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reward; see Harrison's Timepiece. The chronometers of Arnold, Earnshaw, and Bréguet, are highly esteemed. Chronometers are now received on trial at Greenwich Observatory. The act relating to the discovery of the longitude at sea was repealed in 1828. The Bureau des Longitudes at Paris was established in 1795.
LONGOBARDI, see Lombardy.
LONG PARLIAMENT met 3 Nov. 1640; was forcibly dissolved by Cromwell 20 April, 1653. LONGWOOD, in St. Helena (S. Atlantic Ocean), the residence of the emperor Napoleon from 10 Dec. 1815 till his death, 5 May, 1821.
LONGWY (N.E. France), a frontier town, was taken by the allied army of Austrians and Prussians, 23 Aug. 1792, the beginning of the great war. It was again taken 18 Sept. 1815. After a bombardment it surrendered to the Germans, 25 Jan. 1871.
LOOKING-GLASSES, see Mirrors.
LOOM: : was used by the Egyptians. The weaver's otherwise called the Dutch loom, was brought into use in London from Holland, about 1676. There were, in 1825, about 250,000 hand-looms in Great Britain, In the 18th Vict. 1855
24th Vict. 1860.
32nd Vict. 1868
and 75,000 power-looms, each being equal to three hand-looms, making twenty-two yards each per day. The steam-loom was introduced in 1807; see Cotton, Electric-loom, Jacquard, Pneumatic-loom.
LORD'S SUPPER, instituted by Jesus Christ (Matt. xxvi. 17), 33, see Sacrament and Transubstantiation.
LORDS, HOUSE OF. The peers of England were summoned ad consulendum, to consult, in early reigns, and by writ, 6 & 7 John, 1205; but the earliest writ extant is 49 Hen. III. 1265. The commons did not form a part of the great council of the nation until some ages after the conquest; see Parliament. The house of lords includes the spiritual as well as temporal peers of Great Britain. The bishops are supposed to hold certain ancient baronies under the king, in right whereof they have seats in this house. Some of the temporal lords sit by descent, and some by creation: others by election, since the union with Scotland in 1707, and with Ireland, 1801.-Scotland elects 16 representative peers, and Ireland, 28 temporal peers for life. The house of lords in Jan. 1873 consisted of 4 princes of the blood, 2 archbishops, 20 dukes, 21 marquises, 127 earls, 32 viscounts, 245 barons, and 24 bishops; in all, 475.
LORDS.* The nobility of England date their creation from 1066, when William Fitz-Osborn is said to have been made earl of Hereford by William I.; and afterwards Walter d'Evreux, earl of Salisbury; Copsi, earl of Northumberland; Henry de Ferrers, earl of Derby; and Gerodus (a Fleming) earl of Chester. Twenty two other peers were made in this sovereign's reign. The first peer created by patent was lord Beauchamp of Holt Castle, by Richard II. in 1387. In Scotland, Gilchrist was created earl of Angus by Malcolm III. 1037. In Ireland, sir John de Courcy was created baron of Kinsale, &c., in 1181; the first peer after the obtaining of that kingdom by Henry II.
* Peers of England are free from all arrests of debts, as being the king's hereditary counsellors; therefore a peer cannot be outlawed in any civil action, and no attachment lies against his person; but execution may be taken upon his lands and goods. For the same reason, they are free from all attendance at courts leet or sheriff's turns; or, in case of a riot, from attending the posse comitatus. He can act as a justice of the peace in any part of the kingdom. See Baron, Earl, &c.
House of lords at death of Charles II. 1685
The king, barons, and clergy enact the constitutions of Clarendon in.
1164 1215 1264-5
Obtain Magna Charta in
Unite with the commons in making William and
Mary king and queen
Take possession of their new house
176 peers . 192 209 . 216 . 229 339 396 456 448
4 June, 1832
16 Oct. 1834 15 April, 1847 peerages,
7 Feb. 1856
New regulations respecting committees
31 March, 1868
That peers cannot vote for M.P.'s affirmed by court of common pleas on appeal
13 July, 1871
15 Nov. 1872
LORDS JUSTICES, see Justices.
LORETTO, near Ancona, Italy. Here is the Casa Santa, or Holy House, in which it is pretended the Virgin Mary lived at Nazareth, and said to have been carried by angels into Dalmatia from Galilee in 1291, and brought here a few years after. The lady of Loretto, gaudily dressed, stands upon an altar holding the infant Jesus in her arms, surrounded with gold lamps. Loretto was taken by the French in 1797; the holy image, which had been carried to France, was brought back with pomp, 5 Jan. 1803.
L'ORIENT (W. France). Lord Bridport off this port defeated the French fleet, 23 June, 1795. The loss of the French was severe: that of the
*Peerage for life only, with the title of lord Wensleydale of Wensleydale, was granted to baron sir James Parke, 10 Jan. 1856; the house of lords opposed his sitting and voting as a peer for life, and on 25 July, 1856, he was created a peer in the usual way, with the title of lord Wensleydale of Walton. He died in 1868. A bill for creating life peerages was read a second time in the lords, 27 April, 1869; but afterwards rejected.
British inconsiderable. The French flag-ship, L'ORIENT, blew up during the battle of the Nile, I Aug. 1798. Admiral Brueys and about 900 men perished.
LORRAINE (Lotharingia), formerly a French now a German province, became a kingdom under Lothaire (son of the emperor Lothaire I.) about 855; and was divided at his death, in 869, part of it being made a duchy. From the first hereditary duke, Gerard, nominated by the emperor Henry III. in 1048, descended the house of Lorraine, represented now by the emperor of Austria, whose ancestor, the empress Maria Theresa, married in 1736 Francis formerly duke of Lorraine, then of Tuscany. Lorraine, given to the dethroned king of Poland, Stanislaus I., for life, was, at his death in 1766, united to France; see Nancy. Lorraine was the seat of war in Aug. 1870, and the chief part was annexed to Germany at the peace, 26 Feb. 1871.
Cox's museum, containing many rare specimens of art and articles of virtù, disposed of by lottery, by an act of parliament
An act passed for the sale of the buildings of the Adelphi by lottery
Irish state lottery drawn
For the Pigott diamond, permitted, Jan. 2, 1801; it
Lotteries abolished by 6 Geo. IV. c. 60, Oct.; the last drawn 18 Oct. 1826 Act passed declaring that the then pending Glasgow lottery should be the last
An act passed imposing a penalty of 50l. for advertising lotteries in the newspapers 1836 Lotteries suppressed in France 1793 and 1836 Mr. Dethiers' twelfth-cake lottery, Argyll-rooms, Hanover-square, suppressed 27 Dec. 1860 LOUDON-HILL, or DRUMCLOG; see Drum
LOUIS-D'OR, a French gold coin of 24 francs, first struck by Louis XIII. in 1640; it was not legal, 1795-1814; superseded by the Napoleon, 1810.
sippi was given to England, 1763. Capital, Baton Rouge.
LOUISIANA (N. America), one of the United States; discovered by Ferdinand de Soto, 1541; traversed by M. de Salle, 1682; settled by Louis XIV. (from whom it derived its name), 1673. formed the basis of Law's Mississippi scheme, 1717. It was ceded to Spain when all east of the Missis
LOUVRE, in Paris, is said to have been a royal residence in the reign of Dagobert, 628. It was a prison-tower constructed by Philippe Augustus in 1204. It afterwards became a library, and Charles VI. made it his palace (about 1364). The new buildings, begun by Francis I. in 1528, were enlarged and adorned by successive kings, particularly Louis XIV.-Napoleon I. turned it into a museum, and deposited in it the finest collection of paintings, statues, and treasures of art known in the world. The chief of those brought from Italy have since been restored to the rightful possessors. The magnificent buildings of the new Louvre, begun by Napoleon I. and completed by Napoleon III., were inaugurated by the latter in great state, 14 Aug. 1857. The library was destroyed and other buildings much injured by the communists, May, 1871.
LOVE FEASTS, see Agapæ.
LOW COUNTRIES, the Pays Bas, now Holland and Belgium (which see).
LOWER EMPIRE. Some historians make it begin with the reign of Valerian, 253; others with that of Constantine, 323.
LOWERING BOAT APPARATUS, see Life-boats.
LOW SUNDAY, the first Sunday after Easter, said to derive its name from the inferiority of its solemnities to those of Easter Sunday; see Easter.
LOYALTY LOANS were raised during the revolutionary wars. The term was applied to one opened in London 5 Dec. 1796; in fifteen hours and twenty minutes the sum of eighteen millions sterling was subscribed; see National Association.
LUBBOCK'S ACT, Sir John, see Bank Holidays' Act.
LÜBECK, a city in N. Germany, one of the four republics of the German confederation, was built in the 12th century, and was chief founder of the Hanseatic league about 1240, which lasted till 1630. Lübeck was declared a free imperial city about 1226; but was frequently attacked by the Danes. The French took it by assault, 6 Nov. 1806, and Napoleon incorporated it with his empire in 1810. On his fall in 1814 it became once more a free imperial city. It joined the North German confederation 18 Aug. 1866. Population in 1867, 48,538.
LUCANIANS, a warlike people of S. Italy, defeated Alexander of Epirus at Pandosia, 332 B.C.; were subdued by the Romans, 227; revolted after the battle of Cannæ, 216; were reduced by Scipio, 201; again revolted, 90; admitted as Roman citizens, 88.
LUCCA (central Italy), a Roman colony, 177 B.C.; a Lombard duchy, A.D. 1327; a free city about 1370; took an active part in the civil wars of the
Italian republics. It was united with Tuscany, and given as a principality to Eliza Bonaparte by her brother Napoleon I. Lucca, as a duchy, was given to Maria Louisa, widow of Louis, king of Etruria, in 1814. It was exchanged by her son Charles-Louis for Parma and Placentia in 1847; was annexed to Tuscany, and with it became part of the kingdom of Italy, in 1860.
LUCERNE (Switzerland) became independent in 1332, and joined the confederation. The city Lucerne is said to derive its name from a light (lucerna) set up to guide travellers. It dates from the 8th century, and was subject to the abbots of Murbach, who surrendered it to the house of Hapsburg. It was taken by the French in March, 1798, and was for a short time capital of the Helvetic republic; which, as the focus of insurrection against the French, was suppressed Oct. 1802. a catholic canton, Lucerne was very active on behalf of education by the Jesuits, 1844; see Switzerland.
"The king shall have the custody of the lands of natural fools," &c., 17 Edw. II.
Marriages with lunatics declared void, 15 Geo. II.
A new lunacy act for Scotland passed
TREATMENT OF THE INSANE.
Till the end of the last century lunatics were treated with cruel severity; see Conolly "On the Treatment of the Insane," 1856.
The insane were exhibited at Bethlem as a show, for id. or 2d. till
Enlightened principles of treatment were introduced by Wm. Tuke, at the Society of Friends' Retreat," at York, and by Pinel, at the Bicétre, Paris, with very great success. Esquirol succeeds Pinel, and strongly recommends instruction in the management of mental disorders
Exposure of enormous cruelties in the Bethlem
This led to gradual improvements, and at last to the total abolition of mechanical restraints at Lincoln, 1837; and at Hanwell Asylum (under the superintendence of Dr. John Conolly) and at other places
LUGDUNUM, see Leyden and Lyons. LUNATICS. Insanity, in a thousand male 1801. patients, has been traced to
Psychological Journal first published by Dr. Forbes
Journal of Mental Science, by Dr. J. C. Bucknill See Hospitals.
Lunatics in charge in
PAUPER. PRIVATE. Male. Female. Male. Female. 132 6008 123 7316 895 723 91 94 1448 1350 1034 1279 8689 20,493 On 1 Jan. 1858, there were in charge in England and Wales 22,310 lunatics of all classes; 1859, 22,853; 1860, 17,837; 1861, 23.721; 1862, 26,169; 1864, 28,285; 1865, 29,425; 1866, 30,869; 1867, 33,123: 1868, 33,213; 1869, 34,681; 1870, 35,913; 1871, 36,874; 1872, 37.176.
In 1851, there were in Ireland nearly 15,000 lunatics of all classes; in Scotland in 1851, 3362 in charge; in 1855, 7403 of which only 3328 were under the protection of the law.
LUND-HILL, near Barnsley, in South Yorkshire. While the miners were dining in the pit, 19
Feb. 1857, the inflammable gas took fire and exploded. About 189 miners perished. In April and May bodies were still being extricated. There had been great laxity of discipline in the pit. 7000l. were subscribed for the bereaved.
LUNEBURG, see Brunswick.
LUNEVILLE (France), PEACE OF, concluded between the French republic and the emperor of Germany, confirmed the cessions made by the treaty of Campo Formio, stipulated that the Rhine, as far as the Dutch territories, should form the boundary of France, and recognised the Batavian, Helvetic, Ligurian, and Cisalpine republics, 9 Feb.
LUPERCALIA, a yearly festival observed at Rome on 15 Feb. in honour of Pan, destroyer of wolves (lupi), instituted by the Romans, according to Plutarch; but according to Livy, brought by Evander into Italy. These feasts are said to have been abolished in 496, by pope Gelasius, on account of their great disorders.
LUSATIA, a marquisate in N. Germany, given to John of Bohemia, 1319; obtained by Matthias of Hungary, 1478; ceded to Saxony in 5 1635.
LUSIAD, the great epic poem of the Portuguese, written in honour of their discoveries in India, by Luis de Camoëns, and published by him at Lisbon, 1572. The English translations are by sir Richard Fanshawe, 1655; and by Wm. Julius Mickle, 1775.
LUSITANIA, see Portugal.
LUSTRUM, an expiatory sacrifice made for the Roman people, at the end of every five years, after the census had been taken, 472 B.C. Every fifth year was called a lustrum; and ten, fifteen, or twenty years, were commonly expressed by two, three or four lustra. The number of Roman citizens was-in 293 B.C., 272,308; 179 B.C., 273,294; 70 B.C., 450,000; 28 B.C., 4,164,060; A.D. 48, 5,984,072. The last lustrum took place, 74. LUTHERANISM, the form of Christianity professed by the majority of the people of the north of Germany, Prussia, Denmark, and Sweden. The doctrines are mainly embodied in Luther's catechisms, in the Augsburg Confession, and in the Formula Concordia of the Lutherans, published in 1580. Their first university was founded at Marburg, in 1527, by Philip, landgrave of Hesse. The Luther memorial at Worms was unveiled in presence of the king of Prussia and other sovereigns, 25 June, 1868.
LUTZEN, or LUTZENGEN (N. Germany); Here Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, defeated the imperialists under Wallenstein, 16 Nov. 1632, but was himself killed; and here the French army, commanded by Napoleon, defeated the combined armies of Russia and Prussia, commanded by general Wittgenstein, 2 May, 1813. The battles of Bautzen and Wurschen immediately followed (19-21 May), both in favour of Napoleon. The allies were compelled to pass the Oder, and an armistice was agreed to, afterwards prolonged; but, unfortunately for the French emperor, this did not produce
LUXEMBURG, a grand duchy held by the king of Holland. Luxemburg, the capital, once considered the strongest fortified city in the world, has been many times besieged and taken by the French in 984, 1443, 1479, 1542-3; by the Spaniards in 1544; by the French in 1684; restored to Spain in 1697; taken by the French in 1701; given to the Dutch as a barrier town, but ceded to the emperor at the peace in 1713. It withstood several sieges in the last century. It surrendered to the French after a siege, from Nov. 1794 to July, 1795; and was retaken by the allies in May, 1814. Population of the grand duchy, 1867, 199,958.
The grand duchy was annexed to the Netherlands,
still remaining a member of the Germanic confederation, the capital having a Prussian garrison 1815 A portion given to the new kingdom of Belgium 1830 After the dissolution of the Germanic confederation, the emperor Napoleon objected to the Prussian garrison, and offered to buy the grand duchy from the king of Holland March, 1867 In consequence of the opposition of Prussia, a conference of representatives of the great powers met in London, 7-11 May, who agreed upon a treaty guaranteeing the neutrality of the province, the retirement of the Prussian garrison, and the dismantling the fortress of Luxemburg 7-11 May,
* Martin Luther was born at Eisleben, 10 Nov. 1483: studied at Erfurt, 1501; was professor of philosophy at Wittenberg, 1508; resisted the sale of indulgences, 1517; defended himself at Augsburg, 1518; at Worms, 1520; was excommunicated, 16 June, 1520; began his German bible, 1521; married Katherine de Bora, 1525; published his German bible complete, 1534; died 18 Feb. 1546.
He is defeated, pursued, and besieged in his capital by Cyrus, who orders him to be burned alive; the pile is already on fire, when Croesus calls aloud Solon! and Cyrus hearing him, spares his life. Lydia made a province of the Persian empire
Argon, a descendant of Hercules, reigns in Lydia,
Meles commences his rule
Gyges, first of the race Mermnada, kills Candaules,
The Milesian war, commenced under Gyges, is con-
Sardis burnt by the Ionians Lydia conquered by Alexander
Becomes part of the kingdom of Pergamus Conquered by the Turks
28 May, B.C. 585 Croesus, son of Alyattes, succeeds to the throne, and conquers Asia Minor Croesus, dreading Cyrus, whose conquests had reached to the borders of Lydia, crosses the Halys to attack the Medes, with 420,000 men and 60,000 horse
797 761 747
283 A.D. 1326
Battle near Lyons; Clodius Albinus defeated and
LYING-IN HOSPITALS. The first, established in Dublin by Dr. Bartholomew Mosse, a physician, amid strong opposition, was opened Two general councils held here (13th and 14th), March, 1745; see Hospitals.
LYMPHATICS (absorbent vessels connected with digestion), discovered about 1650 by Rudbek in Sweden, Bartholin in Denmark, and Jolyffe in England. Asellius discovered the lacteals in 1622. In 1654, Glisson ascribed to these vessels the function of absorption; and their properties were studied by Wm. and John Hunter, Monro, Hewson, and other great anatomists.
LYNCH LAW, punishment inflicted by private individuals, independently of the legal authorities, said to derive its name from John Lynch, a farmer, who exercised it upon the fugitive slaves and criminals dwelling in the "dismal swamp,' North Carolina, when they committed outrages upon persons and property which the colonial law could not promptly repress. This mode of administering justice began about the end of the 17th century, and still exists in the outlying districts of the United States. Four robbers were taken from prison and hanged by a vigilance committee at New Albany, on the Ohio, 11 Dec. 1868.
LYNDHURSTS ACT (5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54) introduced by lord Lyndhurst, rendered valid certain marriages within the forbidden degrees of kindred up to that time, but prohibited them for the future; passed 31 Aug. 1835.
LYONS (S. France), the Roman Lugdunum, founded by M. Plancus, 43 B.C. The city was reduced to ashes in a single night by lightning, A.D. 59, and was rebuilt in the reign of Nero. It was a free city till its union with France in 1307.
MACADAMISING, a system of road-making invented by Mr. John Macadam, and published by him in an essay, in 1819, having practised it in Ayrshire. He prescribed stones to be broken to six ounces weight, and the use of clean flints and granite clippings. He received 10,000l. from parliament; was appointed surveyor-general of the metropolitan roads in 1827, and died in 1836; see Roads.
MACAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863. Here Camoens composed part of the "Lusiad."
MACARONI. This name, given to a poem by Theophilus Folengo, 1509, continues to designate trifling performances, as buffoonery, puns, anagrams, "wit without wisdom, and humour without sense. His poem was so called from an Italian cake of the same name, pleasant to the taste, with little alimentary virtue. These poems, in Italy and France, gave rise to Macaroni academies, and in England to Macaroni clubs (about 1772), when everything ridiculous in dress and manners was called Macaroni."
Silk manufacture commenced
the Romans and Lacedæmonians, and after an able
MACCABEES, a family of patriotic Jews, during the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, 167 B.C. Mattathias, a priest, resisted the tyranny; and his son, Judas Maccabæus, defeated the Syrians in three battles, 166, 165 B.C.; but fell in an ambush, 161 B.C. His brother Jonathan made a league with
Capitulated to the Austrians
12 Oct. 1793 March, 1814 8 March, 1815
Entry of Napoleon
A dreadful inundation at Lyons (see
4 Nov. 1840
Another insurrection quelled, with much loss of life,
Grand banquet to Louis Napoleon
LYRE. Its invention is ascribed to the Grecian Hermes (in Latin Mercury), who, according to Homer, gave it to Apollo, the first that played upon it with method, and accompanied it with poetry. The invention of the primitive lyre, with three strings, is ascribed to the first Egyptian Hermes. Terpander added several strings to the lyre, making the number seven, 673 B.C. Phrynis, a musician of Mitylene, added two more, making nine, 438 B.C.
MACDONALD AFFAIR, see Prussia, 1861. MACE, a weapon anciently used by the cavalry of most nations, was originally a spiked club, hung at the saddle-bow, and usually of metal. Maces were also early ensigns of authority borne before officers of state, the top being made in the form of an open crown, and commonly of silver gilt. The lord chancellor and speaker of the house of commons have maces borne before them. Edward III. granted to London the privilege of having gold or silver maces carried before the lord mayor, sheriffs, aldermen, and corporation, 1354. It was with the mace usually carried before the lord mayor on state occasions, that Walworth, lord mayor of London, is said to have knocked the rebel Wat Tyler off his horse, for rudely approaching Richard II., a courtier afterwards despatching him with his dagger, 15 June, 1381. Cromwell, entering the house of commons to disperse its members and dissolve the parliament, ordered one of his soldiers to "take