1815, the LOMBARDO-VENETIAN KINGDOM was

First charter granted to the city by the same king* 1079 established by the allied sovereigns and given to

Another great fire, St. Paul's burnt.
Austria, who had lost her Flemish possessions. 606 houses thrown down by a tempest
Lombardy and Venice revolted, and joined the king Charter granted by Henry 1.
of Sardinia in March, 1848; but they did not sup-

St. Bartholomew's priory founded by Rahere, about port him well, and were again subjected to Austria

London-bridge built, 1014; burnt

1136 after his defeat at Novara, 23 March, 1849. An Henry Fitz-Alwhyn, the first mayor (served twenty

Old London-bridge begun

1176 amnesty for political offences was granted in 1856. four years)

1189 Great jealousy of Sardinia was felt by Austria after Massacre of Jews 1849. In 1857 diplomatic relations were suspended; Charter granted by Henry 1i. and in April, 1859, war broke out; the Austrians First stone bridge finished crossing the Ticino and entering Piedmont. The

Charter of king John ; mayor and common council French emperor declared war against Austria, and foreign merchants invited, settle here

to be elected annuallyt :

1199-1220 immediately sent troops into Italy. The Austrians Charter of Henry III. were defeated at Montebello, 20 May; Palestro, 30, Aldermen appointed 31 May; Magenta, 4 June ; and Solferino, 24 June. Watch in London, 38 Henry III. By the peace of Villafranca (11 July), the largest Privileges granted to the Hanse merchants (which part of Lombardy was ceded to Louis Napoleon, who



Tax called murage, to keep the walls and ditches in transferred it to the king of Sardinia. It now forms


about 1282 part of the new kingdom of Italy, to which Venetia Water brought from Tyburn to West Cheap 1285 was also surrendered by the treaty of Vienna, Expulsion of the Jews by Edward I. (16,511). 3 Oct. 1867.

Livery companies incorporated
Charter granted by Edward III.

LONATO (Brescia, N. Italy). Here Napoleon
Bonaparte defeated Wurmser and the Austrians, 3
Aug. 1796.

way, Newgate, Dowgate, Cripplegate, Aldgate, AldersLONDON. Some assert that a city existed on

gate, Ludyate, Bridegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate, and the the spot 1107 years before the birth of Christ, and

Postern on Tower-hull

. Eight gates were removed in

1760-1, and the only one of the city boundaries now 354 years before the foundation of Rome,* that it remaining is Témple-bar, rebuilt 1670-2, and its removal was the capital of the Trinobantes, 54 B.C., and long is expected. previously the seat of their kings. In a.d. 61 it was It is still preserved in the city archives. This known to the Romans as Lundinium, or Colonia

charter is written in beautiful Saxon characters, on a Augusta, and the chief residence of the merchants. slip of parchment six inches long, and one broad, and is

in English as follows :-“William the king greeteth It is said, but not truly, to have derived its name

William the bishop, and Godfrey the portreve, and all from Lud, an old British king, who was buried near the burgesses within London friendly. And I acquaint where Ludgate formerly stood; but its name is you, that I will that ye be all there law-worthy as ye were from Llyn-Din, the “ town on the lake.”+ It in king Edwari's days. And I will that every child be

his father's heir, after his father's days. And I will not * The fables of Geoffrey of Monmouth state that suffer that any man do you any wrong. God preserve London was founded by Brute, a descendant of the Trojan Æneas, and called New Troy, or Troy-novant, + Stow incorrectly states this charter to have been until the time of Lud, who surrounded it with walls, given in 1209, but it bears date May 19th in the 16th year and gave it the name of Caer Lud, or Lud's town, &c. of king John's reign, which began in 1199. This charter Luigh.

was acted on at that period in various instances, as † The original walls of London, said to have been the many of the mayors were afterwards continued in their work of Theodosius, Roman governor of Britain, 379; offices for several years together; and the same right was but they are supposed to have been built about 306. exerted in the case of Mr. Alderman Wood, who filled There were originally four principal gates, but the num the office of lord mayor «uring two succeeding years, ber increased; and among others were the Pretorian those of 1816 and 1817. Leigh,

1154 1209


• 1233

about 1242


• 1290




2 Dec. 1697


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Terrible pestilence, in which 50,000 (?) citizens A London directory published

1679 perish*

Charter granted by Charles II.

1080 London sends 4 members to parliament. 1355 Penny post established

1683 William of Walworth lord mayor

Settlement of French protestants

1685 Wat Tyler's rebellion (see Tyler)

1381 : Charter declared forfeited, 1682 ; but restored 1689 Aldermen elected for life 1394 Bank of England established

1694 Great plague, 30,000 (3) died

1406 St. Paul's opened . City first lighted at night by lanterns .

Awful storm

26 Nov.-1 Dec. 1703 Guildhall commenced 1411, finished 1416 Sacheverel's sermon and mob

1710 Whittington thrice lord mayor, viz., 1397, 1406, 1419 Act for the erection of fifty new churches

1711 Jack Cade's rebellion ; see Cade


South Sea bubble commenced, 1710; exploded (see First civic procession on the water ; sir John Nor

South Sea Company).

1720 man lord mayor

Chelsea water works formed

1722 Falconbridge attempts the city 1471 Bank of England built .

1732-4 Printing-press set up by Caxton

Glass lamps in the street .

between 1634 & 1736 Sweating sickness rages

1485 Fleet ditch covered, and Fleet market opened 1737 Fleet ditch navigable 1502 “Great Frost," 25 Dec. 1739 to 8 Feb.

1740 St. Paul's school founded by dean Colet.

1509 London Hospital instituted The fatal sweat, Sudor Anglicus .

New Mansion-house founded, 1739 ; completed.

1753 Evil May-day (which see)

British Museum established Streets first paved (Viner's Slat.)

1533 Society of Arts established “ Bills of Mortality" ordered to be kept. 1538 Eight gates removed .

1760-1 Dissolution of religious houses 1539 Shop signs removed

1762 St. Bartholomew's monastery changed to an hos Westminster paving-act passed pital

Blackfriars-bridge opened

19 Nov. 1769 Forty taverns and public houses allowed in the

The lord mayor (Brass Crosby) committed to the city, and three in Westminster, act 7 Edw. VI. 1553

Tower by the House of Commons for a breach of Christ's hospital founded by king Edw. VI.


27 March, 1771 Russian trading company established .

Lord George Gordon's No-popery mob (see Gordon's Coaches introduced about 1563 mob)

June, 1780 Royal Exchange built (see Exchange)

1566 Thanksgiving of George III. at si. Paul's Cathedral New buildings in London forbidden “where no

23 April, 1789 former hath been known to have been,” to pre Royal Institution of Great Britain founded

1799 vent the increasing sizet

London docks opened Levant company established

London Institution founded.

1805 Thaines water conveyed into the city by leaden Lord Nelson's funeral

9 Jan. 1805 pipes 1580-94 Gas first exhibited in Pall Mali

1807 Stow publishes his survey

1598 Riots on the committal of sir F. Burdett to the Nearly all London yet built of wood

1600 Tower

6 April, 1810 East India company incorporated

The Mint finished

1811 30,578 persons said to perish by the plague 1603 Regent-street begun

1813 Gunpowder plot (which see)

1605 Civic banquet to the allied sovereigns at Guildhall, Thomas Sutton founds Charterhouse school, &c


18 June, 1814 New river water brought to London 1613 Custom-house burnt

12 Feb. Virginia company established

1616 The city generally lighted with gas . Principal streets paved

Waterloo-bridge opened

18 June, 1817 Hackney coaches first plied

1625 New Custom-house opened Building of the western parishes, St Giles's, &c. Southwark-bridge opened

24 March, 1819 begun

1640 The great increase in building commences. 1820 The city held for the parliament

1642 Bank of England completed by sir John Soane 1821 London fortified

1643 Tunults at queen Caroline's funeral Jews allowed to return to London by Cromwell 1650 Cabs introduced Banking begun by Francis Child

about 1660 London Mechanics' Institution founded . Royal Society of London chartered 1662 Bubble companies' panic

1825 68,596 persons said to have perished by the great London University chartered

11 Feb. 1826 plague (see Plagues) 1665 27 turnpikes removed by act of parliament

1827 Oxford" afterwards “ London Gazette” published New Post-office completed


Farringdon-market opened Great fire of London (see Fires)

2-6 Sept. 1666

Omnibuses introduced Act for a new model of building" in the city

New metropolitan police began Hudson's-bay company chartered 1670 Covent-garden market rebuilt

1830 Monument erected by Wren (see Monumeni). 1671-7 Memorable political panic, s Nov.; and no lori St. Paul's founded 21 June, 1675 mayor's show


Nov. Oates' pretended popish plot 1678 New London-bridge opened .

1 Aug. 1831

General Fast on account of the cholera in England, * This terrible pestilence broke out in India, and

6 Feb. 1832 spreading itself westward through every country on the Hungerford-market opened

3 July, 1833 globe, reached. England. Its ravages in London were Houses of parliament burnt.

16 Oct. 1834 so great, that the common cemeteries were not sufficient City of London school founded for the interment of the dead ; and various pieces of The queen dines at Guildhall

. Nov. 1837 ground without the walls were assigned for burial-places. Royal Exchange burnt

10 Jan. 1838 Amongst these was the waste land now forming the Railway opened from London to Birmingham, precincts of the Charter-house, where upwards of 50,000 17 Sept. ; to Greenwich

28 Dec. bodies were then deposited. This disorder did not sub- Penny-postage begun

10 Jan. 1840 side till 1357. Leigh.

Railway to Southampton opened. 11 May, + This proclamation or decree was dated from None Wood pavement tried : fails such, 7 July, 1580, and it was forbidden to erect new London library established buildings where none had before existed in the meinory Railway to Bristol opened of man. The extension of the metropolis was deemed Blackwall railway opened

14 Aug.


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2 Aug. calculated to encourage the increase of the plague ; | Railway to Brighton opened

21 Sept. create a trouble in governing such multitudes; a dearth Thames Tunnel opened.

25 March, 1843 of victuals ; multiplying of beggars, and inability to Royal Exchange opened hy the queen 28 Oct. 1844 relieve them; an increase of artisans more than could Erection of baths and wash-houses begins . live together; impoverishing other cities for lack of Fleet prison taken down inhabitants. The decree stated that lack of air, lack of New building act begins operation room to walk and shoot, &c., arose out of too crowded a Penny steamboats begun : city. A proclamation to the same effect was also issued Model lodging houses built by James I.

Railway mania .


30 June,

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Twopenny omnibuses begun

1846 Great Chartist dernonstration in London (see Chartists)

10 April, 1848 Re-appearance of the cholera

Sept. 1819 Coal Exchange opened Loril mayor's great banquet (of mayors)+(see Lord Mayors)

21 March, 1850 Attack upon general Haynau

4 Sept. Great Exhibition openei, i May; closed, in oct. 1851 Duke of Wellington dies, 14 Sept. ; his funeral at St. Paul's (which see)

18 Nov. 1852 Cab-strike

27-29 July, 1853 Visit of king of Portugal

. 19 May, 1854 Attack of cholera

Aug. & Sept.
Meeting for Patriotic fund
Visit of emperor and empress of the French to the
lord mayor

19 April, 1855
The queen distributes Crimean medals 18 May,
Failure of Paul, Strahan, & Co. (see Trials) 5 June,
Metropolitan Local Management act passed 14 Aug.
Visit of the king of Sardinia
Metropolitan Board of works, first meeting 22 Dec.
Peace proclaimed, 29 April ; illuminations and fire-
works in the parks

29 May, 1856 Royal British Bank stops payment (see British Bank)

4 Sept. Meetings of unemployed operatives in Smithficiu,

Feb. 1857 Many commercial failures ; Bank charter act sus

pended James Morison (originally a poor boy), who mainly

introduced the system of quick returns and small

profits, dies exceedingly rich Metropolis divided into 10 postal districts

1 Jan. 1858 Great Eastern launched (began 3 Nov.) Complaints of the state of the Thames ; act for its purification passed

2 Aug. Panic on stock exchange (40 or 50 failures) at re

ported French and Russian alliance against Aus. tria.

April, 1859 A strike among the building trades, and a lock-out

by the masters, 8 Aug. ; the latter require the men to sign a document, declaring that they will not belong to any society which interferes with the freedom of the workman ; the strike was dying out in

Nov. Disgraceful riots at the church of St. George's in

the East, through the indiscretion of the Tractarian clergyman, the rev. Bryan King, Sept. and Oct. The church (closed for a time) re-opened ; fresh disturbances on 6, 13, 20 Nov. ; the agitation continued till Mr. King retired; a compromise was effected

29 July, 1860 Metropolitan railway (underground) cominenced in

spring of Great distress through the severe winter; thousands

relieved at the police offices . Dec. 1860, & Jan. 1861 Another strike in the building trades commences,

22 March, A street railway in the metropolis opened near Bayswater

23 March, Greai fire near Tooley-street (see Fires) 22 June, Sale of the East India house

23 June, Meeting to establish the City of London College, bishop of London in the chair

2 Oct. Mr. George Peabodly, the American merchant, gives

150,000l. to ameliorate the condition of the poor and needy of London

12 March, 1862 The International Exhibition opens 1 May, Thames embankment bill passed, after much discussion

Aug. The masons'strike not over

June, Fights in Hyde-park between the Garibaldians and Irish.

28 Sept. & 5 Oct. Public meetings there prohibited

9 Oct Comtesse de Silly leaves 4000l. to poor of London The Metropolitan railway opened

10 Jan. 1863 Pneumatic despatch company begins to convey post-office bags.

21 Feb Princess Alexandra of Denmark enters London,


March, Prince and princess of Wales present at the city ball at Guildhall

8 June, Appeal of the bishop of London on account of the spiritual destitution of the metropolis (see Church of Englanul)

June, The common council vote 20,000, and a site in

Victoria-street, E.C., for a lodging-house for the

19 Nov. 1863 New street between Blackfriars and London-bridge opened

• 1 Jan. 1864 Charing Cross railway opened . First block of Peabody's dwellings in Spitalfields

opened Garibaldi enters London, in April; receives the freedom of the city

21 April, Many turnpikes in the N. suburbs abolished, 1 July: Great excitement through the murder of Mr. Briggs in a carriage of the North London railway,

9 July, The first railway train enters the city of London near slackfriars-bridge

6 Oct. North London industrial exhibition, Islington,

opened by earl Russell Excitement through the performance of the Davenport brothers

Oct. - Dec. Great bullion robbery in Lombaru-street, 3 or 4 Dec. Many burglaries in London ; great robbery at

Walker's, the jewellers, Cornhill 4, 5 Feb. 1865 South London industrial exhibition opened by earl of Shaftesbury

i March, The prince of Wales present at the opening of the

main drainage works, at the southern outfall near Erith

4 April, Prince of Wales opens the international reformatory exhibition at Islington

19 May, Cattle plague breaks out in cow houses near Barns

bury, about Investigation into the state of the workhouse in

firmaries from several paupers dying through neglect

Aug. Many turnpikes in the S. suburbs abolished, 31 Oct. Mr. Peabody adds 100,000l. to his gift of 1862,

29 Jan. 1866 City industrial exhibition opened by lord mayor,

6 March, Horrible murder of Sarah Millson in Cannon-street (culprit undiscovered).

11 April, Black-Friday; commercial panie; failure of Overend, Guney, & Co., Discount Company, on 10 May (see Bank)

May, Agra and Masterman's bank stops; greatexcitement,

6 June, Shocking revelations in London workhouse in

June, et seq. Cholera prevails in east London (see Cholera),

July-Sept. Riots in Hyde-park

23, 24 July, Cannon-street railway station opened 1 Sept. Loru mayor honourably entertained at Brussels by the king of the Belgians .

Oct Working classes industrial exhibition at Islington closed

12 Nov. Report of committee at common council recom

mending enlargement of constituency voting for

municipal questions (from about 6700 to 15,000) Reform demonstration by trades unions; procession

of about 25,000 to Beaufort-house grounds, BrompEstimated population of the "City" by day, 283,520; by night, about 100,000

Dec. Severe frost : 40 lives lost hy breaking in of ice on

ornamental waters in Regent's park 15 Jan. 1867 Icy night"; many accidents through fall of rain

and immediate frost. London Street Reform Association organised, Jan. Great distress in east London ; large subscriptions ;

Mansion-house Metropolitan Relief Fund established.

26 Jan. Metropolitan poor act passed

29 March, London conference on Luxembourg question,

7-11 May, First stone laid of Holborn viaduct, 3 June ; of new meat market.

5 June, The lor mayor entertained the viceroy of Egypt, 11 June; the Belgians, 12 July ; the Sultan,

18 July, The Sultan gives 2500l. to the poor of London,

22 July, Electors for M.P.'s to have 3 votes only, by Reform act passed

15 Aug. County Court for the city established by act of parliament

20 Aug.


12 Nov.


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Edw. M'Donnell shot by supposed Fenian, 28 Sept., Brutal murder of Harriet Buswell, a gay woman, died. 5 Oct. 1867 in Great Coram-street

25 Dec. 1872 Tailors' strike, began 22 April: over

Oct. Banquet to mayors of corporate towns at the ManLord mayor's state coach not used


26 March, 1873 Common Council undertake erection of another Victoria-quark visited by the queen; she went (atile market (for foreign cattle)

6 Dec.

through Islington and returned through the city, Premeclitated explosiou outside Clerkenwell house

2 April of detention to release Fenians (7 persons killed The City temple (to replace the Poultry chapel) and about 50 wounded).

founded near Holborn Viaduct Much excitement through other attempted explo- The Shah of Persia at a banquet at Guildhall, 20 June, about 30,000 special constables sworn in,

(See Englanul; and the occurrences not noticed

here, under their respective heads.) Mysterious disappearance of the rev, B. Speke in Westminster

8 Jan. 1868

LONDON, BISHOPRIC OF, is said to have Great distress in the east of London through want

been founded in the reign of Lucius, about 179, of employment; meeting of employers and em

Theanus the first archbishop.

Augustin made ployed : work offered to the iron shipwrights at Canterbury the metropolitan see of England. Mellower wages declined

litus was bishop in 604. The see has given to the 52,974 special constables in the metropolis up to

church of Rome five saints, and to the realm sixteen

28 Jan. Mr. Speke (partially insane) found in Cornwall,

lord chancellors and lord treasurers; it was valued

in the king's books, at 1191. 8s. 4d. per annum. (East) London Museum Site act passed 28 Feb. Present income, 10,000l. In 1845 Hertford and The queen lays foundation of the new St. Thomas's part of Essex were taken from the see of London hospital

and added to that of Rochester. Western approach street, Holborn Valley, openei,

25 June, Part of the Albert (southern) embankment of the

1787. Beilby Porteus, died 14 May, 1809. Thames opened

30 July,

1809. John Randolph, died 28 July, 1813. King's Cross market opened

1813. W. Howley, trans. to Canterbury, Aug. 1828. Midland Counties railway station opened

1828. Charles James Blomtield; resigued Oct. 1856

I Oct. Great meeting to relieve sufferers by South American

(died 5 Aug. 1857). earthquake (11,0001.) collected .

1856. Archibald Campbell Tait, translated to Canterbury. New meat market, Smithtield, inaugurated by the

Dec. 1868. lord mayor, 24 Nov. ; opened to the public, i Dec.

1869. John Jackson, from Lincoln, elected 14

Mr. Peabody gives another 100,000l. to the poor of

LONDON BRIDGE. One is said to have London Association for prevention of poverty and existed, 978. A bridge built of wood, 1014, waz crime founded

partly burned in 1136. The late old bridge was s. London industrial exhibition opened 1 March, 1869 commenced about 1176, by Peter of Colechurch, Columbia market, ethnal-green, crected by Miss

and completed in 1209, with houses on each side, Burdett Coutts ; opened by her 28 April, Statue of Mr. Peabody uncovered, prince of Wales

connected together by large arches of timber which

crossed the street. Present

23 July, Inauguration of the Holborn viaduct and the new

A fire at the Southwark end brought crowds on the Blackfriars bridge by the queen.

6 Nov.

bridge ; the houses at the north end caught fire Inauguration of the Victoria (northern) Thames em

likewise, and prevented their escape: and upbankment by the prince of Wales . 13 July, 1870 wards of 3000 persons lost their lives, being International workmen's exhibition at Islington

either killed, burned or drowned

July, 1212 opened by the prince of Wales

16 July, The bridge restored in 1300, again destroyed by fire London ratepayers' school-board association esta

in 1471 ; 13 Feb. 1632, and

Sept. 1725 blished

8 Oct.
All the houses pulled down

1756 New city library and muscum founded near Guild- Waterworks begun, 1582 ; destroyed by fire

1774 hall

The toll discontinued

27 March, 1782 Loudon education board elected

In 1822 the corporation advertised for designs for a Foundation laid of new general post-office 16 Dec.

new bridge: that by John Rennie was approved, Mansion-house Relief Fund established for the

and the works were executed by his sons John French (24,000l. raised in 4 days) 18 Jan. 1871 Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, opened by the queen,

and George. The first pile was driven 200 feet to

the west of the old bridge, 15 March, 1824; the 29 March,

first stone was laid by the lord mayor, alderInternational Exhibition at South Kensington

man Garratt

15 June, 1825 opened by the prince of Wales

1 May, St. Thomas's hospital opened by the queen, 21 June,

The bridge opened by William IV. and his queen,

i Aug. 1831 Hampstead heath purchased by Metropolitan board The cost was 506,000l. of works for 45,000l. ; act passed

29 June,

It was computed that on 17 March, 1859, there The freedom of the city presented to prince Arthur, passed over London-bridge 20,498 vehicles (of Tolls on the Commercial roads, London, E., ceased,

which 4483 were cabs and 4286 omnibuses), and

167,910 persons (107,074 ou foot, and 60,836 in 5 Aug.

vehicles) Queen Victoria-street opened, 4 Nov. ; St. Andrew's street, &c., opened.

20 Nov.

LONDON CONFERENCE, of representaNew lieutenancy appointed, 1 Nov."

8 Dec. tives of the chief European powers to reconcile AusNational thanksgiving for the recovery of the prince tria, Prussia, and Denmark, met 25 April to 25 June, of Wales ; the queen and prince go to St. Paul's,

1864, without effect. For the conference in London

27 Feb. 1872 Strike of building trades begun, 1 June (see Strikes);

respecting the treaty of Paris, 1856, see Black Sea. lock-out by the masters begun :

19 June,

LONDON GATES, see note, p. 409. East London Museum at Bethnal-green opened by the prince and princess of Wales

LONDON INSTITUTION, "for the adMurder of Mrs. Squires and daughter in Hoxton at vancement of literature and the diffusion of useful noon

10 July, Failure of Gledstanes and Co. (East India firni) for

knowledge,” in imitation of the Royal Institution,

was founded in 1805 by sir Francis Baring, bart., nearly 2,000,000l. ; announced

22 Aug. Builders strike and lock-out ends by agreement,

and others, at 8, Old Jewry, Cheapside, and incorabout

27 Aug.

porated 30 April, 1815. Prof. Porson, the first New City Library and Museum at Guildhall Openeri librarian, died 25 Sept. 1808. The present building by the lord chancellor

in Finsbury-circus was opened on 21 April, 1819;


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