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Aristotle appointed tutor to Alexander
Philip besieged Byzantium unsuccessfully
Returns to Babylon, 324; dies Philip III. (Aridus) king
The Persians totally defeated at Arbela
His expedition to India; Porus, king of India, is defeated and taken; and the country as far as the Ganges is overrun
Callisthenes is put to the torture for refusing to
render divine homage to Alexander Voyage of his admiral Nearchus from the Indus to
359 360, 359 358 356-352 356
Alexander's conquests are divided among his generals, 323; his remains are transported to Alexandria, and buried by Ptolemy
The Greeks defeated by Antipater and the Macedonians, near Cranon (which see)
399 394 398
The Greeks appoint him general of their armies against the Persians
The Thebans revolt; he levels Thebes to the ground; the house of Pindar alone left
He passes into Asia, and gains his first battle over
Memnon ravages the Cyclades; Darius takes the
Alexander enters Jerusalem; Egypt conquered
Cassander reigns, 316; rebuilds Thebes
Alexander's family), and usurps the throne
Reign of Alexander V. and Antipater, his sons
Alexander, and seizes the crown of Macedon Achæan league formed against Macedon Governments of Pyrrhus, 287; Lysimachus, 286; Ptolemy Ceraunus
Irruption of the Gauls; Ptolemy killed
Reign of Antigonus Gonatas, son of Demetrius
The Gauls again invade Macedon
Reign of Demetrius II.
Philip, his son, 232; set aside by Antigonus Doson Philip V., 220; allies with Hannibal, 211; wars unsuccessfully against the Rhodians
Philip defeated by the Romans at Cynoscephala 197
Perseus and his sons walk in chains before the
Macedonia plundered by Theodoric the Ostro-
Conquered by the Bulgarians
MACEDONIANS, a semi-Arian sect, followers of Macedonius, made bishop of Constantinople about 341. His appointment was greatly opposed and led to much bloodshed. He was expelled by the decree of a council held 360.
MACHIAVELLIAN PRINCIPLES, those of Nicolo Machiavelli of Florence (born 1469, died 1527), in his "Practice of Politics" and "The Prince.' By some they are styled "the most pernicious maxims of government, founded on the vilest policy;" by others as "sound doctrines, notwithstanding the prejudice erroneously raised against them." The author said that if he taught princes to be tyrants, he also taught the people to destroy tyrants. "The Prince" appeared at Rome in 1532, and was translated into English in 1761.
MACIEJOVICE (near Warsaw, Poland). Here the Poles were totally defeated by the Russians, and their general, Kosciusko, taken prisoner, 10 Oct. 1794, after a murderous action. He strenuously endeavoured to prevent the junction of the Russian and Austrian armies. The statement that he said "Finis Polonia!" is contradicted.
MADAGASCAR (S. E. coast of Africa), a large island, said to have been discovered by Lorenzo Almeida, 1506. Population, about 5,000,000; 150,000 Christians in 1870.
Portuguese settlement, 1548; destroyed by the
French one, 1642, on arrival of a French governor 1669 The French attempted to settle at Antongel-bay in 1774 Count Benyowski supreme in the island, Oct. 1775;
killed in an encounter with the French 23 May, 1786 Their establishment at Fort Dauphin fell into the hands of the English with Bourbon and Mauritius
The settlements ceded to king Radama, on his
A reactionary policy under his energetic queen Ranavalono, 1828. The English missionaries who came in 1820 obliged to depart The application of the native laws to the European settlers occasioned an unsuccessful attack on the town of Tamatave, by a united expedition from the English at the Mauritius, and the French from the isle of Bourbon All amicable intercourse ceases, suffer persecution The French defeated in an attack on the island, 19 Oct. 1855 Conspiracy against the queen frustrated June, 1857 The rev. W. Ellis published accounts of his three visits to the island, on behalf of the London Missionary Society, in 1854-5-6. 1858 The queen dies; succeeded by her son Radama II., a Christian 23 Aug. 1861
June, 1845 the native Christians 1846 et seq.
Treaty with Great Britain and France signed,
12 Sept. 1862 A revolution; the king and his ministers assassinated; the queen Rasoherina proclaimed sovereign, May, 1863 Embassy from Madagascar arrives at Southampton,
Disputes with the French.
1 Feb. 1867 The queen died in March; her cousin, Ranavalo II., a Christian, succeeded 1 April, 1868 Dr. Henry Rowley was consecrated bishop of Madagascar
Dec. 1872 MADDER, the root of the Rubia tinctoria, highly valued for dyeing properties. 305,758 cwts. (valued at 848,9321.) were imported into this country in 1868. See Alizarine.
Feb. 1864 Nov.
Sir Eyre Coote arrives He defeats Hyder.
MADEIRA, an island, N. W. coast of Africa, discovered, it is said, in 1344, by Mr. Macham, an English gentleman, or mariner, who fled from France for an illicit amour. He was driven here by a storm, and his mistress, a French lady, dying, he made a canoe, and carried the news of his discovery to Pedro, king of Aragon, which occasioned the report that the island was discovered by a Portuguese, 1345. It is asserted that the Portuguese did not visit this island until 1419 or 1420, or colonise it until 1431. It was taken by the British in July, 1801; and again by admiral Hood and general Beresford, 24 Dec. 1807, and retained in trust for the royal family of Portugal, who had emigrated to the Brazils. It was restored to the Portuguese in 1814. Since 1852 the renowned vintages here have been totally ruined by the vine disease (oïdium).
Sir John Lindsay arrives
He is succeeded by sir R. Hartland
Lord Macartney arrives as governor. 22 June, 1781 The Madras government arrest gen. Stuart for disobedience, and send him to England. June, 1783 Lord Cornwallis arrives here 12 Dec. 1790 Sir Charles Oakley succeeds gen. Medows as governor, 1 Aug. 1792 Madras system of education introduced (see Monitorial).
Lord Mornington (afterwards the marquis Wellesley) . Dec. 1798
General Harris with the Madras army enters Mysore, 5 March; and arrives at Seringapatam, 5 April, which is stormed by the British under majorgeneral Baird, and Tippoo Sahib killed . 4 May, 1799 Appointment of sir Thomas Strange, first judge of Madras under the charter 26 Dec. 1800 Feb. 1803
More than 1000 houses in Madras burnt. The Madras army under general Arthur Wellesley (afterwards duke of Wellington) marches for Poonah (see India). March, 39 Mutiny among the native forces at Vellore; 600 sepoys killed; 200 executed. 10 July, 1806 1809
Mutiny of the sepoy troops at Madras Arrival of lord Minto at Madras, who publishes a general amnesty 29 Sept. Awful hurricane, by which the ships at anchor were driven into the town and seventy sail sunk, many with their crews. May, 1811
Madras attacked by the Pindarees Appointment of the rev. Dr. Corrie, first bishop of 14 Feb. 1835 Sir Charles Trevelyan, governor, Jan. 1859; recalled for publishing a minute in opposition to Mr. Jas. Wilson's financial schemes 10 May, 1860 [Appointed financial secretary and a member of the Indian council at Calcutta, Oct. 1862.] His successor, sir H. Wood, dies at Madras, 2 Aug. Sir Wm. Dennison appointed governor, Nov. 1860; 18 Feb. 1861 31 Jan. 1866 March, 1870 Feb. 1872
Lord Napier appointed governor
(but soon retires) Madrid retaken by the French
Retained till it is entered by Wellington Ferdinand VII. restored
MADRID (New Castile), mentioned in history as Majerit, a Moorish castle.
Sacked by the Moors.
14 Jan. 1526
The Escurial built
Taken by lord Galway
Made the seat of the Spanish court by Philip II. 1560 1563 et seep. 24 June, 1706 The old palace burnt down 1734 Madrid taken by the French March, 1808 The citizens attempt to expel the French; defeated with much slaughter. . 2 May, Joseph Bonaparte enters Madrid as king of Spain 20 July, 1808 2 Dec.
Madrid pronounces for provisional against Isabella II. 29 Sept. 1868 English protestant church authorised 9 Nov. Population, in 1857, 271,254; in 1870, 332,024. See Spain, 1840 et sey.
12 Aug. 1812 14 May, 1814
MADRIGAL, an unaccompanied song for three or more voices, of which the finest examples are by English composers. Madrigals were published by Morley, 1594; Weelkes, 1597; Wilbye, 1598; and Bennet, 1599. The Madrigal Society in London began in 1741. English Glee and Madrigal Union founded in 1851. Rimbault's "Bibliotheca Madrigalium" published 1847.
MAESTRICHT (Holland), the ancient Trajectum ad Mosam, the capital of Limburg. It revolted from Spain, and was taken by the prince of Parma in 1579, when a dreadful massacre took place. In 1632, the prince of Orange reduced it after a memorable siège, and it was confirmed to the Dutch in 1648; Louis XIV. took it in 1673; William, prince of Orange, invested it in vain in
1676; but in 1678 it was restored to the Dutch. In 1748 it was besieged by the French, who were permitted to take possession of the city on condition of its being restored at the peace then negotiating. In Feb. 1793, Maestricht was unsuccessfully attacked by the French, but they became masters of it, Nov. 1794. In 1814 it was made part of the kingdom of the Netherlands, and now belongs to Holland.
MAGAZINE, at first a miscellaneous periodical publication. There are now magazines devoted to nearly every department of knowledge. The following are the dates of the first publication of the principal magazines, some of which are extinct. În Jan. 1865, 544 magazines; in Jan. 1872, 639 were in course of publication in Great Britain and Ireland; see Reviews and Newspapers.
MAGENTA, a small town in Lombardy, nea which the French and Sardinians defeated the Austrians, 4 June, 1859. The emperor Louis Napoleon commanded, and he and the king of Sardinia were in the thickest of the fight. It is said that 55,000 French and Sardinians, and 75,000 Austrians were engaged. The former are asserted to have lost 4000 killed and wounded, and the Austrians 10,000, besides 7000 prisoners. The French generals Espinasse and Clerc were killed. The arrival of general M'Mahon during a deadly struggle between the Austrians and the French, greatly contributed to the victory. The contest near the bridge of Buffalora was very severe. Austrians fought well, but were badly commanded. The emperor and king entered Milan on 8 June 1859 following; M Mahon and Regnault d'Angely were
created marshals of France. A monument erected
1784 Good Words
1796 Many new ones pub-
1860-73 MAGDALA, a very strong place in Abyssinia (which see). On Good Friday, io April, 1868, the troops of the emperor Theodore attacked the first brigade of the British army under sir Robert Napier, and were repulsed with great slaughter. On the next day all the European prisoners were given up, but Theodore himself refused to surrender; and on Easter Monday, 13 April, Magadala was stormed, and Theodore himself killed-it is said by his own hand.-British loss, 2 killed; 20 wounded: Abyssinian loss, about 500 killed and wounded out of about 5000. Magdala was burnt to the ground by the British, 17 April, 1868.
MAGDALENS AND MAGDALENETTES, communities of nuns, consisting chiefly of penitent courtesans. The order of penitents of St. Magdalen was founded 1272, at Marseilles. The convent of Naples was endowed by queen Sancha, 1324. That at Metz was instituted in 1452. At Paris, 1492. The Magdalen at Rome was endowed by pope Leo X., in 1515, and favoured by Clement VIII. in 1594. The Magdalen hospital, London, was founded in 1758, under the direction of Dr. Dodd. The asylum in Dublin was opened in June, 1766.
MAGDEBURG (Prussia). The archbishopric was founded about 967. The city suffered much during the religious wars in Germany. It was besieged and taken by the elector Maurice, Nov. 1550, and Nov. 1551; blockaded for seven months by the imperialists, under Wallenstein, in 1629; and barbarously sacked by Tilly on 10 May, 1631. It was given to Brandenburg in 1648; was taken by the French, 8 Nov. 1806; annexed to the kingdom of Westphalia, 9 July, 1807; restored to Prussia, May, 1813.
27 Nov. 1520. He gave the latter ocean its name on account of its calmness. Magellan completed the first voyage round the world, with a fleet of discovery fitted out by the emperor Charles V., but was killed in 1521. The Spaniards had a fort here, called Cape Famine, because the garrison perished for want."
The Magdeburg Erperiment is shown by means of a hollow sphere, composed of two hemispheres, fitting air-tight. When the air is exhausted by the air pump, the hemispheres are held together by the pressure of the atmosphere, and require great force to separate them. The apparatus was suggested by Otto von Guericke, the inventor of the air-pump. He died in 1686. Brande. MAGELLAN, STRAITS OF (connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans), was passed by Fernando de Magelhaéns (Magellan), a Portuguese, on
MAGI or WORSHIPPERS OF FIRE. The Persians adored the invisible and incomprehensible God as the principle of all good, and paid homage to fire, as the emblem of his power and purity. They built no altars nor temples; their sacred fires blazed in the open air, and their offerings were made upon the earth. The Magi, their priests, are said to have had skill in astronomy, &c.; hence the term Magi was applied to all learned men, till they were confounded with the magicians. Zoroaster, king of Bactria, the reformer of the sect of the Magi, flourished about 550 B.C. This religion was superseded in Persia by Mahometanism, A.D. 652, and the Parsees at Bombay are descendants of the Guebres or or fire-worshippers.
St. Edmondsbury. On 6 Jan. 1215, they presented their demands to king John, who deferred his answer. On 19 May they were censured by the pope. On 24 May they marched to London, and the king was compelled to yield. The charter was sealed by John at Runnymede, near Windsor, 15 June, 1215. It was many times confirmed, by Henry III. and his successors. This last king's grand charter was granted in 1224, and was assured by Edward I.; see Forests. The original MS. charter is lost. The finest MS. copy, which is at Lincoln, was reproduced by photographs in the "National MSS." published by government, 1865.
MAGNESIUM, a metal first obtained from magnesia by sir Humphry Davy in 1808, and since produced in larger quantities by Bussy, Deville, and especially by Mr. E. Sonstadt, in 1862-4. Its light when burnt is very brilliant, and is so rich in chemical rays that it may be used in photography. Lamps made for burning magnesium wire, were employed by the excavators of the tunnel through Mount Cenis. By its light photographs of the interior of the Pyramids were taken in 1865. Larkin's magnesium lamp (in which the metal is burnt in the form of a powder) was exhibited at the Royal Institution on 1 June, 1866, and before the British Association at Nottingham in Aug. 1866.
1722; on which latter Canton made 4000 observations previous to Coulomb constructed a torsion balance for determining the laws of attraction and repulsion, 1786; also investigated by Michell, Euler, Lambert, Robison, and others
The deflection of the magnetic needle by the voltaic current was discovered by Ersted
Mr. Abraham invents a magnetic guard for persons engaged in grinding cutlery The magnetic effects of the violet rays of light exhibited by Morichini, 1814; polarity of a sewing needle so magnetised shown by Mrs. Somerville Mr. Christie proves that heat diminishes magnetic about Sir W. Snow Harris invents various forms of the compass 1831
Electricity produced the rotation of a magnet by professor Faraday, 1831; his researches on the action of the magnet on light, on the magnetic properties of flame, air, and gases (published 1845), on dia-magnetism (1845), on magno-crystallic action (1848), on atmospheric magnetism (1850), on the magnetic force. Magnetic observations established in the British colonies under the superintendence of col. Edward Sabine. 1840 et seq. Prof. Tyndall proves the existence of dia-magnetic polarity
In the Royal Institution, London, is a magnet by Logeman, of Haarlem, constructed on the principles of Dr. Elias, which weighs 100 lb, and can sustain 430 lb. Hæcker, of Nuremberg, constructed a magnet weighing 36 grains, capable of sustaining 146 times its own weight. This was exhibited in 1851, also at the Royal Institution.
Mr. Archibald Smith described the results of his investigations respecting the deviation of the compass in iron ships at the Royal Institution, 9 Feb. 1866
Wm. Robinson patented a method of making wrought iron from cast iron by the help of magnetism, announced, July, 1867 Wilde's magneto-electric machine exhibited (see under Electricity, p. 232)
In the present century our knowledge of the phenomena of magnetism has also been greatly increased by the labours of Arago, Ampere, Hansteen, Gauss, Weber, Poggendorff, Sabine, Lamont, Du Moncel, Archibald Smith, &c. (see Animal Magnetism).
MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY, the discovery of professor Faraday; see Electricity, p. 232. Magneto-electricity has been recently applied to telegraphic and to lighthouse purposes. The South Foreland lighthouse, near Dover, was illuminated by the magneto-electric light in the winter of 1858-9 and 1859-60, and removed to Dungeness in 1861.
MAGNOLIA. Magnolia glauca was brought here from N. America, 1688. The laurel-leaved Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora, from N. America about 1734. The dwarf Magnolia, Magnolia pumila, from China in 1789; and (also from China), the brown stalked, 1789: the purple, 1790; and the slender, 1804.
MAGYARS, see Hungary.
MAHARAJPOOR (India). Here sir Hugh Gough severely defeated the Mahratta army of Gwalior, 29 Dec. 1843. Lord Ellenborough was present.
MAHEDPORE, see Mehedpore.
MAHOGANY is said to have been brought to England by Raleigh, in 1595; but not to have come into general use till 1720.
MAHOMETANISM embodied in the Koran, includes the unity of God, the immortality of the soul, predestination, a last judgment, and a sensual paradise. Mahomet asserted that the Koran was
The Ottoman empire is the chief seat of the Sonnites, the sultan being considered the representative of the caliphs; Persia has been for centuries the stronghold of the Shiites.
Defeats the Christians at Muta
Is acknowledged as a sovereign Dies, it is said, of slow poison, administered by a Jewess to test his divine character 8 June, 632 The Mahometans are divided into several sects, the two chief being the Sonnites, or the Orthodox (who recognised as caliph Abubeker, the fatherin-law of Mahomet, in preference to Omar and Ali), and the Shiites (Sectaries), or Fatimites, the followers of Ali, who married Fatima, the prophet's daughter.
The Mahometans conquered Arabia, North Africa,
Coomroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, admitted to practise as an attorney in England, having taken the oaths upon the Koran Nov. 1858 Budroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, called to the 30 April, 1867 MAHRATTAS, a people of Hindostan, who originally dwelt north-west of the Deccan, which they overran about 1676. They endeavoured to overcome the Mogul, but were restrained by the Afghans. They entered into alliance with the East India company in 1767, made war against it in 1774, again made peace in 1782, and were finally subdued in 1818. Their last prince, Sindiah, ís now a pensioner of the British government.
MAID, see Holy Maid, Elizabeth Barton, and Joan of Arc, maid of Orleans.
MAIDA (Calabria) where the French, commanded by general Regnier, were signally defeated by the British under major-general sir John Stuart, 4 July, 1806.
MAIDEN, see Guillotine.
MAIDS OF HONOUR. Anne, daughter of Francis II. duke of Brittany, and queen of Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of France (1483-98), had young and beautiful ladies about her person, called maids of honour. The queen of Edward I. of England is said to have had four maids of honour (1272-1307); queen Victoria has eight.
MAILLOTINS (small mallets), a name given to certain citizens of Paris, who, in March, 1382, violently opposed the collection of new taxes imposed by the duke of Anjou, the regent. They armed themselves with small iron mallets (taken from the arsenal), and killed the collectors; for which they were severely punished in Jan. 1383.
MAIL-COACHES, for the conveyance of letters, were first set up at Bristol by Mr. John Palmer, of Bath, 2 Aug. 1784. They were employed for other routes in 1785, and soon became general in England. The mails were first sent by rail in 1838.
MAIMING AND WOUNDING, see Corentry Act.
MAIN PLOT, a name given to a conspiracy to make Arabella Stuart sovereign of England in place of James I. in 1603. Lord Cobham, sir Walter Raleigh, and lord Grey, were condemned to death for implication in it, but reprieved; others were executed. Raleigh was executed, 29 Oct. 1618.
MAINE, 1. a province, N.W. of France, seized by William I. of England in 1069. It acknowledged prince Arthur, 1199; was taken from John of England by Philip of France, 1204; was recovered by Edward III. in 1357; but given up, 1360. After various changes it was finally united to France by Louis XI. in 1481.—2. MAINE (N. America), was discovered by Cabot, 1497; and colonised by the English about 1638; it became a state of the union in 1820. The boundary line between the British and the United States territories in Maine was settled by the Ashburton treaty, concluded 9 Aug. 1842. The Maine liquor law, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicating drinks, with certain exceptions, was enacted in 1851. In 1872, it was officially reported to have greatly decreased drunkenness and rendered the trade disreputable.
MAJESTY. Among the Romans, the emperor and imperial family were thus addressed, and also the popes and the emperors of Germany. The style was given to Louis XI. of France in 1461. Voltaire. Upon Charles V. being chosen emperor of Germany in 1519 the kings of Spain took the style. Francis I. of France, at the interview with Henry VIII. of England, on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, addressed the latter as Your Majesty, 1520. James I. used the style "Sacred," and Most Excellent Majesty."
MAJOLICA WARE, see Pottery.
MAJORCA, see Balearic Isles, and Minorca. Majorca opposed Philip V. of Spain in 1714; but submitted, 14 July, 1715.
MALABAR (W. coast of Hindostan). The Portuguese established factories here in 1505; the English did the same in 1601.
MALACCA, on the Malay peninsula, E. Indies, was made a Portuguese settlement in 1511. The The Dutch factories were established in 1640. Dutch government exchanged it for Bencoolen in Sumatra in 1824, when it was placed under the Bengal presidency. It is now part of the Straits Settlements (which see).
MALAGA (S. Spain), a Phoenician town, taken by the Arabs, 714; retaken by the Spaniards, after a long siege, 1487; see Naval Battles, 1704. An insurrection against the provisional government was put down with much slaughter, 31 Dec. 1868.
MALAKHOFF, a hill near Sebastopol, on which was situated an old tower, strongly fortified by the Russians during the siege of 1854-55. The allied French and English attacked it on, 17, 18