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revealed to him by the angel Gabriel during a MAILLOTINS (small mallets), a name given period of twenty-three years. He enjoined on his to certain citizens of Paris, who, in March, 1382, disciples circumcision, prayer, alms, frequent ablu- / violently opposed the collection of new taxes tion, and fasting, and permitted polygamy and imposed by the duke of Anjou, the regent. They concubinage.

armed themselves with small iron mallets (taken Mahomet, Mohammed (the name is spelt many

from the arsenal), and killed the collectors; for ways), born at Mecca

569 or

which they were severely punished in Jan. 1383. Announced himself as a prophet

about 611 Fled from his enemies to Medina (his flight is called

MAIMING AND WOUNDING, see Corenthe Hégira)

15 July, 622 Overcomes his enemies (the Koreish, the Jews, &e.)

try Act. in battle.

623-5 Defeats the Christians at Muta'.

MAIN PLOT, a name given to a conspiracy

629 Is acknowledged as a sovereign

to make Arabella Stuart sovereign of England in Dies, it is said, of slow poison, administered by a place of James I. in 1603: Lord Cobham, sir Jewess to test his divine character 8 June, 632

Walter Raleigh, and lord Grey, were condemned The Mahometans are divided into several sects, the to death for implication in it, but reprieved; others

two chief being the Sonnites, or the Orthodox were executed. Raleigh was executed, 29 Oct. (who recognised as caliph Abubeker, the father

1618. in-law of Mahomet, in preference to Omar and Ali), and the Shiites (Sectaries), or Fatimites, the MAINE, 1. a province, N.W.of France, seized followers of Ali, who married Fatima, the pro by William Í. of England in 1069. It acknowledged phet's daughter. The Ottoman empire is the chief seat of the Son

prince Arthur, 1199; was taken from John of nites, the sultan being considered the representa

England by Philip of France, 1204 ; was recovered tive of the caliphs ; Persia has been for centuries

by Edward III. in 1357; but given up, 1360. After the stronghold of the Shiites.

various changes it was finally united to France by The Mahometans conquered Arabia, North Africa, Louis XI. in 1481.-2. MAINE (N. America), was

and part of Asia, in the 7th century; in the 8th discovered by Cabot, 1497; and colonised by the they invadec Europie, conquering Spain, where they founded the califat of Cordova, which lasted

English about 1638 ; it became a state of the union from 756 to 1031, when it was broken up into

in 1820. The boundary line between the British smaller governments, the last of which, the king

and the United States territories in Maine was dom of Grenada, endured till its subjugation by settled by the Ashburton treaty, concluded 9 Aug. Ferdinand in 1492 ; but the Mahometans were not 1842. I'he Maine liquor lau, prohibiting the finally expelled from Spain till. Their progress in France was stopped by their

1609 manufacture, sale, and use of intoxicating drinks, defeat at Tours by Charles Martel, in

with certain exceptions, was enacted in 1851.

732 After a long contest, the Turks under Mahomet II. In 1872, it was officially reported to have greatly took Constantinople; he made it his capital and

decreased drunkenness and rendered the trade disthe chief seat of his religion Though considered to be declining, Mahometanism

1453 reputable. is calculated as including 100 millions amongst its MAJESTY. Among the Romans, the emperor

votaries. Coomroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, almitted to

and imperial family were thus addressed, and also

the popes and the emperors of Germany. The practise as an attorney in England, having taken

the oaths upon the Koran Budroodeen Tyabjee, a Mahometan, called to the

Nov. 1858 Voltaire. ”Upon Charles V. being chosen emperor

style was given to Louis XI. of France in 1461. bar

30 April, 1867 of Germany in 1519. the kings of Spain took the MAHRATTAS, a people of Hindostan, who Tenry VIII. of England, on the field of the Cloth

style. Francis I. of France, at the interview with originally dwelt north-west of the Deccan, which they overran about 1676. They endeavoured to

of Gold, addressed the latter as Your Majesty, 1520.

Most

James 1. used the style “Sacred,” and overcome the Mogul, but were restrained by the

Excellent Majesty." Afghans. They entered into alliance with the East India company in 1767, made war against it in MAJOLICA WARE, see Pottery. 1774, again made peace in 1782, and were finally subdued in 1818. Their last prince, Sindiah, is MAJORCA, see Balearic Isles, and Minorca. now a pensioner of the British government. Majorca opposed Philip V. of Spain in 1714; but

MAID, see Holy Maid, Elizabeth Barton, and submitted, 14 July, 1715. Joan of Are, maid of Orleans.

MALABAR (W. coast of Hindostan). The MAIDA (Calabria) where the French, com

Portuguese established factories here in 1505; the manded by general Regnier, were signally defeated English did the same in 1601. by the British under major-general sir John Stuart, MALACCA, on the Malay peninsula, E. Indies, 4 July, 1806.

was made a Portuguese settlement in 1511. Thé MAIDEN, see Guillotine.

Dutch factories were established in 1640. The

Dutch government exchanged it for Bencoolen in MAIDS OF HONOUR. Anne, daughter of

Sumatra in 1824, when it was placed under the Francis II. duke of Brittany, and queen of Charles Bengal presidency. It is now part of the Straits VIII. and Louis XII. of France (1483-98), had Settlements (which see). young and beautiful ladies about her person, called maids of honour. The queen of Edward I. of MALAGA (S. Spain), a Phænician town, taken England is said to have had four maids of honour by the Arabs, 714; retaken by the Spaniards, after (1272-1307); queen Victoria has eight.

a long siege, 1487; see Naral Battles, 1704. An MAIL-COACHES, for the conveyance of

insurrection against the provisional government letters, were first set up at Bristol by Mr. John

was put down with much slaughter, 31 Dec. 1868. Palmer, of Bath, 2 Aug. 1784. They were employed MALAKHOFF, a hill near Sebastopol, on for other routes in 1785, and soon became general which was situated an old tower, strongly fortified in England. The mails were first sent by rail in by the Russians during the siege of 1854-55. The 1838.

allied French and luglish attacked it 01, 17, 18

.

June, 1855, and after a conflict of forty-eight hours 6,676,8491.;--1857 (tax reduced), 5,690,950!. ;-1860, were repulsed with severe loss; that of the English | 6,648,8811.;- 1862, 6,208,8136, ; 1867, 6,816,3851. ;-1871, being 175 killed and 1126 wounded ; that of the nul made and retained in the United Kingdom : in

6,978,3711.;-1872, 6,910,366). French 3338 killed and wounded. On 8 Sept. the

1825, 36,205,451 bushels; in 1835, 42,892,012; in 1847, French ayain attacked the Malakhoff'; at eight

35,307,815; in 1857, 44,545,649; in 1861, 46,650,100; in o'clock the first mine was sprung, and at noon the 1870, 56,775,614. French flag tloated over the conquered redoubt ; see Sebastopol. In the Malakhoff and Rudan were found Mediterranean, held successively by the Phæni

MALTA (formerly Melita), an island in the 3000 pieces of cannon of every calibre, and 120,000 cians, Carthaginians, and Romans, which last conIbs. of gunpowder.

quered it, 259 B.C. The apostle Paul was wrecked MALAY ARCHIPELAGO, sce Moluccas, here, A.D. 62 (Icts xxvii. xxvii.) Malta was Philippines, &c.

taken by the Vandals, 534; by the Arabs, 870; and MALDON (Essex), built 28 B.c., is supposed by the Normans from Sicily, 1090. With Sicily it to have been the first Roman colony in Britain. became successively part of the possessions of the It was burnt by queen Boadicea, and rebuilt by the houses of Hohenstaufen, of Anjou (1266), and of Romans; burnt by the Danes, A.D. 991, and rebuilt Aragon (1200). In 1530 Charles V. gave it to the by the Saxons. Maldon was incorporated by Philip Knights Hospitallers, who defended it most couand Mary. The singular custom of Borough- rageously and successfully, in 1551 and 1565, against English is kept up here, by which the youngest the Turks, who were oblived to abandon the enter

The island was son, and not the eldest, succeeds to the burgage prise after the loss of 30,000 men. tenure on his father's death; see Borough

taken by Bonaparte in the outset of his expedition English.

to Egypt, 12 June, 1798. He found in it 1200

pieces of cannon, 200,000 lbs. of powder, two ships MALEGNANO or MELEGNANO, modern of the line, a frigate, four galleys, and 40,000 musnames of Marignano (uhich see).

kets, besides an immense treasure collected by MALICIOUS DAMAGES. The law re superstition; and 4500 Turkish prisoners, whom he specting them was consolidated and amended by

set at liberty. Malta surrendered to the British 24 & 25 Viet. c.97. This act protects works of art, under l'igot, 5 Sept. 1800. At the peace of Amiens electric telegraphs, &c., 1861.

it was stipulated that it should be restored to the

knights. The British, however, retained possession, MALINES, see Mechlin.

and the war recommenced between the two nations; MALINS' ACT, 20 & 21 Vict. c. 57, relating but by the treaty of Paris, in 1814, the island was to the powers of women in regard to property, was

guaranteed to Great Britain. La l'aletta, the passed in 1857

capital, was founded in 1557 by the grand master

La Valetta, and completed and occupied by the MALO, ST. (N. W. France). This port, as a knights, 18 Aug. 1571. The Protestant college great reso

of privateers, sustained a tremendous was founded in 1846. A grand new naval dry dock bombardment by the English under admiral Benbow was opened, May, 1871. Governor of Malta and in 1693, and under lord Berkeley in July, 1695. In Gozo, sir Patrick Grant, March, 1867; sir C. T. Van June, 1758, the British landed in considerable force Straubenzee, 1872. in Cancalle bay, and went up to the harbour, where they burnt upwards of a hundred ships, and

MALTA, KNIGHTS OF. A military religious did great damage to the town, making a number order, called also Hospitallers of St. John of Jeruof prisoners. It is now defended by a very strong Some merchants of Malti, trading to the Levant,

salen, Knights of St. John, and Knights of Rhodes. castle, and the harbour is very difficult of access.

obtained leave of the caliph of Egypt to build a MALO-JAROSLAVITZ, near Moscow, cen house for those who came on pilgrimage to Jerusatral Russia: the site of severe encounters between lem, and whom they received with zeal and charity, the Russians and the retreating French army, 1048. They afterwards founded a hospital for the 24 Oct. 1812. The latter were victorious, but with reception of pilgrims, from whence they were called great loss.

Hospitallers (Latin, hospes, a guest). The military MALPLAQUET (N. France). Here the order was founded about 1099; confirmed by the allies under the duke of Narlborough and prince pope 11.13; In 1919 the knights defeated the Turks Eugene defeated the French commanded by mar

at Antioch. After the Christians had lost their shal Villars, 11 Sept. 1709. Each army consisted interest in the East, and Jerusalem was taken, the of nearly 120,000 choice soldiers. There was great valiantly in 1290. John, king of Cyprus, gave

knights retired to Acre, which they defended slaughter on both sides, the allies losing 18,000 them Limisso in his dominions, where they stayed men, which loss was but ill repaid by the capture of till 1310, in which year they took Rhodes, under Mons.

their grand master De Vallaret, and the next year MALT, barley prepared for brewing and distil- ' defended it under the duke of Savoy against an lation. A'duty was laid upon malt in 1667, 1697, | army of Sarncens. The story that his successors et seq. Important acts for the regulation of malt havó used F. E. R. T. (Fortitudo cjus Rhodum duties was passed in 1830 and 1837. In March, tenuit, or his valour kept Rhodes) for their device 1858, there were 6157 licensed maltsters in the is much doubted. From this they were also called United Kingdom. The duty on malt in 1863 knights of Rhodes ; but Rhodes being taken by amounted to 6,273,727%. In 1864, the duty was Solyman in 1522, they retired into Candia, thence remitted on malt used for cattle feeding; and in into Sicily. Pope Adrian VI. granted them the 1865, an act was passed allowing the excise duty city of Viterbo for their retreat; and in 1530 the to be charged according to the weight of the grain emperor Charles V. gave them the isle of Malta. used. A parliamentary committee to consider repeal The order was suppressed in England in 1540 ; reof malt tax (6d. a bushel) was agreed to, 14 May, stored in 1557; and again suppressed in 1559. St. 1867.

John's Gate, Clerkenwell, a relic of their possessions, Revenue from the malt anties; in the year ending 31

still exists. The emperor Paul of Russia declared March 1850, 5,391,322/. ;–1854, 5,418,4181. ;–1856. himself grand master of the order in June, 1799

RECENT BISHOPS OF SODOR AND MAX.

The knights sent a hospital establishment into interest in the revenues of the island in Jan. 1829. Bohemia during the war in 1866, which afforded i The countess of Derby held the isle against the great relief to the wounded and sick.

| parliament forces for a time in 1651. The new MAMELUKES, originally Turkish and Cir- queen's landing pier (cost 46,4001.) inaugurated cassian slaves, established by the sultan as a body- by the lieut. sovernor, H. B. Lech, 1 July, 1872. guard, about 1240. They advanced one of their Act relating to the harbours and coasts, passed June, own corps to the throne of Egypt, May, 1250, and 1872. The Bishopric is said to have been precontinued to do so until it became a Turkish pro

sided over by Amphibalus about 360. Some assert vince, in 1517, when the beys took them into pay,

that St. Patrick was the founder of the see, and that and filled up their ranks with renegades from

Germanus was the first bishop, about 447. It was various countries. On the conquest of Egypt by united to Sodor in 1113. The bishop his no seat in Bonaparte, in 1798, they retreated into Nubia; but, the house of lords ; but lord Auckland (bishop, assisted by the Arnauts, reconquered Egypt from 1847-54) sat by right of his barony. Present inthe Turkish government. In 1804, Napoleon em

come, 20001. bodied some of them in his guaru. On i March, 1811, they were decoyed into the power of the

1784. Claudius Crigan: died in 1813. Turkish pacha, Mehemet Ali, and slain at Cairo.

1813. George Murray, trans. to Rochester, 1827,

1828. William Ward; died in 1838. MAMELON, a hill, one of the defences of 1838. James Bowstead, trans, to Lichfield, Dec. 1839.

1840. Henry Pepys, trans. to Worcester, 1841. Sebastopol, was captured by the French, 7 June, 1841. Thos. Vowler Short, trans. to St. Asaplı

, 1846. 1855.

1846. Walter Augustus Shirley: died in 1847. MAMERTINI, sons of Mamers or Mars, were

1847. Jolin Eden (lord Auckland), trans, to Bath, 1854.

1854. Hon. Horatio Powys. Campanian soldiers of Agathocles. They seized Messina in Sicily, in 281 b.C., and when closely MANASSAS JUNCTION (Virginia, United besieged by the Carthaginians, and Hiero of Syra- States), an important military position, where the cuse, in 264, they implored the help of the Romans, ' Alexandria and Manassas Gap railways meet, near · which led to the first Punic war.

a creek named Bull Rux. 1. It was held by the MAMMOTH, an extinct species of elephant. the federal general 'Irwin McDowell. He began

confederates in 1861, when they were attacked by An entire mammoth, flesh and bones, was dis- his march from Washington on 16 July, and gained covered in Siberia, in 1799. Remains of this animal have since been found at Harwich, in the 21st was fought the first battle of Bull Run.

some advantage on the 18th at Centreville. On 1803, and at places in Europe, Asia, and America.

The federals, who began the fight, had the advanMAN, ANTIQUITY OF. In 1836, M. Boucher tage till about three o'clock p.m., when the conde Perthes found some rude flint implements, federate general Johnston brought up reinforcements, which he believed to be of human manufacture,

which at first the federals took for their own troops. mingled with bones of extinct animals, in the old After a brief resistance, the latter were seized with alluvium near Abbeville in Picardy, France, and also sudden panic, and, in spite of the utmost efforts of in 1847, near Amiens. Similar tints have since been their officers, fled, abandoning a large quantity of found in Sicily by Dr. Falconer, at Brixham by arms, ammunition, and baggage. The confederate Mr. Pengelly, and lately in various parts of the generals Johnston and Beauregard did not think it world. Hence many geologists infer that man ex- prudent to pursue the fugitives, who did not halt isted on the earth many ages earlier than has been till they arrived at Washington. The federal army hitherto believed.

is said to have had 481 killed, noii wounded, The “Engis skull" found by Sebmerling in the

1216 missing. The loss of the confederates was stated valley of the Meuse,

to be about 1500.-In March, 1862, when the army Sir Charles Lyell's "'Antiquity of Man" was pub of the Potomac, under general McClellan, marched

lished in 1863, and sir John Lubbock's “ Prehis into Virginia, they found that the confederates had

torie Times A human jaw said to have been found in the drift

1865 quietly retreated from the camp at Manassas. 2. On at Moulin Quignon, near Abbeville

30 Aug. 1862, this place was the site of another great

March, 1863 battle between the northern and southern armies. The skeleton of a man supposed to have been a contemporary of the mammoth and cave-bear was

In August, general “Stonewall” Jackson, after found with polished flint implements by M.

compelling the federal general Pope to retreat, deRivière in the Cavillin cavern, near Mentone, feated him at Cedar mountain on the 9th, turned 26 March, 1872. Mr. W. Pengelly went to exa his flank on the 22nd, and arriving at Manassas

mine these remains. “The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons, and Or

repulsed his attacks on the 29th. On the 30th naments of Great Britain," by John Evans, F.R.S.,

general R. E. Lee (who had' defeated general published

July, 1872

McClellan and the invading northern army before

Richmond, 26 June to i July) joined Jackson with MAN, ISLE OF, was subdued by Edwin, king his army, and Pope received reinforcements from of Northumberland, about 620; by Magnus of Nor- Washington. A desperate conflict ensued, which way, 1098; by the Scots, 1266; occupied by Edward | ended in the confederates gaining a decisive victory, at the wish of the inhabitants; recovered by the compelling the federals to a hasty retreat to CentreScots in 1313 ; but taken from them by Montacute, ville, where they were once more routed, 1 Sept. The afterwards earl of alisbury, to whom Edward III.

remains of their army took refuge behind the lines gave the title of king of Man, in 1343. It was of Washington on 2 Sept. Pope was at once superafterwards subjected to the earl of Northumber- seded, and McClellan resumed the command to land, on whose attainder Henry IV. granted it in march against the confederates, who had crossed fee to sir John Stanley, 1406. It was taken from this family by Elizabeth, but was restored in 1610 States.

the Potomac and entered Maryland; see United to the earl of Derby, through whom it fell by inheritance to the duke of Athol, 1735. He received MANCHESTER (Lancashire), in the time of 70,000l. from parliament for the sovereignty in the Druids, was one of their most principal stations, 1765; and the nation was charged with the further and had the privilege of sanctuary attached to its sunu of 132,9441. for the purchase of his remaining altar, in the British language Meyme, a stone. It

about 1834

in

· 23 Oct.

about 627

1421

about 1541

1643

7 Oct.

I Nov.

31 Aug

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1768

was one of the seats the Brigantes, who had a Manchester made a parliamentary borough (2 memcastle, or stronghold, called Mancenion, or the place bers) by Reform art

7 June, 1832 of tents, near the confluence of the rivers Medlock Choral society established

1833 and Irwell. The site of this, still called the

Statistical society formed (the first in England),

2 Sept. “Castle Field," was, about 79, selected by the Ro

Church-rate refused

3 Sept. 1834 mans as the station of the Cohors Prima Frisiorum, Manchester incorporated, by Municipal Reform aet 1835 and called by them Mancunium; hence its Saxon Manchester and Leeds railway act passed

1836 name Manceastre, from which its modern appella- Geological Society instituted

1838 tion is derived. Leuis.

Charter of incorporation
Manchester police act

26 Aug 1839 Mancenion taken from the Britons

488

Great disorders in the midland counties among Captured by Edwin of Northunbria

620
artisans : they extend to this town

Aug. 1842 The inhabitants becomes Christians

British Association meet here

23 June, The town taken by the Danes, 870; retaken

923 Great free-trade meetings hield here (see Corn Lairs) The charter (Magna Charta of Manchester), 14 May, 1301

14 Nov. 1843 * Manchester cottons" introduced

1352 Important meeting held at the Athenæum (see The church made collegiate .

Athenaeum)

3 Oct. 1844 Free grammar-school founded

1516

Great anti-com law meeting, at which 64,6841. were Privilege of sanctuary moved to Chester

subscribed in four hours

23 Dec. 1845 An aulnager (measurer) stationed here

1565 The Queen's-park, Peel-park, and Philip's-park, Sir Thomas Fairfax takes the town

opened .

Aug. 1846 The walls and fortifications razed

1652 Manchester made a bishopric

10 Aug. 1847 Cheetham college, or Blue-coat hospital, founded 1653 Opening of Owens' collegiate institution, to which Tumult raised by “ Syddall, the barber,"afterwards

John Owens bequeathed 100,000l. . 10 March, 1851 hanged

• 1715 The Queen's visit to Manchester . Prince Charles Edward, the young pretender, makes Great meeting in the Free-trade hall, to greet M. it his quarters

28 Nov. 1745 Kossuth Queen's theatre first built

. 1753 The engineers' strike

3 Jan. -26 April, 1852 The Infirmary instituted, 1752 ; built

1755 The Guild of Literature entertained at a banquet by The inhabitants discharged from their obligation to

the citizens grind their corn at Irk-mill 1759 Opening of the Free library.

2 Sept. Cotton goods first exported 1760 Great Free-trade banquet

2 Nov. Manchester navigation opened, by Bridgewater

Manchester declared to be a city, and formally so canal

gazetted .

16 April, 1853 Lunatic asylum founde

1765 Great strike of minders and piecers'

7 Nov. 1855 Agricultural society instituted

1767 EXHIBITION OF ART TREASURES determined on, 20 Christian, king of Denmark, visits Manchester, and

May, 1856; 1115 old paintings, 689 new paintings, puts up at the Bull-inn

969 water-colours, 388 British portraits, &c. colThe Queen's theatre rebuilt.

1775 lected ; opened by prince Albert, 5 May; visited Subscription concerts established

1777 by the Queen, 29. 30 June; visited by® 1,335,915 Riots against machinery

9 Oct. 1779

persons; expenses, 99,500l., receipts, 98,500l. ; Manufacture of inuslin attempted here

about 1780
closed

17 Oct. 1857 Philosophical society established

1781 Sir John Potter, a benefactor to the towa, died New Bailey bridge completed 1785

25 Oct 1858 Queen's tlieatre burnt down, 19 June, 1789; re

British Association meet here (2nd time), 4 Sept 1861 erected

1790 Great county meeting ; 130,00ol. subscribed to the New Bailey built

Lancashire Relief fund

2 Dec, 1862 Assembly-rooms, Mosley-street, built

1792
Meeting of the Church Congress

13-15 Oct. 1863 Philological Society instituted .

1803 Great Reforn meeting ; vi. Bright there, 24 Sept. 1866 Fever hospital erected, 1805 ; Theatre-royal

1806

Manchester Education bill committee appointed The portico erected

Additional M.P. granted by Reform act 15 Aug 1867 The weavers' riot

24 May, 1808

Meeting of Manchester and Liverpool agricultural Exebange and Commercial buildings erected, Jan. 1809

27 Aug, Manchester and Salford water-works established

Trades' Unions cominission opened ; evidente obBlanketeers' meeting

4
Nov. 1817 tained of gross outrages

3-24 Sept. Lock-hospital established.

1819 Two Feniaus, Kelly uj Deasy, forcibly taken from Manchester reform meeting (called Peterloo) of from

a police-van, near Manchester, and Brett, a 60,000 to 100,000 persons, men, women, and chil

policeman killed

18 Sept. dren. Mr. Hunt, who took the chair, had spoken 23 persons committed for trial : trial, 29 Oct-12 a few words, when the meeting was suddenly as

Nov. ; five condemed to death for murder, I sailed by a charge of cavalry, assisted by a

Nov.; others to imprisonment i lllen, Gould, Cheshire regiment of yeomanry, the outlets being

and Larkin executed occupied by other military detachments. The Jacob Bright elected M.P. (Lily Maxwell, a widow, unarmed multitude were driven upon each other;

voted for him)

26 Nov. many were ridden over by the horses, or cut down False alarm of fire at Lang's music-hall, 23 killed, by their riders. The deaths were II men,

31 July, 1868 women, and children, and the wounded about 600

New town-hall founded

26 Oct. 16 Aug Manchester Reciprocity Association founded, Sept. 1809 New Brunswick-bridge built

1820 National Education Union meet Chamber of commerce established

Bishop James Prince Lee died, 24 Dec. 1809; sueLaw library foundeel

ceeded by James Fraser

Jan. 1870 Natural History society projected

1821 Alexandra park (provided by the corporation) New Quay company founder

1822
opened

6 Aug. Deaf and Dumb school instituted

1823 | Owen's college new buildings founded Royal Institution formed

Grammar school : additional building opened by Floral and Horticultural society established

earl of Derby

25 Oct. 1871 Mechanics' institution founded

1824 Visit of Mr. Disraeli; enthusiastically recrived, Musical festival first held .

1828 At the launch of a vessel which keeled and upset,

2-5 April, 1872 upwards of 200 persons precipitated into the MANCHESTER, BISHOPRIC OF. An order river ; 51 perished

in council in Oct. 1838, declared that the sees of In a tumult, a factory burnt, and much machinery

St. Asaph and Bangor should be united on the next destroyed

3 May, 1829 New concert-room established

vacancy in either, and that the bishopric of ManThe races established

chester should be immediately created within the

18 30 Manchester and Liverpool railway opened - Mr. jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see of York; the Huskisson killed (see Liverpoul)

15 Sept. county of Lancaster for that purpose to be detached

95

3. 4 Vor.

29 Feb.

99

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BISHOPS.

7

from Chester. By act 10 Vict. (1847) the sees of the “statical barometer” of Robert Boyle was St. Asaph and Bangor were to exist undisturbed, a simple manometer. Various forms of the apparaand that of Manchester was to be created.

tus were devised by Ramsden (about 1773), by Roy

(1777), by Cazalet (1789), and by Bourdon (and 1847. James Prince Lee; died

24
Dec. 1869.

others. & manometer was constructed for the in1870. Jaines Fraser, Jan. 1870.

vestigation respecting the elasticity of steam conMANES, the name applied by the ancients to

ducted by Prony, Arago, Dulong, and Girard, 1830. the soul when separated from the body. The Manes MANITOBA, see Rupert's Land and Hudson's were reckoned among the infernal deities, and were Bay (N. America), a new colony. A Fenian attack generally supposed to preside over the burial-places on the colony was suppressed by American troops and monuments of the dead. They were worship- about 12 Oct. 1871. ped by the Romans, and invoked by the augurs ; Virgil (22 B.C.) makes his hero sacrifice to the

MANORS are as ancient as the Saxon times, Manes. The Romans superscribed their epitaphs and imply a territorial district with its jurisdiction, with D. M., Diis Manibus.

rights, and perquisites. They were formerly called

baronies, and still are lordships. Each lord was MANGANESE. Black oxide of manganese, empowered to hold a court called the court-baron long used to decolorise 'glass, and called Magnesia for redressing misdemeanors, and settling disputes nigra, was formerly included among the ores of iron. between the tenants. Cabinet Lawyer. Its distinctive character was proved by the researches of Pott (1740), Kaim and Winterl (1770),

MANSION-HOUSE, LONDON. The resiand Scheele and Bergmann (1774); it was first

dence of the lord mayor. It is situate at the east

end of the Poultry on the site of the ancient Stockseliminated by Gahn. Manganese combined with

market. It was built of Portland stone by George potassium is called mineral chameleon, from its rapid change of colour under certain circumstances.

Dance the elder, 1739-53; repaired and redecorated, Forchammer employed it as a test for the presence

1867-68; see Mayor. of organic matter in water; and Dr. Angus Smith

MANSION-HOUSE FRENCH RELIEF FUND for the sufsuccessfully applied this test to air in 1858.

ferers by the siege of Paris, was established at a

meeting at the Mansion-house, London 18 Jan. 1871 MANICHEANS, a sect founded by Manes,

In four days about 24,000l. had been received ; up

to 4 March, 113,5991. ; finally, 126,6091. Col. H. in Persia, about 261. 'It spread into Egypt, Arabia,

Stuart Wortley and Mr. George Moore went to and Africa. A rich widow, whose sei vant Manes

Paris on 3 Feb. with 68 tons of provisions, and had been, left him much wealth, after which he as personally superintended theirdistribution by the sumed the title of Apostle, or envoy of Jesus clergy, foreign consuls, and others. An official Christ, and announced that he was the paraclete

report issued by the lord mayor, dated Nov. or comforter that Christ had promised to send. He

1871, showed a balance of 467gl. in hand. maintained two principles, the one good he called MANSOURAH (Lower Egypt). Here Louis light, the other bad he called darkness. He re IX. was defeated by the Saracens and taken prijected the Old Testament, and composed a system of soner, 5 April, 1250. He gave Damietta and 400,000 doctrine from Christianity and the dogmas of the livres for his ransom. ancient fire-worshippers. Sapor, king of Persia, believed in him at one time; but afterwards

MANTINEA (Arcadia, Greece). Here (1) banished him. He was burnt alive by Babram or

Athenians and Argives were defeated by Igis II. of Varanes, king of Persia, in 277. His followers Sparta, 418 B.C. (2) And here Epaminondas and

the Thebans defeated the combined forces of Lacespread themselves over the Roman empire, and several sects sprang from them.

dæmon, Achaia, Elis, Athens, and Arcadia, 362 B.C.

Epaminondas was killed in the engagement, and MANILLA (built about 1573), capital of the Thebes lost its power among the Grecian states. The Philippine isles, a great mart of Spanish commerce. emperor Adrian built a temple at Mantinea in honour Manilla was taken by the English 6 Oct. 1762, of his favourite Alcinous. The town was also called when the archbishop engaged to ransom it for about Antigonia. Other battles were fought in the neigha million sterling; never wholly paid. Manilla bourhood. has suffered greatly by earthquakes. It is stated

MANTUA (N. Italy), an Etruscan city, near that nearly 3000 persons perished by one in 1645: In Sept. 1852, the city was nearly destroyed, and by the Gonzagas, lords of Mantua, from 1 328 to 1708,

which Virgil was born, 70 B.C. Mantua was ruled on 3 July, 1863, about a thousand lives were lost. when it was seized by the emperor Joseph I. It The duke of Edinburgh was hospitably entertained surrendered to the French, 2 Feb. 1797, after a here 19 Nov. 1869.

siege of eight months ; retaken by the Austrians MANNHEIM (S. Germany), founded in 1606, and Russians, 30 July, 1799, after a short siege. became the court residence of the palatine of the After the battle of Marengo (14 June, 1800), the Rhine in 1719; but his becoming elector of Bavaria French again obtained possession of it. It was inin 1777 caused the removal of the court to Munich. cluded in the kingdom of Italy till 1814, when it Mannheim surrendered to the French, under com

was restored to the Austrians, who surrendered it to mand of general Pichegru, 20 Sept. 1795. On 31 the Italians, 11 Oct. 1866, after the peace. Oct. the Austrians under general Wurmser defeated

MANUFACTURES, see Silk, Cotton, &c. the French near the city. Several battles were fought with various success in the neighbourhood MAORIS, see New Zealand. during the wars of Napoleon I. Kotzebue, the popu MAPLE-TREE. The acer rubrum, or scarlet lar dramatist, was assassinated at Mannheim, by maple, was brought here from N. America, before Sand, a student of Wurtzburg, 2 April, 1819. 1656. The deer Vegundo, or ash-leaved' maple, MANOMETER (Greek, manos, thin), an in

before 1688. From the Acer saccharinum (introstrument for measuring the rarity of the atmo

duced here in 1735) the Americans make very good sphere, gases, and vapours. One is said to have sugar. been made by Otto von Guericke about 1660, and MAPS, see Charts, and Mercator.

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