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St. Edmondsbury. On 6 Jan. 1215, they presented their demands to king John, who deferred his answer. On 19 May they were censured by the pope. On 24 May they marched to London, and the king was compelled to yield. The charter was sealed by John at Runnymede, near Windsor, 15 June, 1215. It was many times confirmed, by Henry III. and his successors. This last king's grand charter was granted in 1224, and was assured by Edward I.; see Forests. The original MS. charter is lost. The finest MS. copy, which is at Lincoln, was reproduced by photographs in the "National MSS." published by governinent, 1865.
MAGNESIUM, a metal first obtained from magnesia by sir Humphry Davy in 1808, and since produced in larger quantities by Bussy, Deville, and especially by Mr. E. Sonstadt, in 1862-4. Its light when burnt is very brilliant, and is so rich in chemical rays that it may be used in photography. Lamps made for burning magnesium wire, were employed by the excavators of the tunnel through Mount Cenis. By its light photographs of the interior of the Pyramids were taken in 1865. Larkin's magnesium lamp (in which the metal is burnt in the form of a powder) was exhibited at the Royal Institution on 1 June, 1866, and before the British Association at Nottingham in Aug. 1866.
Gilbert's treatise "De Magnete," published Halley's theory of magnetic variations published Marcel observed that a suspended bar of iron becomes temporarily magnetic by position Artificial magnets made by Dr. Gowan Knight The variation of the compass was observed by Bond, about 1668; the diurnal variation by Graham,
MAGNETISM. Magnes, a shepherd, is said to have been detained on Mount Ida by the nails in his boots. The attractive power of the loadstone or magnet was early known, and is referred to by Homer, Aristotle, and Pliny; it was also
known to the Chinese and Arabians. The Greeks are said to have obtained the loadstone from Magnesia in Asia, 1000 B.C. Roger Bacon is said to have been acquainted with its property of pointing to the north (1294). The invention of the mariner's compass is ascribed to Flavio Gioia, a Neapolitan, about 1310; but it was known in Norway previous to 1266; and is mentioned in a French poem, 1150; see under Electricity, p. 232.
Robert Norman, of London, discovered the dip of about 1576 1683
1722; on which latter Canton made 4000 observa-
The deflection of the magnetic needle by the voltaic
The magnetic effects of the violet rays of light ex-
Electricity produced the rotation of a magnet by professor Faraday, 1831; his researches on the action of the magnet on light, on the magnetic properties of flame, air, and gases (published 1845), on dia-magnetism (1845), on magno-crystallic action (1848), on atmospheric magnetism (1850), on the magnetic force. Magnetic observations established in the British colonies under the superintendence of col. Edward Sabine. 1840 et seq. Prof. Tyndall proves the existence of dia-magnetie polarity
Mr. Archibald Smith described the results of his investigations respecting the deviation of the compass in iron ships at the Royal Institution,
9 Feb. 1866
MAGNOLIA. Magnolia glauca was brought here from N. America, 1688. The laurel-leaved Magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora, from N. America about 1734. The dwarf Magnolia, Magnolia pumila, from China in 1789; and (also from China), the brown stalked, 1789: the purple, 1790; and the slender, 1804.
MAGYARS, see Hungary.
MAHARAJPOOR (India). Here sir Hugh Gough severely defeated the Mahratta army of Gwalior, 29 Dec. 1843. Lord Ellenborough was present.
MAHEDPORE, see Mehedpore.
MAHOGANY is said to have been brought to England by Raleigh, in 1595; but not to have come into general use till 1720.
MAHOMETANISM embodied in the Koran, includes the unity of God, the immortality of the soul, predestination, a last judgment, and a sensual paradise. Mahomet asserted that the Koran was
Is acknowledged as a sovereign Dies, it is said, of slow poison, administered by a Jewess to test his divine character 8 June, 632 The Mahometans are divided into several sects, the two chief being the Sonnites, or the Orthodox (who recognised as caliph Abubeker, the fatherin-law of Mahomet, in preference to Omar and Ali), and the Shiites (Sectaries), or Fatimites, the followers of Ali, who married Fatima, the prophet's daughter.
The Ottoman empire is the chief seat of the Son-
The Mahometans conquered Arabia, North Africa,
Coomroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, admitted to practise as an attorney in England, having taken the oaths upon the Koran Nov. 1858 Budroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, called to the 30 April, 1867 MAHRATTAS, a people of Hindostan, who originally dwelt north-west of the Deccan, which they overran about 1676. They endeavoured to overcome the Mogul, but were restrained by the Afghans. They entered into alliance with the East India company in 1767, made war against it in 1774, again made peace in 1782, and were finally subdued in 1818. Their last prince, Sindiah, is now a pensioner of the British government.
MAID, see Holy Maid, Elizabeth Barton, and Joan of Arc, maid of Orleans.
MAIDA (Calabria) where the French, commanded by general Regnier, were signally defeated by the British under major-general sir John Stuart, 4 July, 1806.
MAIDEN, see Guillotine.
MAIDS OF HONOUR. Anne, daughter of Francis II. duke of Brittany, and queen of Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of France (1483-98), had young and beautiful ladies about her person, called maids of honour. The queen of Edward I. of England is said to have had four maids of honour (1272-1307); queen Victoria has eight.
MAILLOTINS (small mallets), a name given to certain citizens of Paris, who, in March, 1382, violently opposed the collection of new taxes imposed by the duke of Anjou, the regent. They armed themselves with small iron mallets (taken from the arsenal), and killed the collectors; for which they were severely punished in Jan. 1383.
MAIL-COACHES, for the conveyance of letters, were first set up at Bristol by Mr. John Palmer, of Bath, 2 Aug. 1784. They were employed for other routes in 1785, and soon became general in England. The mails were first sent by rail in 1838.
MAIMING AND WOUNDING, see Corentry Act.
MAIN PLOT, a name given to a conspiracy to make Arabella Stuart sovereign of England in place of James I. in 1603. Lord Cobham, sir Walter Raleigh, and lord Grey, were condemned to death for implication in it, but reprieved; others were executed. Raleigh was executed, 29 Oct. 1618.
MAINE, 1. a province, N.W. of France, seized by William I. of England in 1069. It acknowledged prince Arthur, 1199; was taken from John of England by Philip of France, 1204; was recovered by Edward III. in 1357; but given up, 1360. After various changes it was finally united to France by Louis XI. in 1481.-2. MAINE (N. America), was discovered by Cabot, 1497; and colonised by the English about 1638; it became a state of the union in 1820. The boundary line between the British and the United States territories in Maine was settled by the Ashburton treaty, concluded 9 Aug. 1842. The Maine liquor law, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicating drinks, with certain exceptions, was enacted in 1851. In 1872, it was officially reported to have greatly decreased drunkenness and rendered the trade disreputable.
MAJESTY. Among the Romans, the emperor and imperial family were thus addressed, and also the popes and the emperors of Germany. The style was given to Louis XI. of France in 1461. Voltaire. Upon Charles V. being chosen emperor of Germany in 1519 the kings of Spain took the style. Francis I. of France, at the interview with Henry VIII. of England, on the Field of the Cloth of Gold, addressed the latter as Your Majesty, 1520. James I. used the style "Sacred," and Most Excellent Majesty."
MAJOLICA WARE, see Pottery.
MAJORCA, see Balearic Isles, and Minorca. Majorca opposed Philip V. of Spain in 1714; but submitted, 14 July, 1715.
MALABAR (W. coast of Hindostan). The Portuguese established factories here in 1505; the English did the same in 1601.
MALACCA, on the Malay peninsula, E. Indies, was made a Portuguese settlement in 1511. The Dutch factories were established in 1640. The Dutch government exchanged it for Bencoolen in Sumatra in 1824, when it was placed under the Bengal presidency. It is now part of the Straits Settlements (which see).
MALAGA (S. Spain), a Phoenician town, taken by the Arabs, 714; retaken by the Spaniards, after a long siege, 1487; see Naval Battles, 1704. An insurrection against the provisional government was put down with much slaughter, 31 Dec. 1868.
MALAKHOFF, a hill near Sebastopol, on which was situated an old tower, strongly fortified by the Russians during the siege of 1854-55. The allied French and English attacked it on, 17, 18
June, 1855, and after a conflict of forty-eight hours were repulsed with severe loss; that of the English being 175 killed and 1126 wounded; that of the French 3338 killed and wounded. On 8 Sept. the French again attacked the Malakhoff; at eight o'clock the first mine was sprung, and at noon the French flag floated over the conquered redoubt; see Sebastopol. In the Malakhoff and Redan were found 3000 pieces of cannon of every calibre, and 120,000 Ibs. of gunpowder.
MALAY ARCHIPELAGO, see Moluccas, Philippines, &c.
MALTA (formerly Melita), an island in the cians, Carthaginians, and Romans, which last conMediterranean, held successively by the Phoniquered it, 259 B.C. The apostle Paul was wrecked here, A.D. 62 (dets xxvii. xxviii.) Malta was taken by the Vandals, 534; by the Arabs, 870; and by the Normans from Sicily, 1090. With Sicily it became successively part of the possessions of the houses of Hohenstaufen, of Anjou (1266), and of Aragon (1260). In 1530 Charles V. gave it to the Knights Hospitallers, who defended it most courageously and successfully, in 1551 and 1565, against the Turks, who were obliged to abandon the enterprise after the loss of 30,000 men. The island was taken by Bonaparte in the outset of his expedition to Egypt, 12 June, 1798. He found in it 1200 pieces of cannon, 200,000 lbs. of powder, two ships
MALEGNANO or MELEGNANO, modern of the line, a frigate, four galleys, and 40,000 musnames of Marignano (which see).
kets, besides an immense treasure collected by
MALDON (Essex), built 28 B.C., is supposed to have been the first Roman colony in Britain. It was burnt by queen Boadicea, and rebuilt by the Romans; burnt by the Danes, A.D. 991, and rebuilt by the Saxons. Maldon was incorporated by Philip and Mary. The singular custom of BoroughEnglish is kept up here, by which the youngest son, and not the eldest, succeeds to the burgage tenure on his father's death; see BoroughEnglish.
MALICIOUS DAMAGES. The law re
specting them was consolidated and amended by 24 & 25 Viet. c. 97. This act protects works of art, electric telegraphs, &c., 1861.
MALINES, see Mechlin.
MALINS' ACT, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 57, relating to the powers of women in regard to property, was passed in 1857.
MALO, ST. (N. W. France). This port, as a great resort of privateers, sustained a tremendous bombardment by the English under admiral Benbow in 1693, and under lord Berkeley in July, 1695. In June, 1758, the British landed in considerable force in Cancalle bay, and went up to the harbour, where they burnt upwards of a hundred ships, and did great damage to the town, making a number of prisoners. It is now defended by a very strong castle, and the harbour is very difficult of access.
MALO-JAROSLAVITZ, near Moscow, central Russia the site of severe encounters between the Russians and the retreating French army, 24 Oct. 1812. The latter were victorious, but with great loss.
MALPLAQUET (N. France). Here the allies under the duke of Marlborough and prince Eugene defeated the French commanded by marshal Villars, II Sept. 1709. Each army consisted of nearly 120,000 choice soldiers. There was great slaughter on both sides, the allies losing 18,000 men, which loss was but ill repaid by the capture of Mons.
MALT, barley prepared for brewing and distillation. A duty was laid upon malt in 1667, 1697, et seq. Important acts for the regulation of malt duties was passed in 1830 and 1837. In March, 1858, there were 6157 licensed maltsters in the United Kingdom. The duty on malt in 1863 amounted to 6,273,727. In 1864 the duty was remitted on malt used for cattle feeding; and in 1865, an act was passed allowing the excise duty to be charged according to the weight of the grain used. A parliamentary committee to consider repeal of malt tax (6d. a bushel) was agreed to, 14 May, 1867. Revenue from the malt duties; in the year ending 31 March 1850, 5,391,322. ;-1854, 5,418.4181. ;-1856,
MALTA, KNIGHTS OF. A military religious order, called also Hospitallers of St. John of JeruSome' merchants of Malti, trading to the Levant, salem, Knights of St. John, and Knights of Rhodes. obtained leave of the caliph of Egypt to build a house for those who came on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and whom they received with zeal and charity, 1048. They afterwards founded a hospital for the reception of pilgrims, from whence they were called Hospitallers (Latin, hospes, a guest). The military order was founded about 1099; confirmed by the
Pope 1113. In 1119 the knights defeated the Turks
at Antioch. After the Christians had lost their
interest in the East, and Jerusalem was taken, the knights retired to Acre, which they defended valiantly in 1290. John, king of Cyprus, gave them Limisso in his dominions, where they stayed till 1310, in which year they took Rhodes, under their grand master De Vallaret, and the next year defended it under the duke of Savoy against an army of Saracens. The story that his successors have used F. E. R. T. (Fortitudo ejus Rhodum tenuit, or his valour kept Rhodes) for their device is much doubted. From this they were also called knights of Rhodes; but Rhodes being taken by Solyman in 1522, they retired into Candia, thence into Sicily. Pope Adrian VI. granted them the city of Viterbo for their retreat; and in 1530 the emperor Charles V. gave them the isle of Malta. The order was suppressed in England in 1540; restored in 1557; and again suppressed in 1559. St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, a relic of their possessions, still exists. The emperor Paul of Russia declared himself grand master of the order in June, 1799
The knights sent a hospital establishment into Bohemia during the war in 1866, which afforded great relief to the wounded and sick.
MAMELUKES, originally Turkish and Circassian slaves, established by the sultan as a bodyguard, about 1240. They advanced one of their own corps to the throne of Egypt, May, 1250, and continued to do so until it became a Turkish province, in 1517, when the beys took them into pay, and filled up their ranks with renegades from various countries. On the conquest of Egypt by Bonaparte, in 1798, they retreated into Nubia; but, assisted by the Arnauts, reconquered Egypt from the Turkish government. In 1804, Napoleon embodied some of them in his guard. On 1 March, 1811, they were decoyed into the power of the Turkish pacha, Mehemet Ali, and slain at Cairo.
MAMELON, a hill, one of the defences of Sebastopol, was captured by the French, 7 June, 1855.
MAMERTINI, sons of Mamers or Mars, were Campanian soldiers of Agathocles. They seized Messina in Sicily, in 281 B.C., and when closely besieged by the Carthaginians, and Hiero of Syraeuse, in 264, they implored the help of the Romans, which led to the first Punic war.
MAMMOTH, an extinct species of elephant. An entire mammoth, flesh and bones, was discovered in Siberia, in 1799. Remains of this animal have since been found at Harwich, in 1803, and at places in Europe, Asia, and America.
MAN, ANTIQUITY OF. In 1836, M. Boucher de Perthes found some rude flint implements, which he believed to be of human manufacture, mingled with bones of extinct animals, in the old alluvium near Abbeville in Picardy, France, and also in 1847, near Amiens. Similar flints have since been found in Sicily by Dr. Falconer, at Brixham by Mr. Pengelly, and lately in various parts of the world. Hence many geologists infer that man existed on the earth many ages earlier than has been hitherto believed.
MANASSAS JUNCTION (Virginia, United States), an important military position, where the Alexandria and Manassas Gap railways meet, near a creek named BULL RUN. I. It was held by the the federal general Irwin McDowell. He began confederates in 1861, when they were attacked by his march from Washington on 16 July, and gained some advantage on the 18th at Centreville. On the 21st was fought the first battle of Bull Run. The federals, who began the fight, had the advantage till about three o'clock p.m., when the confederate general Johnston brought up reinforcements, which at first the federals took for their own troops. After a brief resistance, the latter were seized with sudden panic, and, in spite of the utmost efforts of their officers, fled, abandoning a large quantity of arms, ammunition, and baggage. The confederate generals Johnston and Beauregard did not think it prudent to pursue the fugitives, who did not halt till they arrived at Washington. The federal army is said to have had 481 killed, 1011 wounded, 1216 missing. The loss of the confederates was stated to be about 1500.-In March, 1862, when the army of the Potomac, under general McClellan, marched into Virginia, they found that the confederates had quietly retreated from the camp at Manassas. 2. On 30 Aug. 1862, this place was the site of another great battle between the northern and southern armies. In August, general "Stonewall" Jackson, after compelling the federal general Pope to retreat, defeated him at Cedar mountain on the 9th, turned his flank on the 22nd, and arriving at Manassas repulsed his attacks on the 29th. On the 30th general R. E. Lee (who had defeated general McClellan and the invading northern army before MAN, ISLE OF, was subdued by Edwin, king his army, and Pope received reinforcements from Richmond, 26 June to 1 July) joined Jackson with of Northumberland, about 620; by Magnus of Nor- Washington. A desperate conflict ensued, which way, 1098; by the Scots, 1266; occupied by Edward ended in the confederates gaining a decisive victory, at the wish of the inhabitants; recovered by the compelling the federals to a hasty retreat to CentreScots in 1313; but taken from them by Montacute, ville, where they were once more routed, I Sept. The afterwards earl of Salisbury, whom Edward III. gave the title of king of Man, in 1343. It was remains of their army took refuge behind the lines afterwards subjected to the earl of Northumber-seded, and McClellan resumed the command to of Washington on 2 Sept. Pope was at once superland, on whose attainder Henry IV. granted it in march against the confederates, who had crossed fee to sir John Stanley, 1406. It was taken from this family by Elizabeth, but was restored in 1610 States. the Potomac and entered Maryland; see United to the earl of Derby, through whom it fell by inheritance to the duke of Athol, 1735. He received 70,000l. from parliament for the sovereignty in 1765; and the nation was charged with the further sum of 132,9447. for the purchase of his remaining
The "Engis skull" found by Schmerling in the valley of the Meuse,
about 1834 Sir Charles Lyell's Antiquity of Man" was published in 1863, and sir John Lubbock's "Prehistoric Times" in
A human jaw said to have been found in the drift
interest in the revenues of the island in Jan. 1829. The countess of Derby held the isle against the parliament forces for a time in 1651. The new queen's landing pier (cost 46,400.) inaugurated by the lieut. governor, H. B. Lech, 1 July, 1872. Act relating to the harbours and coasts, passed June, 1872. The BISHOPRIC is said to have been presided over by Amphibalus about 360. Some assert that St. Patrick was the founder of the see, and that Germanus was the first bishop, about 447. It was united to Sodor in 1113. The bishop has no seat in the house of lords; but lord Auckland (bishop, 1847-54) sat by right of his barony. Present in
RECENT BISHOPS OF SODOR AND MAN.
1838. James Bowstead, trans, to Lichfield, Dec. 1839.
MANCHESTER (Lancashire), in the time of the Druids, was one of their most principal stations, and had the privilege of sanctuary attached to its altar, in the British language Meyne, a stone. It
was one of the seats of the Brigantes, who had a castle, or stronghold, called Mancenion, or the place of tents, near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. The site of this, still called the "Castle Field," was, about 79, selected by the Romans as the station of the Cohors Prima Frisiorum, and called by them Mancunium; hence its Saxon name Manceastre, from which its modern appellation is derived. Lewis.
Mancenion taken from the Britons
1352 . 1421
Free grammar-school founded
1516 about 1541
1565 1643 1652
The walls and fortifications razed
Cheetham college, or Blue-coat hospital, founded 1653 Tumult raised by "Syddall, the barber," afterwards hanged
Prince Charles Edward, the young pretender, makes it his quarters 28 Nov. 1745 . 1753 1755
Queen's theatre first built
The Infirmary instituted, 1752; built
Lunatic asylum founded
Agricultural society instituted
The Queen's theatre rebuilt.
Riots against machinery
Manufacture of muslin attempted here
New Bailey built
Assembly-rooms, Mosley-street, built.
Philological Society instituted.
Fever hospital erected, 1805; Theatre-royal The portico erected
The weavers' riot
New concert-room established The races established
1768 1775 1777
9 Oct. 1779
about 1780 1781 1785
24 May, 1808 Exchange and Commercial buildings erected, Jan. 1809 Manchester and Salford water-works established Blanketeers' meeting Lock-hospital established. Manchester reform meeting (called Peterloo) of from 60,000 to 100,000 persons, men, women, and children. Mr. Hunt, who took the chair, had spoken a few words, when the meeting was suddenly assailed by a charge of cavalry, assisted by a Cheshire regiment of yeomanry, the outlets being occupied by other military detachments. The unarmed multitude were driven upon each other; many were ridden over by the horses, or cut down by their riders. The deaths were II men, women, and children, and the wounded about 600 16 Aug.
Manchester and Liverpool railway opened-Mr. Huskisson killed (see Liverpool)
4 Nov. 1817 1819
New Brunswick-bridge built
Natural History society projected
Floral and Horticultural society established
At the launch of a vessel which keeled and upset,
Manchester made a parliamentary borough (2 members) by Reform act 7 June, 1832 Choral society established 1833 Statistical society formed (the first in England), 2 Sept. 3 Sept. 1834 Reform act 1835
Manchester incorporated, by Municipal
Geological Society instituted
Great disorders in the midland counties artisans: they extend to this town British Association meet here
Aug. 1842 • 23 June. Great free-trade meetings held here (see Corn Lairs) 14 Nov. 1843
Important meeting held at the Athenæum (see
23 Oct. 26 Aug. 1839 among
Manchester declared to be a CITY, and
3 Oct. 1844
Great anti-corn law meeting, at which 64,9841. were subscribed in four hours 23 Dec. 1845 The Queen's-park, Peel-park, and Philip's-park, opened Aug. 1846 Manchester made a bishopric 10 Aug. 1847 Opening of Owens' collegiate institution, to which John Owens bequeathed 100,000l. . 10 March, 1851 The Queen's visit to Manchester. 7 Oct. Great meeting in the Free-trade hall, to greet M.
Kossuth The engineers' strike. 3 Jan.-26 April, 1852 The Guild of Literature entertained at a banquet by the citizens 31 Aug. 2 Sept. 2 Nov. formally so
Opening of the Free library.
16 April, 1853
7 Nov. 1855
1823 Owen's college new buildings founded
Great strike of minders and piecers EXHIBITION OF ART TREASURES determined on, 20 May, 1856; 1115 old paintings, 689 new paintings, 969 water-colours, 388 British portraits, &c. collected; opened by prince Albert, 5 May; visited by the Queen, 29, 30 June; visited by 1,335,915 persons; expenses, 99,500l., receipts, 98,500!.; closed 17 Oct. 1857 Sir John Potter, a benefactor to the town, died 25 Oct. 1858 British Association meet here (2nd time), 4 Sept. 1861 Great county meeting: 130,000l. subscribed to the Lancashire Relief fund 2 Dec. 1862
Meeting of the Church Congress
13-15 Oct. 1863
Great Reform meeting; Mr. Bright there, 24 Sept. 1866 Manchester Education bill committee appointed Additional M. P. granted by Reform act 15 Aug. 1867 Meeting of Manchester and Liverpool agricultural
Trades' Unions commission opened; evidence ob-
Two Fenians, Kelly and Deasy, forcibly taken from
23 Nov. Jacob Bright elected M.P. (Lily Maxwell, a widow,
voted for him)
False alarm of fire at Lang's music-hall,
26 Nov. 23 killed,
31 July, 1868 New town-hall founded 26 Oct. Manchester Reciprocity Association founded, Sept. 1869 National Education Union meet 3. 4 Nov. Bishop James Prince Lee died, 24 Dec. 1869; succeeded by James Fraser
Alexandra park (provided by the
Jan. 1870 corporation) 6 Aug. 23 Sept.,, opened by
Grammar school: additional building earl of Derby 25 Oct. 1871 Visit of Mr. Disraeli; enthusiastically received, 2-5 April, 1872
MANCHESTER, BISHOPRIC OF. An order in council in Oct. 1838, declared that the sees of St. Asaph and Bangor should be united on the next vacancy in either, and that the bishopric of Manchester should be immediately created within the jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see of York; the county of Lancaster for that purpose to be detached