Page images

19 Feb

'1245, 1274


LYING-IN HOSPITALS. The first, esta Battle near Lyons; Clodius Albinus defeated and blished in Dublin by Dr. Bartholomew Mosse, a slain by Septimius Severus

197 physician, amid strong opposition, was opened Two general councils held here (13th and 14th), March, 1745; see Hospitals.

Silk manufacture commenced

Lyons taken by the republicans after 70 days'siege, LYMPHATICS (absorbent vessels connected

9 Oct. ; awful pillage and slaughter follow; the with digestion), discovered about 1650 by Rudbek Convention decreed the demolition of the city, in Sweden, Bartholin in Denmark, and Jolyffe in

12 Oct 1793 England. Asellius discovered the lacteals in Capitulated to the Austrians

March, 1814

8 March, 1815 1622. In 1654, Glisson ascribed to these vessels the Entry of Napoleon function of absorption; and their properties were

An insurrection among the artisans, which led to

great popular excesses; quelled by an army, studied by Wm. and John Hunter, Monro, Hew

21 Nov.-31 Dec. 1831 son, and other great anatomists.

Dreadful riots, put down by military 15 April, 1834
Railway to Paris opened

7 April, 1839 LYNCH LAW, punishment inflicted by pri- A dreadful inundation at Lyons (see Inundations),

Nov. 1840 vate individuals, independently of the legal authorities, said to derive its name from John Lynch, a

Another insurrection quelled, with much loss of life,

15 June, 1849 farmer, who exercised it upon the fugitive slaves Grand banquet to Louis Napoleon

15 Aug. 1850 and criminals dwelling in the “dismal swamp,' A committee of public safety appointed here and the North Carolina, when they committed outrages red flag raised soon afterthe revolution in Paris. M. upon persons and property which the colonial law Saigne, calling himself president, gen. Cluseret (excould not promptly repress. This mode of adminis

pelled from Paris), and other extreme republicans,

defeated in their endeavours todepose M. Challemel tering justice began about the end of the 17th

Lacour, the prefect of the Rhone, who was well century, and still exists in the outlying districts of

supported by the national guard : gen. Mazure, the United States. Four robbers were taken from the military commander, accused of treacherous prison and hanged by a vigilance committee at New inaction, was arrested

28 Sept. 1870 Albany, on the Ohio, 11 Dec. 1868.

Arnaud, commandant of the national guard, mur

dered by the mob, after a mock trial, for resistLYNDHURST'S ACT (5 & 6 Will. IV. c. 54), Order maintained at Lyons .

ing them

20 Dec.

. March, 1871 introduced by lord Lyndhurst, rendered valid certain marriages within the forbidden degrees of LYRE. Its invention is ascribed to the Grecian kindred up to that time, but prohibited them for Hermes (in Latin Mercury), who, according to the future; passed 31 Aug. 1835.

Homer, gave it to Apollo, the first that played upon

it with method, and accompanied it with poetry. LYONS (S. France), the Roman Lugdunum, The invention of the primitive lyre, with three founded by M. Plancus, 43 B.C. The city was re strings, is ascribed to the first Egyptian Hermes. duced to ashes in a single night by lightning, A.D. Terpander added sereral strings to the lyre, making 59, and was rebuilt in the reign of Nero. It was the number seven, 673 B.C. Phrynis, a musician of a free city till its union with France in 1307. Mitylene, added two more, making nine, 438 B.C.

M. MACADAMISING, a system of road-making the Romans and Lacedæmonians, and after an able invented by Mr. Jolin Macadam, and published by administration was treacherously killed at Ptolehim in an essay, in 1819, having practised it in mais by Tryphon, 143 B.C. His brother and sucAyrshire. He prescribed stones to be broken to six cessor, Simon, was also murdered, 135 B.C. John ounces weight, and the use of clean flints and granite Hyrcanus, son of Simon, succeeded.

His son clippings. He received 10,0001. from parliament; was Judas, called also Aristobulus, took the title of appointed surveyor-general of the metropolitan roads king, 107 B.C. The history of the Maccabees is in 1827, and died in 1836; see Roads.

contained in five books of that name, two of which

are included in our Apocrypha. Four are accounted MAÇAO (in Quang-tong, S. China) was given canonical by the Roman Catholic church; none by to the Portuguese as a commercial station in 1586 Protestant communions. (in return for their assistance against pirates), subject to an annual tribute, which was remitted in 1863.

MACDONALD AFFAIR, see Prussia, 1861. Here Camoens composed part of the “Lusiad.” MACE, a weapon anciently used by the cavalry

MACARONI. This name, given to a poem by of most nations, was originally a spiked club, hung Theophilus Folengo, 1509, continues to designate at the saddle-bow, and usually of metal. Maces trifling performances, as buffoonery, puns, ana- were also early ensigns of authority borne before grams,

wit without wisdom, and humour without officers of state, the top being made in the form of

His poem was so called from an Italian an open crown, and commonly of silver gilt. The cake of the same name, pleasant to the taste, with lord chancellor and speaker of the house of commons little alimentary virtue. These poems, in Italy have maces borne before them. Edward III. granted and France, gave rise to Macaroni academics, and to London the privilege of having gold or silver in England to Macaroni clubs (about 1772), when maces carried before the lord mayor, sheriffs, aldereverything ridiculous in dress and manners was men, and corporation, 1354. It was with the mace called “Macaroni.”

usually carried before the lord mayor on state

occasions, that Walworth, lord mayor of London, is MACCABEES, a family of patriotic Jews, said to have knocked the rebel Wat Tyler off his during the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, 167 horse, for rudely approaching Richard II., a courB.C. Mattathias, a priest, resisted the tyranny; and tier afterwards despatching him with his dagger, his son, Judas Maceabaus, defeated the Syrians in 15 June, 1381. Cromwell, entering the house of three battles, 166, 165 B.C.; but fell in an ambush, commons to disperse its members and dissolve the 161 B.C. His brother Jonathan made a league with parliament, ordered one of his soldiers to “take



315 312





274 272





367 360





away that bauble," the mace, which was done, and Cassander reigns, 316 ; rebuilds Thebes the doors of the house locked, 20 April, 1653.

Seleucus recovers Babylon

Cassander kills Roxana and her son (the last of MACEDON (X. Greece). The first kingdom

Alexander's family), and usurps the throne was founded by Caranus, about 814 B.C.

It was
Battle of Ipsus (which see); Antigonus killed


New division of the empire successively under the protection of Athens, of

Death of Cassander

298 Thebes, and Sparta, until the reign of Philip, the Reign of Alexander V. and Antipater, his sons father of Alexander the Great, who by his political Demetrius I., Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus, murders wisdom and warlike exploits made it a powerful

Alexander, and seizes the crown of M don

294 kingdom, and paved the way for his son's great

Achaan league forned against Macedou

Governments of Pyrrhus, 287; Lysimachus, 286 ; ness.

Ptolemy Ceraunus

281 Reigns of Caranus, 814 B.C., or 796, or 748; Per

Irruption of the Gauls ; Ptolemy killed

279 diccas I., 729; Argæus I., 684; Philip I., 640 or

Sosthenes governs

278 609.

Reign of Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius

277 Eropus conquers the Illyrians


Pyrrhus invades Macedon, defeats Antigonus, and Reign of Amyntas, 540; of Alexander I.

is proclaimed king Macedon conquered by the Persians, 513;

delivered Pyrrhus slain ; Antigonus restored by the victory of Plataa

Antigonus takes Athens

268 479 Reign of Perdiccas II.

The Gauls again invade Macedon Potidæa, revolting, 433; re-taken by the Athenians

Revolt of the Parthians

250 429 Archelaus, natural son of Perdiccas, murders the

Reign of Demetrius II.

239 legitimate heirs ; seizes the throne, and improves

Philip, his son, 232 : set aside by Antigonus Doson 229 the country, 413; murdered by a favourite, to

Philip V., 220; allies with Hannibal, 211; whom he promised his daughter in marriage

unsuccessfully against the Rhodians

399 Pansanias reigns

Philip defeated by the Romans at Cynoscephalde 197 Reign of Amyntas II., 393; expelled

Reign of Perseus, his son, 178; war with Rome 398

171 Recovers his throne, and kills Pausanias

Persens defeated at Pydna; Macedon made a

397 The Illyrians enter Macedonia, expel Amyntas, and

Roman province

168 make Aryrus, brother of Pausanias, king

Perseus and his son's walk in chains before the

392 Ainynjas again recovers his kingdom

chariot of Æmilius in his triumph for the con

390 Reiju of Alexander II., 369; assassinated

quest of Macedon

167 Reign of Periiccas III., 364; killed in battle

Insurrection of Andriscus, calling himself Philip Reign of Philip II., and institution of the Mace

son of Perseus, quelled

148 donian phalanx .

Macedonia plundered by Theodorie the Ostro

359 He defeats the Athenians and Myrians

360, 359

goth He takes Amphipolis; see Archery

Conquered by the Bulgarians 358

978 He conquers Thrace, Illyria, and Thessaly

Recovered by the 356-352


emperor Birth of Alexander III. the Great

Formed into the Latin kingilom of Thessalonica, by Close of the first sacred war

Boniface, of Montferrat 346

1204 Illyricum overrun by the army of Philip.

After various changes, conquered by Amurath 11.;

344 Thrace made tributary to Macedon

and annexed to Turkey 343

• 1430 Aristotle appointed tutor to Alexander War against the Athenians

341 MACEDONIANS, a semi-Arian sect, followers Philip besieged Byzantium unsuccessfully


of Macedonius, made bishop of Constantinople Battle of Chæronea; Philip victor

338 Philip is assassinated by Pausanias at Ægæ during

about 341. His appointment was greatly opposed the celebration of games in honour of his

and led to much bloodshed. He was expelled by daughter's nuptials ; Alexander III., the Great,

the decree of a council held 360. succeeds

336 The Greeks appoint him general of their armies MACHIAVELLIAN PRINCIPLES, against the Persians


those of Nicolo Machiavelli of Florence (born The Thebans revolt; he ievels Thebes to the

1469, died 1527), in his “Practice of Politics" and ground ; the house of Pindar alone left

The Prince. He passes into Asia, and gains his first battle over

By, some they are styled “the Darius at the Granicus

22 May, 334

most pernicious maxims of government, founded on Sarlis surrenders, Halicarnassus taken, and cities the vilest policy;” by others as “sound doctrines, in Asia Minor

notwithstanding the prejudice erroneously raised Memnon ravages the Cyclades ; Darius takes the against them.” The author said that if he taught

field with 460,000 infantry, and 100,000 cavalry 333 princes to be tyrants, he also taught the people to Darius defeated at Issus (which see)

Nov. Alexander on his way to Egypt, lays siege to Tyre,

destroy tyrants. “The Prince” appeared at Rome which is destroyed after seven months

in 1532, and was translated into English in 1761. Damascus is taken ; Gaza surrenders Alexander enters Jerusalem ; Egypt conquered ; MACIEJOVICE (near Warsaw, Poland).

Alexandria founded
The Persians totally defeated at Arbela

i Oct

Here the Poles were totally defeated by the Russians,

331 Alexander master of Asia ; enters Babylon

and their general, Kosciusko, taken prisoner, 1o Sits on the throne of Darius at Susa

Oct. 1794, after a murderous action. He strenuously Parthia, Media, &c., overrun by him

endeavoured to prevent the junction of the Russian

329 Thalestris, queen of the Amazons, visits him

and Austrian armies. The statement that he said He puts his friend Parmenio to death, on a charge

"Finis Polonia !” is contradicted. of conspiracy supposed to be false His expedition to India ; Porus, king of India, is defeated and taken; and the country as far as the

MADAGASCAR (S. E. coast of Africa), a Ganges is overrun

large island, said to have been discovered by

327 Callisthenes is put to the torture for refusing to Lorenzo Almeida, 1506. Population, about 5,000,000; render divine hoinage to Alexander

150,000 Christians in 1870. Voyage of his admiral Nearchus from the Indus i to the Euphrates

328-325 Portuguese settlement, 1548; destroyed by the Returns to Babylon, 324 : dies

323 French one, 1642, on arrival of a French governor 1669 l'hilip III. (Aridirus) king

The French attempted to settle at Antongel-bay in 1774 Alexander's conquests are divided among 'his Count Benyowski supreme in the island, Oct. 1775 ; generals, 323 ; his remains are transported to

killed in an encounter with the French 23 May, 1786 Alexandria, and buried by Ptolemy

322 Their establishinent at Fort Dauphin fell into the The Greeks defeated by Antipater and the Mace hands of the English with Bourbon and Mauritius donians, near Cranon (which see)







1 Aug. 1792


The settlements ceded to king Radama, on his Lord Macartney arrives as governor . . 22 June, 1781 giving up the slave trade

1818 The Madras government arrest gen. Stuart for dis. Radama I, king 1810, who favoured Europeans and obedience, and send him to England. June, 1783 encouraged Christianity, died

Lord Cornwallis arrives here

12 Dec. 1790 A reactionary policy under his energetic queen Sir Charles Oakley succeeds gen. Medows as governor,

Ranavalono, 1828. The English missionaries who came in 1820 obliged to depart

Madras system of education introduced (see MoniThe application of the native laws to the European


1795 settlers occasioned an unsuccessful attack on the Lord Mornington (afterwards the marquis Wellesley) town of Tamatave, by a united expedition from

visits here

Dec. 1798 the English at the Mauritius, and the French

General Harris with the Madras army enters Mysore, from the isle of Bourbon

June, 1845 5 March ; and arrives at Seringapatam, 5 April, All amicable intercourse ceases, the native Christians which is stormed by the British under majorsuffer persecution

1846 et seq. general Baird, and Tippoo Sahib killed . 4 May, 1799 The French defeated in an attack on the island, Appointment of sir Thomas Strange, first judge of 19 Oct. 1855 Madras under the charter

26 Dec. 1800 Conspiracy against the queen frustrated June, 1857 More than 1000 houses in Madras burnt.

Feb. 1803 The rev. W. Ellis published accounts of his three The Madras army under general Arthur Wellesley

visits to the island, on behalf of the London (afterwards dluke of Wellington) marches for PooMissionary Society, in 1854-5-6. 1858 nah (see Inulia):

March, The queen dies ; succeeded by her son Radama II., Mutiny among the native forces at Vellore ; 600 a Christian

23 Aug. 1861
sepoys killed ; 200 executed .

10 July, 1806 Treaty with Great Britain and France signed,

Mutiny of the sepoy troops at Madras

1809 12 Sept. 1862 Arrival of lord Minto at Madras, who publishes a A revolution ; the king and his ministers assassinated;

general amnesty

29 Sept. the queen Rasoherina proclaimed sovereign, May, 1863 Awful hurricane, by which the ships at anchor were Embassy from Madagascar arrives at Southampton, driven into the town and seventy sail sunk, many

Feb. 1864
with their crews.

May, 1811
Disputes with the French.
Nov. Madras attacked by the Pindarees

1817 Treaty with Great Britain ; Christians to be tole Appointment of the rev. Dr. Corrie, first bishop of rated, &c., 27 June, 1865; ratified

5 July, 1866

14 Feb. 1635 Rev. Wm. Ellis's “ Madagascar Revisited," pub? Sir

Charles Trevelyan, governor, Jan. 1859: recalled lished

i Feb. 1867 for publishing a minute in opposition to Mr. Jas. The queen died in March ; her cousin, Ranavalo II., Wilson's financial schemes

10 May, 1860 a Christian, succeeded

1 April, 1868 (Appointed financial secretary and a member of Dr. Henry Rowley was consecrated bishop of the Indian council at Calcutta, Oct. 1862.) Madagascar

Dec. 1872 His successor, sir H. Wood, dies at Madras, 2 Aug.

Sir Wm. Dennison appointed governor, Nov. 1860 ; MADDER, the root of the Rubia tinctoria, arrives

. 18 Feb. 1861 highly valued for dyeing properties. 305,758 cwts.

Lord Napier appointed governor

31 Jan. 1866 (valued at 848,9321.) were imported into this

Arrival of the duke of Edinburgh . 22 March, 1870
Lord Hobart appointed governor

Feb. 1872 country in 1868. See Alizarine.

[For other events, see İndia.] MADEIRA, an island, N. W. coast of Africa,

MADRID (New Castile), mentioned in history discovered, it is said, in 1344, by Mr. Macham, an English gentleman, or mariner, who fled from

as Majerit, a Moorish castle. France for an illicit amour. He was driven here Sacked by the Moors. by a storm, and his mistress, a French lady, dying, Fortified by Henry III. about

1400 he made a canoe, and carried the news of his dis

Humiliating treaty of Madrid between Charles v. and Francis I., his prisoner .

14 Jan. 1526 covery to Pedro, king of Aragon, which occasioned

Made the seat of the Spanish court by Philip II. 1500 the report that the island was discovered by a The Escurial built

1563 et seur. Portuguese, 1345. It is asserted that the Portu Taken by lord Galway

24 June, 1706 guese did not visit this island until 1419 or 1420,

The old palace burnt down

1734 or colonise it until 1431. It was taken by the

Madrid taken by the French

March, 1808 British in July, 1801; and again by admiral Hood

The citizens attempt to expel the French ; defeated

with much slaughter. and general Beresford, 24 Dec. 1807, and retained Joseph Bonaparte enters Madrid as king of Spain

• 2 May, in trust for the royal family of Portugal, who had (but soon retires)

20 July, 1808 emigrated to the Brazils. It was restored to the Madrid retaken by the French Portuguese in 1814. Since 1852 the renowned Retained till it is entered by Wellington 12 Aug. 1812 vintages here have been totally ruined by the vine

Ferdinand VII. restored

14 May, 1814 disease (oïdium).

Maulrid pronounces for provisional government against Isabella II.

29 Sept. 1868 MADIAI PERSECUTION, see Tuscany.

English protestant church authorised

Population, in 1857, 271,254 : in 1870, 332,024. MADRAS (S. E. Hindostan), called by the

See Spain, 1840 et sey. natives Chennapatam, colonised by the English,

MADRIGAL, an unaccompanied song for three 1640.

or more voices, of which the finest examples are by Fort St. George built, 1641 ; made a presidency 1653 English composers. Madrigals were published by Bengal placed under Miviras Calcutta, hitherto subordinate to Madras, made a

1658 Morley, 1594 ; Weelkes, 1597; Wilbye, 1598; and presidency

Bennet, 1599. The Madrigal Society in London

1701 Madras taken by the French

14 Sept. 1746

began in 1741. English Glee and Madrigal Union Restored to the English

founded in 1851. Rimbault's “Bibliotheca Madri

• 1749 Vainly besieged by the French under Lally, 12 Dec. 1458 galium ” published 1847. Hyder marches to Madras and obtains a favourable treaty

April, 1769

MAESTRICHT (Holland), the ancient TraSir John Lindsay arrives

July, 1770 jectum ad Mosam, the capital of Limburg. It reHe is succeeded by sir R. Hartland

Sept. 1771

volted from Spain, and was taken by the prince of Lord Pigot, governor, imprisoned by his own coun

Parma in 1579, when a dreadful massacre took cil, 24 Aug. 1776 ; dies in continement, 17 April,

place. In 1632, the prince of Orange reduced it 1777 ; his enemies convicted and lined ioool. each,

11 Feb. 1780

after a memorable siege, and it was confirmed to Sir Eyre Coote arrives

the Dutch in 1648; Louis XIV. took it in 1673; He defeats Ilyder .

1 July, 1781 William, prince of Orange, invested it in vain in


2 Dec

9 Nov.

5 Nov.


1732 1739




1676; but in 1678 it was restored to the Dutch. 27 Nov. 1520. He gave the latter ocean its name In 1748 it was besieged by the French, who were on account of its calmness. Magellan completed permitted to take possession of the city on condi- the first voyage round the world, with a fleet of tion of its being restored at the peace then nego- discovery fitted out by the emperor Charles V., but tiating. In Feb. 1793, Maestricht was unsuccess- was killed in 1521. The Spaniards had a fort here, fully attacked by the French, but they became | called Cape Famine, because the garrison perished masters of it, Nov. 1794. In 1814 it was made part for want. of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and now belongs to Holland.

MAGENTA, a small town in Lombardy, near

which the French and Sardinians defeated the MAGAZINE, at first a miscellaneous periodical Austrians, 4 June, 1859. The emperor Louis publication. There are now magazines devoted to Napoleon commanded, and he and the king of nearly every department of knowledge. The fol- Sardinia were in the thickest of the fight. It is lowing are the dates of the first publication of the said that 55,000 French and Sardinians, and 75,000 principal magazines, some of which are extinct. Austrians were engaged. The former are asserted In Jan. 1865, 544 magazines; in Jan. 1872, 639 to have lost 4000 killed and wounded, and the were in course of publication in Great Britain and Austrians 10,000, besides 7000 prisoners. The Ireland; see Reviews and Newspapers.

French generals Espinasse and Clerc were killed. Gentleman's 1731 | Blackwood's

The arrival of general M-Mahon during a deadly

1817 London.

New Monthly


struggle between the Austrians and the French, Fraser's

1830 greatly contributed to the victory. The contest Royal 1759 Metropolitan .


near the bridge of Buffalora was very severe. The 1760 Penny.

1832 Austrians fought well, but were badly commanded. Gospel 1768 | Tait's

The emperor and king entered Milan on 8 June Lady's 1772 Cornhill

1859 following; M'Mahon and Regnault d’Angely were European

1782 Macmillan's Methodist 1784 Good Words


created marshals of France. A monument erected Evangelical 1792 St. Paul's

1869 here in memory of the slain was solemnly inauguMonthly

1796 Many new ones pub- rated 4 June, 1872.- The red dye, rosaniline, obPhilosophical


1860-73 tained by chemists from gas-tar, is termed magenta; MAGDALA, a very strong place in Abyssinia see Aniline. (which see). On Good Friday, 10 April, 1808, the

MAGI or WORSHIPPERS OF FIRE. The troops of the emperor Theodore attacked the first Persians adored the invisible and incomprehensible brigade of the British army under sir Robert God as the principle of all good, and paid homage Napier, and were repulsed with great slaughter. to fire, as the emblem of his power and purity. On the next day all the European prisoners were They built no altars nor temples; their sacred fires given up, but Theodore himself refused to sur

blazed in the open air, and their offerings were render; and on Easter Monday, 13 April, Magadala made upon the earth. The Magi, their priests, are was stormed, and Theodore himself killed- it is said to have had skill in astronomy, &c.; hence said by his own hand.-British loss, 2 killed ; 20

the term Magi was applied to all learned men, till wounded : Abyssinian loss, about 500 killed and they were confounded with the magicians. Zorowounded out of about 5000.' Magdala was burnt to

aster, king of Bactria, the reformer of the sect of the ground by the British, 17 April, 1868.

the Magi, flourished about 550 B.C. This religion MAGDALENS AND MAGDALENETTES,

was superseded in Persia by Mahometanism, A.D. communities of nuns, consisting chiefly

of penitent 652, and the Parsees at Bombay are descendants of courtesans. The order of penitents of St. Magdalen the Guebres or or fire-worshippers. was founded 1272, at Marseilles. The convent of

MAGIC, see Alchemy, Witchcraft, &c. The Naples was endowed by queen Sancha, 1324. That invention of the Magic LANTERN is ascribed to at Metz was instituted in 1452. At Paris, 1492. Roger Bacon, about 1260, but more correctly to The Magdalen at Rome was endowed by pope Athanasius Kircher, who died 1680. See Godwin's Leo X., in 1515, and favoured by Clement VIII. in

** Lives of the Necromancers, 1834, and Enne1594. The Magdalen hospital, London, was founded in 1758, under the direction of Dr. Dodd. The Howitt, 1854.

moser's “History of Magic,” translated by W. asylum in Dublin was opened in June, 1766.

1 MAGISTRATES, see Justices. Stipendiary MAGDEBURG (Prussia). The archbishopric borough magistrates may be appointed by 5 & 6 was founded about 907. The city suffered much Will. IV. c. 76, 1835; and by 26 & 27 Vict. c. 97, during the religious wars in Germany. besieged and taken by the elector Maurice, !Nov. ' magistrates the chief sitting at Bow-street) was

1863. The present arrangement of metropolitan 1550, and Nov. 1551; blockaded for seven months made by act of parliament in 1792. Henry Fieldby the imperialists, under Wallenstein, in 1629; , ing, the novelist, was acting magistrate for Westand barbarously sacked by Tilly on 10 May, 1631. It was given to Brandenburg in 1648; was taken half-brother, sir John Fielding, in 1761 ; by

minster and at Bow-street. He was succeeded by his by the French, 8 Nov. 1806; annexed to the king

Sir William Addington

1780 dom of Westphalia, 9 July, 1807; restored to Prussia, May, 1813.

1806 The Magdeburg Erperiment is shown by means of a hollow Sir Nathaniel Conant

1813 sphere, composed of two hemispheres, fitting air-tight. When the air is exhausted by the air pump, the hemi

Sir Richard Birnie

1821 spheres are held together by the pressure of the atmo

Sir Frederick Roe

1827 sphere, and require great force to separate them. The

Mr. T. J. Hall

1839 apparatus was suggested by Otto von Guericke, the

Sir Thomas Henry

1864 inventor of the air-pump. He died in 1686. Brande.

MAGNA CHARTA. Its fundamental parts MAGELLAN, STRAITS OF (connecting the were derived from Saxon charters, continued by Atlantic and Pacitic oceans), was passed by Fer- Henry I. and his successors. On 20 Nov. 1214, the nando de Magelhaens (Magellan), a Portuguese, on archbishop of Canterbury and the barons met at

It was


Sir Richard Ford
Mr. Read

Sir Robert Baker



. 1821






St. Edmondsbury. On 6 Jan. 1215, they presented 1722 ; on which latter Canton made 4000 observatheir demands to king John, who deferred his

tions previous to

1756 Coulomb constructed a torsion balance for deter: On 19 May they were censured by the

mining the laws of attraction and repulsion, 1786; pope. On 24 May they marched to London, and

also investigated by Michell, Euler, Lambert, the king was compelled to yield. The charter was Robison, and others

1750-1800 sealed by John at Runnymede, near Windsor, The deflection of the magnetic needle by the voltaic 15 June, 1215. It was many times confirmed, by current was discovered by Ersted

1820 Henry; III. and his successors. This last king's Mr. Abraham invents a magnetic guard for persons grand charter was granted in 1224, and was assured The magnetic effects of the violet rays of light es: by Edward I.; sec Forests. The original MS.

hibited by Morichini, 1814 ; polarity of a sewing charter is lost.' The finest MS. copy, which is at needle so magnetised shown by Mrs. Somerville

1825 Lincoln, was reproduced by photographs in the Mr. Christie proves that heat diminishes magnetic “National MSS.” published by government, 1865.



Sir W. Snow Harris invents various forms of the MAGNA GRÆCIA, the independent states compass founded by Greek colonists in South Italy, Sicily, Electricity produced the rotation of a magnet by &c. Cumie, in Campania, is said to have been

professor Faraday, 1831 ; his researches on the founded in 1034 B.C. Pandosia and Metapontum

action of the magnet on light, on the magnetic

properties of flame, air, and gases (published in 774 B.C. These states were ruined through siding 1845), on dia-magnetism (1845), on magro-cryswith Hannibal when he invaded Italy, 216 B.C. tallic action (1848), on atmospheric magnetisin Syracuse founded about

(1850), on the magnetic force.


Magnetic observations established in the British Leontinuin and Catana. Sybaris

colonies under the superintendence of col Edward Crotona.


1840 el seg.

Prof. Tyndall proves the existence of dia-magnetic Tarentum

708 Locri Epizephyrii.


1856 673 Mr. Archibala smith described the results of his Lipara

627 Agrigentum


investigations respecting the deviation of the Thuriun

compass in iron ships at the Royal Institution,

9 Feb. 1866 MAGNANO (N. Italy). Here Scherer and a Wm. Robinson patented a method of making wrought French army were defeated by the Austrians under

iron from cast iron by the help of mugzietisin, Kray, 5 April, 1799.

announced, July, 1867

Wilde's magneto-electric machine exhibited (see MAGNESIA (Asia Minor). Here Antiochus

under Eletricity, p. 232) the great, king of Syria, was defeated by the

In the present century our knowledge of the phe

nomena of magnetism has also been greatly inScipios, 190 B.C. - Magnesia alba, the white akaline

creased by the labours of Arago, Ampere, Hansearth used in medicine, was in use in the beginning teen, Gauss, Weber, Poggendorff, Sabine, Lamont, of the 18th century. Its properties were developed Du Moncel, Archibald Smith, &c. (see Anim! by Dr. Black in 1755.


In the Royal Institution, London, is a magnet by MAGNESIUM, a metal first obtained from Logeman, of Haarlem, constructed on the princimagnesia by sir Humphry Davy in 1808, and since ples of Dr. Elias, which weighs 100 tb, and can

sustain 430 Ib.

Hacker, of Nuremberg, conproduced in larger quantities by Bussy, Deville, and especially by Mr. E. Sonstadt, in 1862-4: Its

structed a magnet weighing 36 grains, capable of

sustaining 146 times its own weight. This was light when burnt is very brilliant, and is so rich in exhibited in 1851, also at the Royal Institution. chemical rays that it may be used in photography. Lamps made for burning magnesium wire, were

MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY, the discovery employed by the excavators of the tunnel through of professor Faraday; see Electricity, p. 232. MagMount Cenis. By its light photographs of the in- neto-electricity has been recently applied to teleterior of the Pyramids were taken in 1865. Larkin's graphic and to lighthouse purposes. The South magnesium lamp (in which the metal is burnt in Foreland lighthouse, near Dover, was illuminated the form of a powder) was exhibited at the Royal by, the magneto-electric light in the winter of Institution on 1 June, 1866, and before the British 1858-9 and 1859-60, and removed to Dungeness in Association at Nottingham in Aug. 1866.

1861. MAGNETISM. Magnes, a shepherd, is said

MAGNOLIA. Magnolia glauca was brought to have been detained on Mount Ida by the nails

here from N. America, 1688. The laurel-leaved in his boots. The attractive power of the load- Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora, from N. America stone or magnet was early known, and is referred about 1734. The dwarf Magnolia, Magnolia pumila, to by Homer, Aristotle, and Pliny; it was also

from China in 1789; and (also from China), the known to the Chinese and Arabians. The Greeks brown stalked, 1789: the purple, 1790; and the are said to have obtained the loadstone from

slender, 1804. Magnesia in Asia, 1000 B.C. Roger Bacon is said MAGYARS, see Hungary. to have been acquainted with its property of pointing to the north (1294).. The invention of the

MAHARAJPOOR (India). Here sir Hugh mariner's compass is ascribed to Flavio Gioia, a

Gough severely defeated the Malıratta army of Neapolitan, about 1310; but it was known in Nora Gwalior, 29 De 1843. Lord Ellenborough was way previous to 1266; and is mentioned in a French present. poem, 1150 ; see under Electricity, p. 232.

MAHEDPORE, see Mehedpore. Robert Norman, of London, discovered the dip of MAHOGANY is said to have been brought to

the needle Gilbert's trentise De Magnete," publislied

about 1576 England by Raleigh, in 1595; but not to have come Halley's theory of magnetic variations published


into general use till 1720. Marcel observed that a suspended bar of iron be MAHOMETANISM embodied in the Koran, comes temporarily magnetic hy position

1722 Artificial magnets made by Dr. Gowan Knight

includes the unity of God, the immortality of the The variation of the compass was observed by Bond, soul, predestination, a last judgment, and a sensual

about 1668; the diurnal variation by Grahan, paradise. Mahomet asserted that the Koran was



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